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Age of Exploration Student CRQs

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					CRQ: THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES
DIRECTIONS: Study the cause and effect chart and then answer the questions.

The Causes and Effects of the Crusades:

1. Which cause of the Crusades occurred after the Turks conquered the Holy Land?

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2. What effect did the Crusades have on control of the Holy Land?

_________________________________________________________________________________   THE CRUSADES
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3. Why did Europeans develop an interest in trade as a result of the Crusades?

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MAP EXERCISE: PORTUGUESE EXPLORERS; TO INDIA BY SEA
DIRECTIONS: Use the map on page 18 of the textbook to complete this geography exercise.
1. Locate and label the following on the map.
      Portugal         Spain          India       Indian Ocean           Mediterranean Sea     Africa  Atlantic Ocean
2. Locate and label the following cities. Place a “•” where the city can be found.      Lisbon         Calicut
3. Draw in the routes taken by the 2 Portuguese explorers Dias and Da Gama. Use a different colored pencil for each explorer.
4. Create a key in the blank box showing your information.

                                                                                      PORTUGUESE EXPLORERS; TO INDIA BY SEA




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CRQ #2: WHY DID COLUMBUS SAIL WEST TO REACH ASIA?
DIRECTIONS: Read the information below, study the map, and then answer the questions.

Starting in 1271, young Marco Polo of Venice, Italy, traveled overland to China with his father and uncle. Marco Polo spent close to 20 years there. While in China, he heard of Japan
from Chinese sailors.

On his way back home, Marco Polo visited some of the islands called the Indies (now Indonesia, the Philippines, and part of M alaysia). He also visited India and Persia (now Iran)
before returning overland to Europe. Marco Polo’s book about his journeys inspired Europeans to open trade routes for spices , silks, teas, and medicines from the Far East.

When the overland routes were blocked in the mid-1400’s, Europeans began searching for a sea route. One of the searchers was Ch ristopher Columbus. Columbus had a map (below)
made around 1469 by an Italian scientist named Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli. Toscanelli’s map showed Japan, China, and the Ind ies on the western side of the Atlantic Ocean. Japan
was shown as being about 2,700 miles due west of Spain’s Canary Islands (near the coast of North Africa).

When Columbus sailed from the Canary Islands on September 9, 1492, he probably used Toscanelli’s map as a guide. When he did n’t find Japan, Columbus figured that he had sailed
past it and reached a small island in the Indies. When he met the natives of this island, he called the Indians because he b elieved that he had reached the Indies. We now know that he
had reached the Americas instead.


1. Why did Columbus think he could reach the Indies by sailing west?

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2. When Columbus reached land in October of 1492, what name did he
give to the natives that he came into contact with?

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3. Why did Columbus give the natives this name?

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4. Why was it impossible for Columbus to reach Asia (India and China) on
the course he followed from Europe?

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MAP EXERCISE:

DIRECTIONS: Use the
                            COLUMBUS REACHES AMERICA
maps on pages 22, 29,
and 37 of the textbook to
complete the following
map exercise. You may
also use any other
resource to find this
information.

1. Locate the following
on the map.
      Spain
      Portugal
      South America
      Atlantic Ocean
      Hispaniola
      Cuba
      Africa
      North America
      Caribbean Sea

2. Use a colored pencil
and draw the route that
represents the 1st voyage
that Columbus made to
the New World.

3. Create a key in the
blank box showing the 1st
voyage and the dates for
the 1st voyage.




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CRQ #3: THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE
DIRECTIONS: Read the information below, study the map, and then answer the questions.




1. List 5 items that the Europeans brought to the America’s, from Europe, that the Native Americans did not have.
                  A. ____________________                              C. ____________________                      E. ____________________

                 B. ____________________                               D. ____________________


2. List 5 items that the Native Americans shared with the Europeans and the Europeans took back to Europe.

                 A. ____________________                              C. ____________________                       E. ____________________

                 B. ____________________                               D. ____________________

3. What does the phrase “Columbian Exchange” mean.

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CRQ #4: MAGELLAN’S EXPEDITION, 1519-1521
DIRECTIONS: Study the map below and then answer the questions that follow.




