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					 Engineering at Aberdeen
Communications and Imaging
 Research Group
7 academic staff
15 research staff and students

          •Electronic Engineering
          •Communications Engineering
          •Optical Engineering
          •Parallel and Image Processing
Communications and Imaging Research Group:
           WARMER personnel


Directly involved:
   Dr Alastair Allen
   Prof Tim Spracklen
   Dr Oliver Faust
   Mr Bernhard Sputh
   Mr Golam Murshed
   + other research students

Other staff related to Wireless Sensor Networks:
   Prof Anne Glover (Medical Sciences)
   Dr A Manivannan (Biomedical Physics)
   Dr Norval Strachan (Physics)
   + research staff/students
        Experience & expertise



Embedded systems
Communications
Wireless Sensor Networks
              Embedded systems
Development of optimized algorithms and high
 performance computer architectures for embedding
 imaging and other computational intelligence into
 small devices

Processing of     Using
   •Signals          •Multiprocessor systems
   •Images           •Digital Signal Processors
   •Sensor data      •Microcontrollers
                     •Field Programmable Gate Arrays
                     •Artificial Neural Network hardware
            Embedded systems
• Concurrency
  – Parallel compiler technology
  – Formal methods/tools for secure and provable
    systems: CSP/FDR
  – Java and concurrency
• Operating Systems and Device Drivers
• Artificial Neural Network
  hardware
    Field Programmable Gate Arrays

Reconfigurable systems
  •Algorithmic optimisation
  •Multi-core (eg. MicroBlaze)


Software Defined Radio
  •Partial reconfigurability
  •Formal methods for
     hardware / firmware /
     software interfacing
              Communications
Professor Spracklen has been the UK representative
  on the UN Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
  Organisation (CTBTO) since 1998, where he has
  been responsible for
   – Satellite Network QoS
   – Network SLA (service level agreement)
   – NMS (Network Management System)
   – Independent Subnetworks …
                      Communications




•   A comprehensive simulation of the CTBTO Satellite network was undertaken
•   This included aspects such as QoS, SLA issues, NMS coverage
•   UN member states’ private networks (the so-called Independent subnetworks)
    were examined.
  Engineering Research at Aberdeen
  Communications
                                          • Adaptive link layer
                                            communications protocols
                                            incorporated in the first robust
                                            reconfigurable satellite modem
                                          • Satellite communications for
                                            Road Traffic Management




• Piloting the use of digital satellite
TV for high speed direct-to-home
Internet services
             Wireless Sensor Networks

Modelling of WSN

Wireless sensor networks offer a great deal of flexibility. Sensor nodes
might be added, dislocated or removed. That means the network topology
is subject to constant change.

•Use of CSP in the development of reliable communications protocols in a
changing network topology

•Power minimisation techniques in processing and communication

•Modelling of network connectivity
Percolation theory for modelling network connectivity in WSN
Percolation theory for modelling network connectivity in WSN
Percolation theory for modelling network connectivity in WSN
        Wireless Sensor Networks


Working prototypes -
 Physiological
 monitoring using:
  – RFID
  – ZigBee                            Data
                       RFID Reader   Clock    Tag
                                     Energy
    University of Aberdeen role in WARMER
WP2: Development of modular algorithms and firmware for
 data processing and instrument control

Assistance with selection of the best software/hardware platform for
  implementation of the developed algorithms, taking into account
  flexibility, possibility of integration with other parts of the system and
  market-related concerns.



WP3: Technology of remote data collection

Assistance with networking, data fusion, image processing.
                           UNIABDN role


WP4: Networking data of water risk management

The overall objective of this work package is to achieve a robust, flexible
  computational and data networking architecture to support water risk
  management.

    WP 4.1: Development and verification of networking protocols for
     distributed data processing systems.
    WP 4.2: Review and integration in the processing platform of the
     networking technology.
    WP 4.3: Design of a system capable of communicating via different
     standards at different times.
    WP 4.4: Integration of in situ data with satellite-derived data.
                         UNIABDN role
WP5: Hardware preparation and industrialisation of the in-situ
 monitoring system

Assistance with integration of computation and communication algorithms
  developed in WP2 and WP4 inside the new in-situ monitoring system.




WP7: Field experiments and satellite remote sensing

Assistance with field demonstration
    University of Aberdeen role in WARMER
WP2: Development of modular algorithms and firmware for
 data processing and instrument control

Assistance with selection of the best software/hardware platform for
  implementation of the developed algorithms, taking into account
  flexibility, possibility of integration with other parts of the system and
  market-related concerns.
Designing the next generation in-
  situ monitoring system (IMS)

        Processing Platform
          considerations
            Questionnaire Results
• Many different electrical interfaces (RS-232, RS-422,
  RS-485, SDI-12, USB, Analogue)
• Different communication standards (GSM, UMTS,
  Bluetooth)
• Long service intervals (min 3, max 12 months)
• Many different processor architectures (x86, XScale,
  ARM, 8051 derivatives, MSP430, CPLD, FPGA)
• Many different programming languages in use
  (Assembler, C, C++, Java, Fortran, VHDL)
Current Design of In-Situ Monitoring
              Systems
       Resulting Constraints for the
           Processing Platform
• Energy Efficiency
• Flexible Electrical Interfaces
        Increasing energy efficiency

The ideal energy efficient solution are Systems on Chip
  (SoCs). These are very energy efficient, because:
• Components are connected directly
• Less components
• Avoidance of unnecessary abstraction layers

However, SoCs are inflexible, therefore not applicable
 to the Processing Platform.
       Refined Design Constraints
SoCs are power efficient, because they avoid
 unnecessary abstraction layers!

Therefore, our refined design constraints are:
• Removal of unnecessary abstraction layers
• Flexible Electrical Interfaces
Overview of proposed IMS setup

            Storage




                        Communication
Sensors      FPGA
                           Module




             CPU

           Processing
            Platform
         Within the Processing Platform

            Sensor
Sensor                    Hardware
           Controller
  1                      Accelerator
              1
            Sensor
Sensor
           Controller
  2                         CPU               Comms          Comms
              2
               .            Core             Controller      Module
  .
  .            .
  .            .                                               Fast Duplex Link
            Sensor         Storage
Sensor                                                         Component
           Controller     Controller
  N                                                            Specific Interface
              N
                                       Processing Platform

                        Storage Module
                         Inside the CPU
                         Hardware Accelerator


 Sensor                       Hardware
              Sensor
Controller                   Accelerator
             Process 1
   1                           Process
 Sensor
              Sensor
Controller                      IMS
             Process 2                          Comms        Comms
   2                           Control
                 .                              Process     Controller
     .                        Processs
     .           .
     .           .                                             Fast Duplex Link
 Sensor                        Storage
              Sensor                                           libCSP2
Controller                     Process
             Process N                                         Duplex Channel
   N
                                                      CPU

                          Storage Controller
     Possible Areas of Collaboration
• Protocol Design
  – IMS to Data Centre
  – Data Centre to Applications
• In-situ Monitoring System
  – What is inside your box?


• Energy saving Operating System
  – What power saving techniques does your OS use?

				
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