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					           250 Pre-1865
Concepts/Words/Events/Vocabulary
You need to know for the Graduation
      Test in Social Studies
•   SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about
    the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.
•   a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays’ Rebellion
    led to a call for a stronger central government.
•   b. Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-Federalists and Federalists during the debate
    on ratification of the Constitution as put forth in The Federalist concerning form of
    government, factions, checks and balances, and the power of the executive, including the
    roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison.
•   c. Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise,
    separation of powers (influence of Montesquieu), limited government, and the issue of
    slavery.
•   d. Analyze how the Bill of Rights serves as a protector of individual and states’ rights.
•   e. Explain the importance of the Presidencies of George Washington and John Adams;
    include the Whiskey Rebellion, non-intervention in Europe, and the development of
    political parties (Alexander Hamilton).

•   SSUSH6 The student will analyze the impact of territorial expansion and population
    growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation.
•   a. Explain the Northwest Ordinance’s importance in the westward migration of Americans,
    and on slavery, public education, and the addition of new states.
•   b. Describe Jefferson’s diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France and
    the territory’s exploration by Lewis and Clark.
•   c. Explain major reasons for the War of 1812 and the war’s significance on the
    development of a national identity.
•   d. Describe the construction of the Erie Canal, the rise of New York City, and the
    development of the nation’s infrastructure.
•   e. Describe the reasons for and importance of the Monroe Doctrine.
•   SSUSH7 Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and
    national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it.
•   a. Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen in Eli Whitney’s invention of the
    cotton gin and his development of interchangeable parts for muskets.
•   b. Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the emerging concept of
    Manifest Destiny.
•   c. Describe reform movements, specifically temperance, abolitionism, and public school.
•   d. Explain women’s efforts to gain suffrage; include Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the
    Seneca Falls Conference.
•   e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding suffrage, the rise of popular political culture,
    and the development of American nationalism.

•   SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south
    divisions and westward expansion.
•   a. Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics; include the slave
    rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick
    Douglass, and the Grimke sisters).
•   b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and
    territories.
•   c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states’ rights ideology; include the
    role of John C. Calhoun and development of sectionalism.
•   d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso.
•   e. Explain how the Compromise of 1850 arose out of territorial expansion and population
    growth.
• SSUSH9 The student will identify key events, issues, and
  individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences
  of the Civil War.
• a. Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure of popular
  sovereignty, Dred Scott case, and John Brown’s Raid.
• b. Describe President Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as
  seen in his second inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech
  and in his use of emergency powers, such as his decision to
  suspend habeas corpus.
• c. Describe the roles of Ulysses Grant, Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall”
  Jackson, William T. Sherman, and Jefferson Davis.
• d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg,
  Gettysburg, and the Battle for Atlanta and the impact of geography
  on these battles.
• e. Describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation.
• f. Explain the importance of the growing economic disparity between
  the North and the South through an examination of population,
  functioning railroads, and industrial output.
         1800 TO 1861
• THE USA IS GROWING LARGER,
  EXPANDING WESTWARD, FUFILLING
  ITS DESTINY, CHANGING
• SECTIONALISM
• DIVISION
• SLAVERY
• REFORM
• INVENTION
    The Great Compromiser
• Congressman
• Author of the
  Missouri
  Compromise and
  Compromise of
  1850
       Missouri Compromise
• The Missouri Compromise was an
  agreement passed in 1820 between the
  pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the
  United States Congress
• It prohibited/forbade slavery in the former
  Louisiana Territory north of the parallel
  36°30' except within the boundaries of the
  proposed state of Missouri
• War between the US and
  Mexico from 1846 to 1848
  because of the U.S.
                                 War with
  annexation of Texas.           Mexico
• Mexico claimed ownership of
  Texas
• The USA won and the war
  was settled by the treaty of
  Guadalupe Hidalgo
• The USA got much of
  Southwest America in the
  treaty
• Probably fought due to
  expansionist beliefs of
  Americans-manifest destiny
Later
bought
this piece,
from
Mexico;
the
Gadsden
Purchase
            Wilmot Proviso.

