22 by gegeshandong

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 52

									Slide 1
Slide 2




          The Korean War

              Major Rascon
Slide 3


               Rules of Engagement

         Ask Questions if you need clarification
          – Raise your hand and wait to be acknowledged
      There will be additional time for questions at
       the end
      The class will be taught utilizing . . .
          – Lecture Method
          – PowerPoint
          – Video
          – Guest lecturer (Capt Rascon) on the role of
            aircraft
Slide 4
Slide 5
Slide 6


                      Prelude to War

     WWII ended just 5 years earlier
          – N and S Korea split by US and Russia
   Americans didn’t want another war -
    Isolationists
   Began to downsize the military
          – Budget cut from $82 billion in 1945 to $13 billion
          – Total forces cut from 12 million men and women in
            1945 to 1.6 million
     US has adopted a policy of containment
Slide 7


                            Cont.

     The UN was in it’s infancy
     There was constant small-scale fighting at
      the 38th Parallel
          – No one thought that the war was actually
            beginning when it did.
         January 1950 – Sec. of State Dean Acheson
          states that the Western Defense perimeter
          stops short of South Korea
Slide 8




          Korea – “The Land of the Morning Calm”
Slide 9


                The Invasion Begins

         June 25 – Early morning – N. Korean begins
          invasion of S. Korea.
          – NK hopes to force reunification as one Communist
            nation
          – The UN calls for an end to N. Korean Aggression
      June 27 – UN calls an emergency meeting of the
       security council and asks members to aid S. Korea
      June 28th-29th – Seoul is captured
      June 30 – Pres Truman orders ground forces into
       Korea and authorizes the bombing of N. Korea
Slide 10
Slide 11
Slide 12


                               Cont.

          July 1 – 1st US Army infantry unit arrives in
           Korea
           – 1st Bn, 21st Infantry Reg, 24th Infantry Div, &
             Battery A of 52nd Field Arty Bn
           – Comprise Task force Smith
     July 4th – Task Force Smith moves into
      position just north of Osan
     July 5th – Task Force Smith encounters the N.
      Koreans – retreat with heavy causalities
     July 7th – UN creates United Nations
      Command
Slide 13


           NK Advance Continues

     July 15, 1950 – Gen MacArthur is appointed
      by the UN to Command in Korea
     Truman respects MacArthur’s military skills,
      but feels he is a loose cannon.
     July 19, 1950 - President Truman addresses
      the American people on the situation in
      Korea.
     Early Aug 1950 – US & UN forces seem
      powerless to stop the NK advances
Slide 14


               Pusan Perimeter

      The UN forces had begun retreating – trying
       to delay the N. Koreans as best they could
      July 29th – Gen Walker orders no more
       retreats when they reached the Naktong
       River. They were told to hold their positions
       or die in them.
      Aug 4th – Pusan Perimeter is established
      Aug 5th-19th – Battle of Naktong Bulge
      Aug 25th – N. Koreans begin to pull back
Slide 15
Slide 16
Slide 17


                   The Tide Changes

    MacArthur realizes we need a dramatic plan
     in order to achieve victory
    Proposes a landing at Inchon to the JCS
           – Even MacArthur admits that an Inchon landing is
             a “5000 to 1 risk.”
           – Denied several times – too risky
           – MacArthur’s persistence pays off – 22 July JCS
             grant a Marine division to conduct the landing
Slide 18

                      Inchon Landing
    “I can almost hear the ticking of the second
     hand of destiny. We must act now or we will
     die . . .. We shall land at Inchon, and I shall
     crush them!” – Gen MacArthur
    Sept 15 – Inchon Landing
           – First hit Wolmi-do (Green beach) at 0633 and
             secure it in less than 90 Minutes – Little
             resistance
           – 13 Hours later – Land at Red and Blue Beach
           – Who’s in charge at Blue Beach?
              • Chesty Puller
          Sept 16 – Inchon is controlled by UN forces
Slide 19
Slide 20


                      Second Phase

          Sept 16 – Gen Walker’s men begin to
           breakout of the Pusan Perimeter with the
           Army’s 7th Calvary leading the fight north
           – The plan is to meet the 7th Division on their way
             south
          Close in on Seoul
           – Battle becomes what the Marines expected at
             Inchon
           – 3 days before the SK flag is raised over Seoul
Slide 21


                 Sept 29, 1950




     In a ceremony held in Seoul, Gen MacArthur
      returns the capital to Pres Syngman Rhee and
      the SK government.
     MacArthur is now certain of victory.
Slide 22


               Chinese Involvement

        Chairman Mao Tse Tung is watching
         American forces closely
        He has 500,000 troops waiting in
         Manchuria for the arrival of American
         Forces
        As the NKPA is pushed back across the
         38th parallel, Washington gives MacArthur
         permission to cross the parallel
           – Stop at any sign of Russian or Chinese
             intervention
           – DO NOT cross or even fire in the direction of
             the Yalu River
Slide 23


                           Cont.