1. What is the title of the map? ___________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________

2. What oceans did Magellan’s voyage cross? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________

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3. What does the dotted line represent?
                 a. the voyage of both Magellan and his crew                 c. Magellan’s route around South America
                 b. the route that Magellan took to get home                 d. the route of only Magellan’s crew after Magellan was killed

4. What happened to Magellan’s crew after Magellan was killed?                                                                                    6
               a. they sailed to Asia and stopped                            c. they sailed to South America
               b. they sailed home to Europe                                 d. they ended their journey at the spot where Magellan was killed
MAP EXERCISE: SEARCH FOR A NORTHWEST PASSAGE
DIRECTIONS: Use the map on pages 5, 32, and 768-767 of the textbook to complete this geography exercise.
1. Locate and label the following on the map.          North America                Hudson Bay                Atlantic Ocean    St. Lawrence River     Hudson River
2. Use different colored pencils and shade in the following nations of Europe.           England       France     Spain
3. Use different colored pencils and draw in the routes of the following explorers.      Cartier (1535)      Hudson (1609)     Hudson (1610)         Champlain (1615)
4. Create a key in the blank box showing your information.


                                                                                                    SEARCH FOR A
                                                                                                    NORTHWEST PASSAGE




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READING ACTIVITY: BARTOLOME DE LAS CASAS
DIRECTIONS: Read the selection on the Spanish in the New World and then answer the questions that follow.

                                                                     Short Report of the Destruction of the Indies
                                                                               Bartolome de Las Casas

“God has made the Indians without mean­ness or treachery. They are humble, patient, peaceful, and calm, without hate and the de-sire for revenge.

They are likewise the most delicate people. Less than any other can they bear fatigue, and they very easily die of illness. Not even the sons of our princes and nobles, brought up in
royal and gentle life, are more delicate than they.

They are clean and unspoiled, most prompt to accept the Catholic faith. They quickly em-brace virtuous customs.

Among these gentle sheep, the Spaniards entered like wolves, tigers, and lions which had been starving for many days. And for forty years the Spaniards have done nothing else than
destroy them with new and diverse kinds of cruelty. Whereas there were more than three million souls on the island of Hispanio-la, there are today not two hundred of the na-tive
population left. The island of Cuba is now almost entirely deserted. Puerto Rico and Jamaica are both deserted.

We are assured that our Spaniards, with their cruelty, have destroyed the population of the great continent, and that ten Ind ian kingdoms, although formerly full of people, are now
deserted.

We give as a real reckoning, that in the said forty years, more than twelve million persons have perished unjustly.

The reason why the Christians have killed and destroyed such large numbers of souls is solely because they have made gold the ir ulti-mate aim, seeking to load themselves with riches
in the shortest time. They have treated the Indians much worse than animals.”

1. How does Las Casas describe the Indians? _________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________

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2. According to Las Casas, what happened to the Indian population in lands ruled by Spain? __________________________________ ________________________________________

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3. How does Las Casas explain why the Spanish treated the Indians the way they did? _______________________________________________________________________________

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4. (a) Based on your reading, why did Las Casas write this report? (b) What statements in the report do you think would be mo st likely to help him achieve his goal? Explain.

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READING ACTIVITY: AMERIGO VESPUCCI EXPLORES THE CARIBBEAN
DIRECTIONS: Read the following information and then answer the questions that follow
                                                             AMERIGO VESPUCCI EXPLORES THE CARIBBEAN
Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian sailor sent by Spain and Portugal to explore the coast of America. Between 1497 and 1503, Vespucci made several voyages of exploration there.
Letters he wrote about his discoveries caused a French geographer to call the lands “America” in honor of the explorer. Amerigo Vespucci’s first voyage to America was made in
1497. After exploring the northern coast of Central America, he sailed across the Gulf of Mexico and up the coast of North America.

This reading is part of a letter Vespucci wrote describing that voyage.

