You need to know for the Graduation
Test in Social Studies
• SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about
the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.
• a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays’ Rebellion
led to a call for a stronger central government.
• b. Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-Federalists and Federalists during the debate
on ratification of the Constitution as put forth in The Federalist concerning form of
government, factions, checks and balances, and the power of the executive, including the
roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison.
• c. Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise,
separation of powers (influence of Montesquieu), limited government, and the issue of
• d. Analyze how the Bill of Rights serves as a protector of individual and states’ rights.
• e. Explain the importance of the Presidencies of George Washington and John Adams;
include the Whiskey Rebellion, non-intervention in Europe, and the development of
political parties (Alexander Hamilton).
• SSUSH6 The student will analyze the impact of territorial expansion and population
growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation.
• a. Explain the Northwest Ordinance’s importance in the westward migration of Americans,
and on slavery, public education, and the addition of new states.
• b. Describe Jefferson’s diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France and
the territory’s exploration by Lewis and Clark.
• c. Explain major reasons for the War of 1812 and the war’s significance on the
development of a national identity.
• d. Describe the construction of the Erie Canal, the rise of New York City, and the
development of the nation’s infrastructure.
• e. Describe the reasons for and importance of the Monroe Doctrine.
• SSUSH7 Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and
national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it.
• a. Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen in Eli Whitney’s invention of the
cotton gin and his development of interchangeable parts for muskets.
• b. Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the emerging concept of
• c. Describe reform movements, specifically temperance, abolitionism, and public school.
• d. Explain women’s efforts to gain suffrage; include Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the
Seneca Falls Conference.
• e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding suffrage, the rise of popular political culture,
and the development of American nationalism.
• SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south
divisions and westward expansion.
• a. Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics; include the slave
rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick
Douglass, and the Grimke sisters).
• b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and
• c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states’ rights ideology; include the
role of John C. Calhoun and development of sectionalism.
• d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso.
• e. Explain how the Compromise of 1850 arose out of territorial expansion and population
• SSUSH9 The student will identify key events, issues, and
individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences
of the Civil War.
• a. Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure of popular
sovereignty, Dred Scott case, and John Brown’s Raid.
• b. Describe President Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as
seen in his second inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech
and in his use of emergency powers, such as his decision to
suspend habeas corpus.
• c. Describe the roles of Ulysses Grant, Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall”
Jackson, William T. Sherman, and Jefferson Davis.
• d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg,
Gettysburg, and the Battle for Atlanta and the impact of geography
on these battles.
• e. Describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation.
• f. Explain the importance of the growing economic disparity between
the North and the South through an examination of population,
functioning railroads, and industrial output.
1800 TO 1861
• THE USA IS GROWING LARGER,
EXPANDING WESTWARD, FUFILLING
ITS DESTINY, CHANGING
The Great Compromiser
• Author of the
• The Missouri Compromise was an
agreement passed in 1820 between the
pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the
United States Congress
• It prohibited/forbade slavery in the former
Louisiana Territory north of the parallel
36°30' except within the boundaries of the
proposed state of Missouri
• War between the US and
Mexico from 1846 to 1848
because of the U.S.
annexation of Texas. Mexico
• Mexico claimed ownership of
• The USA won and the war
was settled by the treaty of
• The USA got much of
Southwest America in the
• Probably fought due to
expansionist beliefs of
• one of first events on the long slide to secession
and Civil War which would accelerate (increase)
through the 1850s.
• The intent of the proviso, submitted by
Congressman David Wilmot, was to prevent the
introduction of slavery in any territory acquired
• The proviso did not pass since it was a sneaky
attempt to ban slavery
• Led an
slave revolt in Nat Turner
• Results in the
freedoms for all
black people in
are frightened by
the possibility that
slaves could free
Kansas Nebraska Act
• act of Congress in
1854 annulling the
• provides for the
organization of the
territories of Kansas
• Permitted these
voting on the question
Compromise of 1850
Had four parts
• first, California was allowed to enter the Union as a free
• second, the rest of the Mexican Cession was divided into
territories (in each territory, voters would decide the
slavery question according to popular sovereignty);
• third, the slave trade was ended in Washington, D.C.,
the nation’s capitol (Congress, however, declared that it
had no power to ban the slave trade between slave
• fourth, a strict new fugitive slave law was passed.
