Civil war key battles

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First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)
 First full battle
 Union loss—soldiers ran away
 Led to realization war would last longer than
 Union then implemented Anaconda Plan—
  plan to surround confederacy and cut off
  supply lines—control Mississippi River,
  capture Richmond, blockade southern ports
Naval Battles
 South introduced
 Union unable to defeat
  ironclads, made their
 March 1862, first battle
  between ironclads
  (South withdrew)
 First subs—CSS
  Hunley first to sink ship,
  ended up sinking itself
Eastern Theater
 Second Bull Run—ended Union hopes of
  taking Richmond, first major victory for Lee
  (Aug, 1862)
 Antietam (Sept. ’62)—first CSA invasion of
  north. Confederate battle plans found, Union
  able to stop Lee’s army. Union (McClellan)
  failed to pursue Lee—lost opportunity
 Chancellorsville (May ’63)—S. victory, strong
  plan by Lee. Stonewall Jackson shot by own
  troops, died 8 days later due to infection
Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863
 Key turning point battle
 Second CSA invasion of North
 Union held key high ground, able to hold off
  attacks, including Pickett’s Charge at center
  of Cemetery Ridge
 South retreated, Union (Gen. Meade) did not
  take opportunity to pursue and possibly end
 Bloodiest battle of the war
 Lincoln gave Gettysburg Address 4 months
  later at dedication of cemetery there
Gettysburg—turning point for Union
Western Theater
 Vicksburg (May-July 1863)—Grant laid siege
  to city, cut off all supplies, town surrendered
  in July, giving Union full control of Mississippi
 Sherman’s March (May-Dec. ’64)—captured
  Atlanta in Sept, helping Lincoln win re-
  election. Burned Atlanta, then marched to
  sea, then north into Carolinas, trying to trap
  Lee between him and Grant. Scorched earth
Political Actions of War
 Lincoln kept Maryland in
  Union by declaring martial
  law in MD., suspending writ
  of Habeas Corpus, and
  jailing strong supporters of
 Both sides instituted draft.
  Wealthy able to pay
  someone to fight for them
 Copperheads—Northerners
  who criticized war &
  Lincoln—worked against war
Emancipation Proclamation
 Freed slaves in states still in rebellion
 Did not free slaves in border states—Lincoln
  needed their support
 Gave war moral focus and ensured support of
 Encouraged African-Americans to serve in
  Union Army—law passed in 1862 had first
  allowed it
 54th Massachusetts (Glory) most famous unit
Union Victory
 U.S. Grant placed in charge of all Union
  armies March 1864—very aggressive—
  planned to attack CSA troops head on
 Took Richmond early April 1864
 Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox
  Courthouse, VA April 9,1865, effectively
  ending war, but some fighting continued
 Grant gave lenient, honorable terms
 2 weeks later, last major surrender, war over
Lee Surrenders

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