• one of first events on the long slide to secession
   and Civil War which would accelerate (increase)
  through the 1850s.
• The intent of the proviso, submitted by
  Congressman David Wilmot, was to prevent the
  introduction of slavery in any territory acquired
  from Mexico.
• The proviso did not pass since it was a sneaky
  attempt to ban slavery
• Led an
  unsuccessful
  slave revolt in        Nat Turner
  Virginia against
  slave owners
• Results in the
  reduction of
  freedoms for all
  black people in
  the South
  because the
  Southern whites
  are frightened by
  the possibility that
  slaves could free
  themselves
  through violence
        Kansas Nebraska Act
• act of Congress in
  1854 annulling the
  Missouri Compromise,
• provides for the
  organization of the
  territories of Kansas
  and Nebraska
• Permitted these
  territories self-
  determination through
  voting on the question
  of slavery.
         Compromise of 1850
Had four parts
• first, California was allowed to enter the Union as a free
  state;
• second, the rest of the Mexican Cession was divided into
  territories (in each territory, voters would decide the
  slavery question according to popular sovereignty);
• third, the slave trade was ended in Washington, D.C.,
  the nation’s capitol (Congress, however, declared that it
  had no power to ban the slave trade between slave
  states;
• fourth, a strict new fugitive slave law was passed.
    The Issue of Escaped Slaves
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
• law that required state
  officials to capture runaway
  slaves and return them to
  their owners.
  – Unpopular with the
    abolitionists.
  – Several attempts made to
    free captured runaway
    slaves.
  – U.S. army needed to enforce
    in Northern states.
       Underground railroad
• Route and system of
  safe houses that
  escaped slaves took
  to
  escape slavery, their
  masters and the slave
  states
    Harriet
   Tubman

• Conductor on
  the
  Underground
  railroad
• Black woman
  who helped
  slaves escape
        Kansas-Nebraska Act
• Both states were
  allowed to decide by
  voting if they wanted
  to be slave or free
  states
• Showed failure of
  popular sovereignty
  because voting was
  corrupt and violence
  high
• Led to nickname
  “Bleeding Kansas”
        Popular Sovereignty
• The people rule
• Belief that the state is created
  by the will or consent of its
  people, who are the source of
  all political power.
• In U.S. history, doctrine under
  which the status of slavery in
  the territories was to be
  determined by the settlers
  themselves.
             John Brown
• Abolitionist and
  fanatic who
  opposed spread
  of slavery
  violently
• Led raid on
  Harper’s Ferry
  Arsenal
• Caught and hung
                DRED SCOTT
• Supreme Court               •   Supreme Court says:
  decision.                       1. Slaves are not citizens
• Dred Scott                         of the U.S., and
  – Slave taken from slave           therefore cannot sue for
    state Missouri to free           freedom.
    territory Wisconsin and       2. Missouri Compromise
    back.                            was unconstitutional
• Question of whether                and Congress did not
  Scott was made free                have authority to dictate
  with the move?                     slave issue.
                              •   North devastated.
                              •   South ecstatic.
Explain the relationship between growing
  north-south divisions and westward
                expansion.
Sectionalism                Manifest destiny
• Growing North and South   • People moving west
  differences               • USA expanding
• Lack of understanding     • Do they bring slavery with
  between the two             them or not?
• Growing Federal power     • A country can not have
• Different needs             two laws so this issue
• Geography and distance      must be resolved
  make communication
  harder
• South threatens to          ELECTION
  secede if Lincoln is
  elected.                     OF 1860
• Democratic votes split
  between North and
  South.
• Republicans appeal to
  Midwest.
• Lincoln Wins with 180
  electoral votes, but only
  40% of the popular
  vote.
               Secession
• To leave
• The South seceded
  from the North and this
  led to the Civil War
            SECESSION
• South Carolina
  secedes from the   • Followed by:
  Union after the       – Mississippi
  election.             – Florida
                        – Alabama
                        – Georgia
                        – Louisiana
                        – Texas
            Confederation
• A loose association of something, usually
  states
• The confederate states of America
  alias the South or the government after the
  American Revolution
Jefferson
 Davis.