The Issue of Escaped Slaves
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
• law that required state
officials to capture runaway
slaves and return them to
– Unpopular with the
– Several attempts made to
free captured runaway
– U.S. army needed to enforce
in Northern states.
• Route and system of
safe houses that
escaped slaves took
escape slavery, their
masters and the slave
• Conductor on
• Black woman
• Both states were
allowed to decide by
voting if they wanted
to be slave or free
• Showed failure of
because voting was
corrupt and violence
• Led to nickname
• The people rule
• Belief that the state is created
by the will or consent of its
people, who are the source of
all political power.
• In U.S. history, doctrine under
which the status of slavery in
the territories was to be
determined by the settlers
• Abolitionist and
• Led raid on
• Caught and hung
• Supreme Court • Supreme Court says:
decision. 1. Slaves are not citizens
• Dred Scott of the U.S., and
– Slave taken from slave therefore cannot sue for
state Missouri to free freedom.
territory Wisconsin and 2. Missouri Compromise
back. was unconstitutional
• Question of whether and Congress did not
Scott was made free have authority to dictate
with the move? slave issue.
• North devastated.
• South ecstatic.
Explain the relationship between growing
north-south divisions and westward
Sectionalism Manifest destiny
• Growing North and South • People moving west
differences • USA expanding
• Lack of understanding • Do they bring slavery with
between the two them or not?
• Growing Federal power • A country can not have
• Different needs two laws so this issue
• Geography and distance must be resolved
• South threatens to ELECTION
secede if Lincoln is
elected. OF 1860
• Democratic votes split
between North and
• Republicans appeal to
• Lincoln Wins with 180
electoral votes, but only
40% of the popular
• To leave
• The South seceded
from the North and this
led to the Civil War
• South Carolina
secedes from the • Followed by:
Union after the – Mississippi
election. – Florida
• A loose association of something, usually
• The confederate states of America
alias the South or the government after the
• April 12, 1861-
troops fire upon
• April 14, 1861-
troops seize Ft.
• CIVIL WAR IS
• Place where the Civil
War began when South
Carolina fired on the
• Southern states leave the United States of
America and set up the Confederate
States of America
• Anaconda Plan
• Lee and Grant
• North wins
• Elected and the southern
states secede from the Abraham
• President during the Civil
• Wrote Emancipation
• Set slaves free in some
areas of the South
• Wrote Gettysburg
• Suspended right of
• Said “with malice towards
none and charity towards
all" in Second Inaugural
• Where’s the body? habeas corpus
• The right to be
charged speedily after
• The right to not be
held in jail with out
knowing the charges
and having bail set or
• Lincoln suspended it
due to rioters against
the Union involvement
in the Civil war. He
saw them as
dangerous to the
• Original goal of • The sole purpose of
Lincoln was to the war was for
“Preserve the independence from
Union.” the Union.
• As war progressed, • Protection of land and
freeing the slaves family.
became a new goal. • Fight a defensive war.
• Stay with the Union Border States
even though they
– West Virginia
• The mountainous
counties break w/
Virginia and become
• Washington, DC
Ulysses Grant/ Robert Lee
• US Grant –eventually lead general of the
• R.E. Lee- general of the Southern armies
1. Blockade the
Northern War Strategies or Confederate
the Anaconda Plan coastline and cut
off supply ships.
2. Split the
two and seize
control of the
3. Seize the capital,
then drive South
and link with
• was the first major battle in the American
Civil War to take place on Northern soil.