   “…We set out from the port of Cadiz (in Spain) on the 10th day of May, 1497… in which voyage we were eighteen months; and dis covered much continental land and
   innumerable (a great many) islands… And so we sailed on till at the end of 37 days we reached a land which we deemed (believe d) to be a continent… And the next day when the
   dawn appeared we saw that there were infinite numbers of people upon the beach… They are of a medium stature (height), very w ell proportioned; their flesh is of a color that
   verges into red like a lion’s mane… The hair of their head is long and black, and especially in the women, whom it renders (makes) handsome…

   Their arms (weapons) are bows and arrows, very well made, save (except) that the arrows are not tipped with iron nor any kind of hard metal; and instead of iron they put
   animals’ or fishes’ teeth or a spike of tough wood on their arrows… They are sure marksmen, for they hit whatever they aim at ; and in some places women use the bows…

   These people have neither King nor Lord, nor do they yield obedience to anyone, for they live in their own liberty… They live and are contented with that which natures gives
   them. The wealth that we enjoy in… Europe… such as gold, jewels, pearls, and other riches, they hold (regard) as nothing, an d although they have them in their own lands, they
   do not labor to obtain them, nor do they value them. They are liberal in giving, for it is rare they deny you anything…

   This land is very populous (has many people), and full of… rivers and animals; few resemble ours in Europe, excepting lions, panthers, stags, pigs, goats, and deer…They have
   no horses nor mules… nor donkeys, nor any kind of sheep or oxen; but so numerous are the other animals which they have… and o f none do they make use for their service…
   The soil is very pleasant and fertile, full of immense woods and forests; and it is always green, for the leaves never drop o ff…

   Many tribes came to see us… and they asked us whence (where) we came from; and we gave them to understand that we had come fr om heaven… and they believed it. In this
   land we placed baptismal fonts (religious vessels) and an infinite number of these people were baptized (made Christians).”


1. How did Vespucci describe the Native Americans he met on this voyage? ______________________________________________________________________________________

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2. How does Vespucci compare the land he explored in America with the lands of Europe? __________________________________________________________________________

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3. Why do you think Vespucci believed he had found a new continent? _________________________________________________________________________________________

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4. How did the America’s get the name “America”? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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                                                             AGE OF EXPLORATION TEST REVIEW SHEET:

DIRECTIONS: Complete the following review sheet to help prepare for the unit test.
PART 1: MATCHING: Write out the definitions for the following terms.

1. ARCHEOLOGY: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________

2. PRIMARY SOURCE: _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________

3. SECONDARY SOURCE: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________

4. PENINSULA: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________

5. CONQUISTADOR: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________

PART 2: MULTIPLE CHOICE: Answer the following questions to help understand the ideas and concepts covered in this unit.

1. Where were the Aztec and Incan Empires located? _________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________

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2. What type of building did the Iroquois live in? _________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________

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3. List the 3 nations that dominated Europe during the Middle Ages. ________________________________________________________ ____________________________________

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4. Which religion did most Europeans practice during the Middle Ages? ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________

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5. Which religious group invaded and conquered the Holy Land in the 1000’s? ________________________________________________ ____________________________________

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6. Where was the Holy Land and why was it called the Holy Land? ____________________________________________________________ _________________________________

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7. Describe the Catholic Church. When did it start, who started it, who was/is the leader of the Church? __________________ _____________________________________________

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8. Describe the Crusades. What were they, when did they start, why did they start, what happened during the Crusades, what were the results/effects of the Crusades, who won them?

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9. Explain who Marco Polo was. What did he do? ____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________

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10. Why did European nations want to find a water route to India/China? ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________

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11. Which European nation was the first to do this? What explorer did this? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________

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12. Explain the plan/goals of Columbus. What was he trying to do, where was he trying to go? What did he do, what did he f ind?

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13. Where were the French settlements located? _____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________

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14. What resource did Columbus find that other European nations wanted a share of? _________________________________________ ______________________________________

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15. Who were the following people?

A. Cortez: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________

B. Pizarro: _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________

C. Henry Hudson: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________

D. Samuel de Champlain: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________

E. Jacques Cartier: _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________


16. Where did the Dutch create a colony? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________

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17. What resource did the French and English find in North America that motivated them to create colonies?

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18. Explain the Columbian Exchange. What products went from Europe to North America? What products went from North America to Europe?

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19. List 4 European nations that created colonies in the New World. ________________________________________________________ ____________________________________

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20. What was one reason they created colonies in the New World. ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________

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