Jazz The American Music

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					Jazz: The American Music
                                             "Jazz is a good barometer of freedom. In
                                                  its beginnings, the United States
                                              spawned certain ideals of freedom and
                                                    independence through which,
                                               eventually, jazz was evolved, and the
                                              music is so free that many people say
                                              it is the only unhampered, unhindered
                                                  expression of complete freedom
                                                    yet produced in this country."

                                                         • Duke Ellington

―What a Wonderful World‖ Louis Armstrong
Historical and Cultural Perspectives

• Definitions

• Origins of the word ―jazz‖

• African-American Roots
• Confluence of African and European Music Traditions
   – Jazz is a musical art form which originated at the beginning of
     the 20th century in African American communities in the
     Southern United States from a mingling of African and European
     music traditions. The style’s West African influence is evident in
     its use of blue notes, improvisation, polyrhythms, syncopation
     and the swung note. (Wikipedia)

   – Jazz is a "form of art music which originated in the United States
     through the confrontation of blacks with European music … jazz
     differs from European music in that jazz has a special
     relationship to time, defined as 'swing', a spontaneity and vitality
     of musical production in which improvisation plays a role; and
     sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of
     the performing jazz musician. Thus, improvisation is clearly one
     of the key elements in jazz.‖ Jazz Critic Joachim Berendt
                Word Origins
• The word jazz began as a West Coast slang
  term of uncertain derivation. The earliest known
  references to jazz are in the sports pages of
  various West Coast newspapers covering the
  Pacific Coast League, a baseball minor league:
  – Ben Henderson, Portland Beavers, 1912. BEN'S
    JAZZ CURVE. "I got a new curve this year," softly
    murmured Henderson yesterday, "and I'm goin' to
    pitch one or two of them tomorrow. I call it the Jazz
    ball because it wobbles and you simply can't do
    anything with it."
• The first musical reference to jazz was in
  Chicago about 1915 as found in the Chicago
  Daily Tribune on July 11, 1915:
  – Blues Is Jazz and Jazz Is Blues . . . The Worm had
    turned--turned to fox trotting. And the "blues" had
    done it. The "jazz" had put pep into the legs that had
    scrambled too long for the 5:15. . . . At the next place
    a young woman was keeping "Der Wacht Am Rhein"
    and "Tipperary Mary" apart when the interrogator
    entered. "What are the blues?" he asked gently.
    "Jazz!" The young woman's voice rose high to drown
    the piano. . . . The blues are never written into music,
    but are interpolated by the piano player or other
    players. They aren't new. They are just reborn into
    popularity. They started in the south half a century
    ago and are the interpolations of darkies originally.
    The trade name for them is "jazz."
• The first known use in New Orleans, discovered
  by lexicographer Benjamin Zimmer in 2009,
  appeared in the New Orleans Times-Picayune
  on Nov. 14, 1916:
  – Theatrical journals have taken cognizance of the "jas
    bands" and at first these organizations of syncopation
    were credited with having originated in Chicago, but
    any one ever having frequented the "tango belt" of
    New Orleans knows that the real home of the "jas
    bands" is right here. However, it remains for the
    artisans of the stage to give formal recognition to the
    "jas bands" of New Orleans.
  African/American Roots
                          •   By 1808 the Atlantic slave trade had brought
                              almost half a million Africans to the United
                              States. The slaves largely came from West
                              Africa and brought strong tribal musical
                              traditions with them.

                          •   Lavish festivals featuring African dances to
                              drums were organized on Sundays at Place
                              Congo, or Congo Square, in New Orleans
                              until 1843.

                          •   African music was largely functional, for work
                              or ritual, and included work songs and field
                              hollers. The African tradition made use of a
                              single-line melody and call-and-response
                              pattern, but without the European concept of
                              harmony. Rhythms reflected African speech
                              patterns, and the African use of pentatonic
                              scales led to blue notes in blues and jazz.
Modern Day Congo Square
• Congo Square Dancers
• In the early 19th century an increasing number
  of black musicians learned to play European
  instruments, particularly the violin, which they
  used to parody European dance music in their
  own cakewalk dances.
• In turn, European-American minstrel show
  performers in blackface popularized such music
  internationally, combining syncopation with
  European harmonic accompaniment.
• Another influence came from black slaves who
  had learned the harmonic style of hymns and
  incorporated it into their own music as spirituals.
Compendium of Jazz Styles
    and Performers
1890s to 1910s

    The abolition of slavery in 1865 led to new opportunities for the
    education of freed African-Americans, though strict segregation
    limited employment opportunities for most blacks. However, blacks
    were able to find work as entertainmers in dances, minstrel shows,
    and in vaudeville. Black pianists also played in bars, clubs, and
    brothels, as ragtime developed.