President of
the
Confederate
States of
America
                     WAR !!!!
• April 12, 1861-
  Confederate
  troops fire upon
  Ft. Sumter.
• April 14, 1861-
  Confederate
  troops seize Ft.
  Sumter.
• CIVIL WAR IS
  ON!!!!
            Fort Sumter
• Place where the Civil
  War began when South
  Carolina fired on the
  union fort.
                Civil War
• 1861-1865
• Southern states leave the United States of
  America and set up the Confederate
  States of America
• War
• Anaconda Plan
• Lee and Grant
• North wins
• Elected and the southern
  states secede from the       Abraham
  union
• President during the Civil
                               Lincoln
  War
• Wrote Emancipation
  Proclamation Address
• Set slaves free in some
  areas of the South
• Wrote Gettysburg
  address
• Suspended right of
  Habeas corpus
• Said “with malice towards
  none and charity towards
  all" in Second Inaugural
  Address
• Assassinated
• Where’s the body?        habeas corpus
• The right to be
  arraigned and
  charged speedily after
  arrest
• The right to not be
  held in jail with out
  knowing the charges
  and having bail set or
  denied
• Lincoln suspended it
  due to rioters against
  the Union involvement
  in the Civil war. He
  saw them as
  dangerous to the
  Union
               War Goals
          North                  South
• Original goal of     • The sole purpose of
  Lincoln was to         the war was for
  “Preserve the          independence from
  Union.”                the Union.
• As war progressed,   • Protection of land and
  freeing the slaves     family.
  became a new goal.   • Fight a defensive war.
• Stay with the Union          Border States
  even though they
  have slavery
  –   Missouri
  –   Kentucky
  –   Delaware
  –   West Virginia
       • The mountainous
         counties break w/
         Virginia and become
         own state.
  – Maryland
       • Washington, DC
         located here.
   Ulysses Grant/ Robert Lee
• US Grant –eventually lead general of the
  Northern armies
• R.E. Lee- general of the Southern armies
                             1. Blockade the
Northern War Strategies or      Confederate
    the Anaconda Plan           coastline and cut
                                off supply ships.
                             2. Split the
                                Confederacy in
                                two and seize
                                control of the
                                Mississippi.
                             3. Seize the capital,
                                Richmond and
                                then drive South
                                and link with
                                Mississippi
                                divisions.
                             4. Squeeze
                 Antietam
• was the first major battle in the American
  Civil War to take place on Northern soil.
• It was the bloodiest single-day battle in
  American history
• Union barely
  wins
• Battle in the      Vicksburg
  civil war that
  gave General
  Grant the
  victory and
• control over the
  Mississippi
  river,
• and split the
  South in two
• May, 1863- General Lee
  divides his troops and
  surprise attacks the
                                   Battle of
  Union army.
   – Lee takes 12,000 men to
                                Chancellorsville
     attack Hooker.
   – Jackson takes 40,000 men
     to attack the right.
• Hooker forced to
  withdraw and the Union
  Army is defeated. High
  Point For the South!
• Jackson is shot by
  “friendly fire” during the
  night– dies later from the
  amputation of his arm.
• Hooker fired by Lincoln.
•   Turning point of the Civil War
•   Farthest North the South ever made it;
•   From here on in the North is winning
•   Lincoln gives his Gettysburg address




Gettysburg
• November 20, 1863            Gettysburg
• President Lincoln             Address
  dedicates the
  Gettysburg Cemetery.
• Said that the Civil War
  tested whether a nation
  that believed all men
  were created equal
  could survive.
  – First indication of
    changing war goals for
    the North.
  – Freeing of slaves is now
    the number one concern
  EMANCIPATION
  PROCLAMATION