     American Troops
      begin to feel that
      the war is almost
      over
Slide 24


                    Air Introduction

          Air Support played a big role in the success
           that America was now seeing
Slide 25

                The Air War in Korea
           -Airfields at the initial push
           south were scarce.
                   -Pusan (2)
                   -Tageu (1)
           -Length of the Airfields to
           sustain operations were
           inadequate.
           -Japan Airbases (pros and cons)
           -Mig Alley
Slide 26


                  Aviation Innovation

          Introduction of “vertical envelopment”.
           – Marines use rotary wing a/c extensively for troop
             lift, resupply and medevac.
              • Over 10k medevac missions greatly improve survival
                rate.
          Marines continue to develop Close Air
           Support (CAS) procedures.
           – Aviators assigned to ground units to act as
             Forward Air Controllers (FAC).
           – CAS is decisive as only supporting arm for most
             of Chosin campaign.
          First jet vs. jet combat.
Slide 28

                      Meeting at Wake




          Pres. Truman is getting nervous and summons MacArthur to
           Wake Island For a Face-to-Face.
          MacArthur is upset that he is interrupted and has to leave
           during his campaign.
Slide 29


                        Wake Cont.

          Truman Concerned about the possibility of
           Chinese intervention
           – MacArthur’s arrogance abounds
          MacArthur claims that the war will be over by
           Thanksgiving and the men will be home by
           Christmas
Slide 30


                  China Attacks

       Oct 15, 1950 – Mao sends in 1st wave of
        troops
       Despite what he is hearing, MacArthur
        believes that it is nothing more than a
        handful of Chinese volunteers, not Army
        regulars
       “In order to hook a big fish, you must let the
        fish taste your bait.” – Chairman Mao Tse
        Tung
       MacArthur orders his men north
Slide 31


                            Cont.

      8th Army and X corps advance to Yalu River
      MacArthur sure China would not dare
       retaliate
      Winter sets in – significance?
      Mao orders ¼ million troops into N. Korea
      “Lure the enemy forces into our internal
       line; wipe them out one by one.”
           – Mao’s Military Tactician Marshal Peng Duhuai
Slide 32


                  The Frozen Chosin

          Nov 25, 1950 – Peaceful Thanksgiving
           – Chinese sneak troops right past US intelligence
          Nov 27 – X corps marches into the Chosin
           Reservoir where 100,000 Chinese troops are
           waiting for them
           – At Chosin: 10,000 Marines and 2,500 Army
          Army worse off than Marines
           – Little food & ammo, NO water
           – Most Air Dropped supplies land on Chinese side
Slide 34

           Cont.
           Retreat hell! We’re just attacking in
             another direction” – MGen Smith
Slide 35
Slide 36
           Cont.
Slide 37
           Cont.
Slide 38

           Cont.
Slide 39


           Withdrawal Completed

      Last troops and refugees evacuated by
       Christmas Eve
      Bombs, dynamite, and gasoline too volatile
       to transport are detonated on the beach as
       they pull out.
      8th Army Withdraws from Yalu River straight
       down to the 38th Parallel
Slide 40


                Further Devastation

       All UN forces now south of the 38th Parallel
       American forces now faced with total and
        humiliating defeat
           – Once again in this war the tables are turned
          MacArthur wants to use as many as 50
           atomic bombs against the Chinese
           – US supporters against the idea
           – Nov 30 – At a press conference, Truman says
             we may use Atomic weapons
Slide 41


                             Cont.

          Mao not intimidated
           – “You can use the atomic bomb. I will use my
             hand grenade. I will catch your weak point and
             defeat you.”
          Seoul & Inchon fall back under communist
           control
           – As UN forces evac. They blow up the Inchon
             harbor
Slide 42
Slide 43


                        Turn yet again

            Dec 23 – Gen Walker dies
            Gen Matthew “Bunker” Ridgeway, his
             replacement, revives the fighting spirit of
             the 8th Army
               – “Get off the roads and hit them where they
                 hide!”
               – “Throw all those maps away, we’re going to
                 attack!”
              Now it is Mao who overextends his forces
Slide 44


                         March 1951

    Ridgeway successfully counter-attacking
    Truman now favors limited war
    MacArthur says that all out war is needed for
     victory, and pursues it despite warnings from
     the President himself
    Truman becomes infuriated with MacArthur
    Truman relieves MacArthur
           – “It is with the deepest personal regret that I have
             found myself compelled to take this action.
             General MacArthur is one of our greatest military
             commanders, but the cause of world peace is
             much more important than any individual.”
Slide 45
Slide 46


                       Cont.

      Chinese return as heroes
      Americans return to an uninterested nation
      A truce was declared in 1953, but no peace
       treaty was ever signed ending the war
       between North and South Korea
Slide 47


                            Peace?

            June 25th, 1951 – News circulates of
             Chinese offer for peace talks
            It is 2 yrs before Armistice
               – During which 12,000 more Americans lose
                 their lives
              Main bone of contention = POW’s
               – March 1953 – Stalin dies
               – Op Little Switch
               – Op Big Switch (Aug)
Slide 48
Slide 49


                                 W or L?

              Ended almost as it began
               – territorially
              But our involvement was to remove the
               N. Koreans from S. Korea
               – did that
              Almost really two different conflicts
               – complicated to name a winner
Slide 50


                          Conclusion

            > 5 million people die in Korea from 50 -
             53
            America – 54,000 KIA
            Chinese – 148,000 KIA
            Remainder – N & S Korean troops and
             civilians
            Main Lesson Learned – If you go to war,
             go to win.
               – Vietnam will serve to reinforce that point
Slide 51


                         Summary

            NK push to the Pusan Perimeter
            American landing at Inchon and breakout
             from Pusan that lead to our conquest
            The role of Aircraft
            Chinese involvement and conquest
            American Pushback
            Armistice and results
            And the intertwined Politics along the way
Slide 52
           Questions?

								
To top