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Chap 27 To finish up Chap 27, let’s review a bit on United States Imperialism and the Spanish-American War. First of all Hawaii was important to the US as a military strategic fueling station. We needed a naval base for fueling to continue to sail to Asia. In addition American businessmen such as Sanford B. Dole had a lot of investment in sugar plantations there. We also had many missionaries there that had been there for years. The most controversial event associated with the Spanish-American War was the acquisition of the Philippines. The provisions of the Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish-American war gave the United States: Puerto Rico, Guam, and The Philippine Islands including Manila. President McKinley justified U.S. acquisition of the Philippines by emphasizing there was no acceptable alternative to its acquisition. American imperialists who advocated acquisition of the Philippines stressed their economic potential for American businessmen seeking trade with China and other Asian nations. Starting in 1917, many Puerto Ricans came to the mainland U.S. seeking employment. In 1899, guerilla warfare started in the Philippines because the United States refused to give the Philippines their independence. The Philippine insurrection was broken in 1901 when Emilio Aguinaldo, the Filipino leader, was captured. When Filipinos first came to the U.S., they mainly worked as agricultural laborers. China Many Americans became concerned about the increasing foreign intervention in China because they feared that American missions would be jeopardized and Chinese markets closed to non- Europeans. America’s initial Open Door policy was essentially an argument to promote free trade in China. China’s Boxer Rebellion was an attempt by Chinese radicals to throw out or kill all foreigners. In response to the Boxer Rebellion, the U.S. abandoned its general principles of nonentanglement and noninvolvement in overseas conflict. The extended Open Door policy advocated in Secty. John Hay’s second note called on all big powers, including the U.S., to observe the territorial integrity of China. Teddy Roosevelt received the Republican vice- presidential nomination in 1900 mainly because New York party bosses wanted him out of the governorship – T. Roosevelt had been serving as the governor of New York. In the 1900 presidential election, the Democratic Party and their candidate, William Jennings Bryan, insisted that imperialism was the “paramount issue” of the campaign. The Republicans won the 1900 election mainly because of the prosperity achieved during McKinley’s first term. T. Roosevelt is often described as highly energetic and egotistical. As president, Teddy Roosevelt proved to be progressive but willing to compromise. Teddy Roosevelt believed that the President could take any action not specifically prohibited by the laws and the Constitution; therefore a loose constructionist. Construction of an isthmian canal was motivated mainly by a desire to improve the defense of the United States. The British gave up their opposition to an American-controlled isthmian canal because they confronted an unfriendly Europe and were bogged down in the Boer War. Roosevelt’s role in the Panamanian Revolution involved using American naval forces to block Columbian troops from crossing the isthmus and crushing the revolt. Roosevelt wanted the canal to be constructed quickly because the Presidential election of 1904 was approaching. During the building of the Panama Canal there were labor problems, landslides, poor sanitation, and yellow fever. The Roosevelt Corollary added a new provision to the Monroe Doctrine that was specifically designed to justify US intervention in the affairs of Latin American countries. The US involvement in the affairs of Latin American nations in the early 1900s stemmed from the fact that those nations were chronically in debt. Adding the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine might be called “Bad Neighbor” policy since the US intervention in Latin American affairs left a legacy of ill will and distrust of the United States throughout Latin America. In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War started because Russia was seeking ice-free ports in Chinese Manchuria. Japan secretly asked T. Roosevelt to help negotiate peace in this problem. The “Gentlemen’s Agreement” that Roosevelt worked out with the Japanese in 1907-1908 caused Japan to halt the flow of laborers to America in return for the repeal of a racist school decree by the San Francisco School Board. Japanese immigrants first entered US territory to work as laborers on Hawaii’s sugar plantations.
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