• Lincoln declared the
  slaves free in
  Confederate slave
  states
• 1862
• Made the Civil War
  about slavery and
  helped insure that
  Europe would not
  come to the aid of the
  South
Union General William T. Sherman
• Sherman wages total war
  in Atlanta and takes it.
• From there he marches
  to Savannah
  to use the port to re-
  supply from Union ships
• Called the “March to the
  Sea”
• Destroys everything
  along his path
•   Grant’s terms of
                            Appomattox
    surrender               Courthouse
    1. Troops could
       return home.
    2. Troops
       surrendered their
       weapons. Officers
       could keep theirs.
    3. Troops with horses
       could keep them
       and use on their
       farms.
Why did the North win and the
         South lose?
                   What resources could
                the North rely on?
1. Total population of 22 million people in 24 states to
   draw upon.
   •   South only has 9 million in 11 states. (3.5 million were slaves.)
2. Various economic resources
   •   “The Industrial North”- coal, gold, salt, iron, etc.
   •   South has only one foundry and few factories
3. Transportation
   •   Majority of the railroad lines located in the North.
   •   Easy to carry troops and food.

4. Banks - North has most of the banks and money.
   Nation’s gold in the Union. South’s wealth tied up in
   land and slaves
The south had 3 resources to rely
   on
  1. Defensive War- South only had
     to defend a territory a bit larger
     than Western Europe, not take it
     back.
  2. West Point graduates- Top
     military graduates from the
     school were originally from the
     South.
  3. “King Cotton”- belief that France
     and Great Britain would aid in
     exchange for cotton. They did not
     due to the slavery issue.
  Armies of the North          North
      and South                • Had the military
                                 including the Navy
South
                               • More than enough
• Did not begin the war          men to fight due to
  with a standing army as        large population and
  the North did
                                 more immigrants
• No Navy                        coming every day
• Became so desperate
  for soldiers that actually
  promised slaves
  freedom if they would
  serve.
                       South
    Finances           • Value of the Southern
                         dollar declines
North                    because $1 bill. is
• Tariffs                printed with promise
• Income Tax             of gold return. No
• Paper money backed     gold.
  by the gold             – 1865 Confederate
• War bonds                 dollar is worth 1.6
                            cents in gold.
• Banks
                          – Gross inflation and
                            eventually
                            starvation
     Industry               South
                            • Union blockade ruins
North                         Southern industry.
• Many more factories         – Creates a shortage of
  and foundries                 goods and high prices.
• Inflation never got out   • No serious lack of
  of hand because             food, but no railroads
  Northern industry           to transport the food
  could supply all the        to the troops.
  material demands..        • Branch rail lines torn
• Repeating rifle             up to repair main
  invented                    lines.
• Many railroad
  branches
          Role of Geography
• Slavery is only profitable in flat fertile
  agricultural areas .
• Industry profitable where there are
  steeply inclined rivers and water power
• South is a nation split buy a river which
  makes it harder to keep the
  Confederacy together and supplied
• Insufficient rivers in South that can
  help supply troops or make water
  power for factories
• Coastline is easy to blockade in South,
  Not many places for a large ship to hide
•Many cities close to the coast. Easy to access
and bomb
•Insufficient forests to build a navy in the South
even if there had been monies
•The Anaconda plan works because of geography
•Battles are fought to take control of strategic
geographic areas such as Vicksburg ( on a bluff)
and New Orleans which control trade on the
Mississippi
•California and Washington stay out of war
because they are 1500 miles away . Maybe could
have ended sooner if they were a part.
    Relax

• Breathe
• Count to 10
• Exhale
• Do this 10 times
• Clench your body then relax it
• Shake off the stress from the top of your head to
  the ends of your fingers
• Do this 5 times
• Repeat shaking off the stress from your chest to
  your toes 5 times

				
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