A Brief History of the English Language A Brief History of the by linxiaoqin

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									A Brief History of the
 English Language


 Old English Period
  450 –1150 A.D.
Three major influences bring change
to a language.

 Political events
 Social events
 Contact with other cultures
Consider the impact CONQUERORS
have on the CONQUERED…

 Conquerors bring:
   political change
   social change
   their own culture
   religion
   LANGUAGE
  Source: http://feistync.wordpress.com/2008/05/30/the-mystery-of-stonehenge-revealed/



Words are travelers…
1900 B.C
Prehistoric Celtic people build Stonehenge
Celtic words name essential items and
geographical and geological formations:
  hill
  valley
  basket
43 A.D.
Roman soldiers invade England.
England becomes part of the Roman
Empire. The Romans bring Latin to
England
Latin was the language of the upper-
class Britons and did not spread to the
common people.
Hadrian’s Wall
 In 122 A.D., Roman emperor Hadrian
 ordered construction on a wall to span
 the island from shore to shore.
 The wall was built as a defensive barrier
 to keep the war-like Picts and Scots in
 the north.
Source: http://www.tynemouthholidaycottages.co.uk/local%20attractions.htm
Source: http://gouk.about.com/od/picturegalleries/ig/Top-UK-Sights/Hadrian-s-Wall.htm
410 A.D.
A CATALIST for Change


 The Roman Empire is falling; Roman
 soldiers withdraw from England, leaving
 the old Celts defenseless to fight the
 Picts and the Scots.
Old English Period 450 A.D.
 Celts hire Jutes to fight the Scots and Picts in
 exchange for a small island called Thanet.
 Jutes go back on the bargain and settle in Kent and
 influence their cousins, the Angles and Saxons, to
 settle in England. The Celts are pushed back to
 Wales (Wealas - “foreigners”).
 “English” is derived from “Angle-ish,” the language of
 the Angles. This is actually a misnomer, because
 English emerged from the West Saxon dialect.
 “Angle- land” = “England”
Old English Words
father   earth    life

house    day      love
                  Latin place
cheese   butter   names:
                  -chester
                  -port
597 A.D.
St. Augustine of Canterbury (not to be
confused with St. Augustine of Hippo) travels
to England with forty Christian missionaries.
Latin, the language of the Church, is
reintroduced.
Common religious words enter the language:
  angel
  priest
  candle
871-899
Alfred the Great rules in England; a
scholarly leader, he translates classic
literature from Latin to Old English;
defeats invading Viking bands
1014
Vikings finally conquer England. The Dane Canute is
crowned king in 1014. New words, especially those
beginning with sk-, enter the language.
   ski
   skirt
   sky
Norsemen settle in Normandy, a region of France;
they live there for nearly two hundred years without
invading England.
http://www.krysstal.com/display_borrowlang.php?lan
g=Norse
1066 A.D. The Norman Invasion
ONCE MORE: A CATALIST for Change

  William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy,
  invades and conquers England and the Anglo-
  Saxons
  The new overlords speak a dialect of Old French
  known as “Anglo-Norman”
What did Old English look like?

Fæder ure
þu þe eart on heofonum,
si þin nama gehalgod.
Tobecume þin rice.
Gewurþe ðin willa on eorðan swa swa on
   heofonum.
Urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todæg.
And forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgyfað urum
   gyltendum.
And ne gelæd þu us on costnunge,
ac alys us of yfele. Soþlice.
What did Old English sound like?
Old English letters and blends
 ð    eth                 fn
 þ    thorn               hl
 æ    short a as in cat   hr
 sc   produces sh         wl
 wr
                          hw
 sw
 gn
Can you pronounce and translate
these Old English words?
scip      cniht      cnif




gnæt      meahte     Wodnesdæg
Literary Terms
 oral tradition
 epic poetry
 allegory
 moral

								
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