; 2nd_half_of_Chap_27
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									Chap 27
To finish up Chap 27, let’s review a bit on United States Imperialism and the Spanish-American
War. First of all Hawaii was important to the US as a military strategic fueling station. We
needed a naval base for fueling to continue to sail to Asia. In addition American businessmen
such as Sanford B. Dole had a lot of investment in sugar plantations there. We also had many
missionaries there that had been there for years. The most controversial event associated with
the Spanish-American War was the acquisition of the Philippines. The provisions of the Treaty
of Paris which ended the Spanish-American war gave the United States: Puerto Rico, Guam, and
The Philippine Islands including Manila. President McKinley justified U.S. acquisition of the
Philippines by emphasizing there was no acceptable alternative to its acquisition. American
imperialists who advocated acquisition of the Philippines stressed their economic potential for
American businessmen seeking trade with China and other Asian nations. Starting in 1917,
many Puerto Ricans came to the mainland U.S. seeking employment. In 1899, guerilla warfare
started in the Philippines because the United States refused to give the Philippines their
independence. The Philippine insurrection was broken in 1901 when Emilio Aguinaldo, the
Filipino leader, was captured. When Filipinos first came to the U.S., they mainly worked as
agricultural laborers.
Many Americans became concerned about the increasing foreign intervention in China because
they feared that American missions would be jeopardized and Chinese markets closed to non-
Europeans. America’s initial Open Door policy was essentially an argument to promote free
trade in China. China’s Boxer Rebellion was an attempt by Chinese radicals to throw out or kill
all foreigners. In response to the Boxer Rebellion, the U.S. abandoned its general principles of
nonentanglement and noninvolvement in overseas conflict. The extended Open Door policy
advocated in Secty. John Hay’s second note called on all big powers, including the U.S., to
observe the territorial integrity of China. Teddy Roosevelt received the Republican vice-
presidential nomination in 1900 mainly because New York party bosses wanted him out of the
governorship – T. Roosevelt had been serving as the governor of New York. In the 1900
presidential election, the Democratic Party and their candidate, William Jennings Bryan, insisted
that imperialism was the “paramount issue” of the campaign. The Republicans won the 1900
election mainly because of the prosperity achieved during McKinley’s first term. T. Roosevelt is
often described as highly energetic and egotistical. As president, Teddy Roosevelt proved to be
progressive but willing to compromise. Teddy Roosevelt believed that the President could take
any action not specifically prohibited by the laws and the Constitution; therefore a loose
constructionist. Construction of an isthmian canal was motivated mainly by a desire to improve
the defense of the United States. The British gave up their opposition to an American-controlled
isthmian canal because they confronted an unfriendly Europe and were bogged down in the Boer
War. Roosevelt’s role in the Panamanian Revolution involved using American naval forces to
block Columbian troops from crossing the isthmus and crushing the revolt. Roosevelt wanted
the canal to be constructed quickly because the Presidential election of 1904 was approaching.
During the building of the Panama Canal there were labor problems, landslides, poor sanitation,
and yellow fever. The Roosevelt Corollary added a new provision to the Monroe Doctrine that
was specifically designed to justify US intervention in the affairs of Latin American countries.
The US involvement in the affairs of Latin American nations in the early 1900s stemmed from
the fact that those nations were chronically in debt. Adding the Roosevelt Corollary to the
Monroe Doctrine might be called “Bad Neighbor” policy since the US intervention in Latin
American affairs left a legacy of ill will and distrust of the United States throughout Latin
America. In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War started because Russia was seeking ice-free ports in
Chinese Manchuria. Japan secretly asked T. Roosevelt to help negotiate peace in this problem.
The “Gentlemen’s Agreement” that Roosevelt worked out with the Japanese in 1907-1908
caused Japan to halt the flow of laborers to America in return for the repeal of a racist school
decree by the San Francisco School Board. Japanese immigrants first entered US territory to
work as laborers on Hawaii’s sugar plantations.

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