• It was the bloodiest single-day battle in
• Union barely
• Battle in the Vicksburg
civil war that
• control over the
• and split the
South in two
• May, 1863- General Lee
divides his troops and
surprise attacks the
– Lee takes 12,000 men to
– Jackson takes 40,000 men
to attack the right.
• Hooker forced to
withdraw and the Union
Army is defeated. High
Point For the South!
• Jackson is shot by
“friendly fire” during the
night– dies later from the
amputation of his arm.
• Hooker fired by Lincoln.
• Turning point of the Civil War
• Farthest North the South ever made it;
• From here on in the North is winning
• Lincoln gives his Gettysburg address
• November 20, 1863 Gettysburg
• President Lincoln Address
• Said that the Civil War
tested whether a nation
that believed all men
were created equal
– First indication of
changing war goals for
– Freeing of slaves is now
the number one concern
• Lincoln declared the
slaves free in
• Made the Civil War
about slavery and
helped insure that
Europe would not
come to the aid of the
Union General William T. Sherman
• Sherman wages total war
in Atlanta and takes it.
• From there he marches
to use the port to re-
supply from Union ships
• Called the “March to the
• Destroys everything
along his path
• Grant’s terms of
1. Troops could
could keep theirs.
3. Troops with horses
could keep them
and use on their
Why did the North win and the
What resources could
the North rely on?
1. Total population of 22 million people in 24 states to
• South only has 9 million in 11 states. (3.5 million were slaves.)
2. Various economic resources
• “The Industrial North”- coal, gold, salt, iron, etc.
• South has only one foundry and few factories
• Majority of the railroad lines located in the North.
• Easy to carry troops and food.
4. Banks - North has most of the banks and money.
Nation’s gold in the Union. South’s wealth tied up in
land and slaves
The south had 3 resources to rely
1. Defensive War- South only had
to defend a territory a bit larger
than Western Europe, not take it
2. West Point graduates- Top
military graduates from the
school were originally from the
3. “King Cotton”- belief that France
and Great Britain would aid in
exchange for cotton. They did not
due to the slavery issue.
Armies of the North North
and South • Had the military
including the Navy
• More than enough
• Did not begin the war men to fight due to
with a standing army as large population and
the North did
• No Navy coming every day
• Became so desperate
for soldiers that actually
freedom if they would
Finances • Value of the Southern
North because $1 bill. is
• Tariffs printed with promise
• Income Tax of gold return. No
• Paper money backed gold.
by the gold – 1865 Confederate
• War bonds dollar is worth 1.6
cents in gold.
– Gross inflation and
• Union blockade ruins
North Southern industry.
• Many more factories – Creates a shortage of
and foundries goods and high prices.
• Inflation never got out • No serious lack of
of hand because food, but no railroads
Northern industry to transport the food
could supply all the to the troops.
material demands.. • Branch rail lines torn
• Repeating rifle up to repair main
• Many railroad
Role of Geography
• Slavery is only profitable in flat fertile
agricultural areas .
• Industry profitable where there are
steeply inclined rivers and water power
• South is a nation split buy a river which
makes it harder to keep the
Confederacy together and supplied
• Insufficient rivers in South that can
help supply troops or make water
power for factories
• Coastline is easy to blockade in South,
Not many places for a large ship to hide
•Many cities close to the coast. Easy to access
•Insufficient forests to build a navy in the South
even if there had been monies
•The Anaconda plan works because of geography
•Battles are fought to take control of strategic
geographic areas such as Vicksburg ( on a bluff)
and New Orleans which control trade on the
•California and Washington stay out of war
because they are 1500 miles away . Maybe could
have ended sooner if they were a part.
• Count to 10
• Do this 10 times
• Clench your body then relax it
• Shake off the stress from the top of your head to
the ends of your fingers
• Do this 5 times
• Repeat shaking off the stress from your chest to
your toes 5 times