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					 UN
NATO
NORAD
     UNITED NATIONS
     Creation:
   Horrified by devastation of WW1 countries were
    inspired to come together and work for peace so they
    formed the League of Nations to achieve that goal
   League would last from 1920 to 1946 and have a total
    of 63 member nations through its history
   1942 signed Declaration by United Nations accepting
    principles of (American-British commitment) Atlantic
    Charter which included first formal use of term United
    Nations (name coined by President Roosevelt)
   1943 (4 Allies: USA, UK, Soviet Union, China)—agreed
    to establish general international organization and met
    in 1944 at Dumbarton Oaks estate in Washington, D.C.
    and drafted charter for new league - United Nations
     UNITED NATIONS
     Purpose:
   maintain world peace
   helps countries to develop and prosper (improve lives of
    their citizens)
   provides a forum for countries to promote their views
    and settle conflicts without violence
   allows countries to cooperate to solve world problems,
    such as poverty, disease, and threats to environment
   serves as symbol of international order and global
    identity
   works to address economic and social problems in
    developing countries
   helps coordinate the work of hundreds of agencies and
    programs
   collects and publishes global statistics
     UNITED NATIONS
     1950s:
   beginning 1950: aiding Palestinian refugees
   1950: Korean Armistice Agreement is signed on 27 July
   1953 by the UN Command and the Chinese-North Korean
    Command
   1956: establish the first UN peace-keeping force- the UN
    Emergency Force (UNEF).
   1957: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
    established by UN to promote "peaceful" uses of nuclear
    energy
   1958: Linus Pauling (Nobel Laureate in Chemistry) and Ava
    Helen Pauling presented U.N. Secretary (Dag
    Hammarskjold) a Petition to the United Nations Urging
    International Agreement to Stop the Testing of Nuclear
    Bombs Be Made Now signed by 9,235 scientists throughout
    the world
     NATO
     Creation:
   signing of Dunkirk Treaty in 1947 between Britain and France
    creation of Cominform, a European Communist organization, in
    1947, led to the Brussels Treaty signed by most Western European
    countries in 1948  Berlin blockade that began in March 1948 led to
    negotiations between Western Europe, Canada, and the United States
   April 1949 (beginning of Cold War) ten West European countries
    (Belgium, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
    Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom) and United States and Canada,
    sign Washington Treaty
   this creates North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), an alliance
    which brings together free and sovereign countries in order to create a
    collective security system
   these countries joined later in: Greece and Turkey in 1952, West
    Germany in 1955, Spain in 1982, newly unified Germany replaced West
    Germany as a NATO member in 1990, Hungary, Poland, and the Czech
    Republic in 1999, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Bulgaria,
    Romania, and Slovakia in 2004
     NATO
     Purpose:
   original purpose of NATO was to defend Western
    Europe against possible attack by Communist
    nations, led by the Union of Soviet Socialist
    Republics
    principal purpose of Alliance is specified in
    Article 5 which states that "an armed attack
    against one or more of them in Europe or North
    America shall be considered an attack against
    them all."
   promote the common values of its members and
    to “unite their efforts for collective defense”
   promote economic and political cooperation
     NATO
     1950s:
   1950: outbreak of Korean War in June convinced allies
    that Soviets might act against a divided Germany 
    result was creation of a military command system and
    expansion of organization
   1954: United Kingdom and United States reject USSR’s
    bid to join
   1955: West Germany was accepted under a complicated
    arrangement whereby Germany would not be allowed to
    manufacture nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons
   in its first decade NATO was mainly a military
    organization dependent on U.S. power for security and
    for revival of Europe’s economy and national
    governments
     NORAD
     Creation:
   An agreement between Canada and the United States signed
    on May 12, 1958 that would protect the air space above
    Canada and the U.S.
   At its creation NORAD stood for North American Air Defense
    Command
   NORAD was created due to the threat of nuclear weapons
    begin fired on North America from the Soviet Union during the
    Cold War
   There were several other warning systems put in place before
    NORAD which included the Pinetree Line, McGill Fence as well
    as DEW Line or the Distant Early Warning Line
   August 1, 1957 an announcement was made about the
    establishment of an integral warning system between the U.S.
    and Canada
   Headed by the Prime Minister of Canada and the President of
    the United States
     NORAD
     Purpose:

   To protect the air space over Canada and the
    United States from enemy missiles and
    aircrafts
   To monitor and track man made objects in the
    air and warn Canada and the U.S. about
    impeding attacks
   To control airspace above Canada and U.S.
   To deter enemies from making attacks on
    Canada and the United States in airspace
     NORAD
     1950s:
   1954: Pinetree Line established in Canada and the United
    States with 33 stations across Southern Canada
   1957: McGill Fence established, consisted of Doppler radar
    for low flying aircrafts, along the 55th parallel
   1957: DEW Line completed, 57 stations along the 70th
    parallel. System gave three hours warning of bombing
    attack
    August 1, 1957: Canadian and American governments
    announce the culmination of forces in an integrated
    warning system
   September 12, 1957: NORAD operations commenced
   May 12, 1958: formal NORAD agreement signed by the
    governments of Canada and the United States
 UN
NATO
NORAD

				
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