   Ragtime
   Blues
   New Orleans Dixieland
• Origins and Style
   – Ragtime (alternately spelled Ragged-time) is an originally
     American musical genre which enjoyed its peak popularity
     between 1897 and 1918.
   – Its main characteristic trait is its syncopated, or "ragged", rhythm.
   – It began as dance music in the red-light districts of American
     cities such as St. Louis and New Orleans years before being
     published as popular sheet music for piano.
   – Ragtime fell out of favor as Jazz claimed the public's imagination
     after 1917, but there have been numerous revivals since as the
     music has been re-discovered.

• Proponents: Joseph Lamb, James Scott, Scott Joplin
       Scott Joplin (1868 – 1917)
            Maple Leaf Rag
• Joplin was an African-American and pianist, born near
  Texarkana, Texas into the first post-slavery generation.
• He achieved fame for his unique ragtime compositions,
  and was dubbed the "King of Ragtime."
• During his brief career, he wrote forty-four original
  ragtime pieces, one ragtime ballet, and two operas.
• Joplin died at age 48 and his music was mostly forgotten
  by all but a small, dedicated community of ragtime
  aficionados until the major ragtime revival in the early
• In 1976 Joplin was posthumously awarded the Pulitzer
        Aeolian Player Piano
• Aeolian Company, founded in 1878,
  developed the player piano, a self-playing
  piano, containing a pneumatic or electro-
  mechanical mechanism that plays on the
  piano action pre-programmed music via
  perforated paper rolls.

• Ragtime became a favorite selection for
  the player piano
   Aeolian Player Piano

Player Roll
• Origins and Style
   – Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre created within
     the African-American communities in the Deep South of the United States at the
     end of the 19th century from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and
     chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads.
   – The first appearance of the blues is not well defined and is often dated after the
     Emancipation Act in 1863, between 1870 and 1900.
   – This period corresponds to the transition from slavery to sharecropping, small-
     scale agricultural production and the expansion of railroads in the southern
     United States.
   – Several scholars characterize the early 1900s development of blues music as a
     move from group performances to a more individualized style.
   – The origins of the blues are also closely related to the religious music of the Afro-
     American community, the spirituals.
   – When the blues appeared, before blues gained its formal definition in terms of
     chord progressions, the blues was defined as the secular counter part of the
• Form
  – The blues form is characterized by
    • the use of specific chord progressions — the
      twelve-bar chord progressions being the most
      frequently encountered
    • blue notes sung or played for expressive purposes
      and distinguished by the use of the flattened third,
      fifth and seventh of the associated major scale.
            Chords played over a twelve-bar
                                                       Chords for a blues in C:

                                                           C or
                I     I or IV      I          I7   C                 C       C7

               IV       IV         I          I7   F         F       C       C7

                       V or                                G or             C or
               V                   I     I or V    G                 C
                        IV                                  F               G
• Lyrics
  – The traditional blues verse was probably a
    single line, repeated four times.
  – It was only later that the current, most
    common structure of a line, repeated once
    and then followed by a single line conclusion,
    became standard, the so-called AAB pattern.
• Proponents:
  – Jelly Roll Morton, Robert Johnson, Blind Boy
    Fuller, Gertrude ―Ma‖ Rainey, Bessie Smith
         Bessie Smith
        (1892 – 1937)

                       • ―The Empress of the
                       • Major influence on
                         subsequent jazz
                       • ―Baby Won’t You
                         Please Come Home‖

           New Orleans Dixieland
• Origins and Style
    – Dixieland is an early style of jazz that developed in New Orleans and it
      is the earliest recorded style of jazz music.
    – The style combined earlier brass band marches, French Quadrilles,
      ragtime and blues with collective, polyphonic improvisation.
    – The "standard" band consists of a "front line" of trumpet, trombone, and
      clarinet, with a ―rhythm section" of at least two of the following
      instruments: guitar or banjo, string bass or tuba, piano and drums.
    – The definitive Dixieland sound is created when one instrument (usually
      the trumpet) plays the melody or a recognizable paraphrase or variation
      on it, and the other instruments of the "front line" improvise around that
      melody. This creates a more polyphonic sound.
    – The swing era of the 1930s led to the end of many Dixieland Jazz
      musicians' careers.

• Proponents: King Oliver, Jelly Roll Morton, Original Dixieland Jass
  Band, Louis Armstrong
        Louis Daniel Armstrong
            (1901 – 1971)
• Nicknamed ―Satchmo‖
  or ―Pops‖
• American jazz
  trumpeter and singer
• Foundational influence
  on jazz was to shift
  music’s focus from
  improvisation to solo
All-Star Band

  ―Dream a Little Dream‖

  ―Hello Dolly‖

  ―When the Saints Go Marching In‖
1920s and 1930s

   Swing
   European Jazz
• Origins
  – Prohibition in the United States (from 1920 to 1933)
    banned the sale of alcoholic drinks, resulting in illicit
    speakeasies becoming lively venues of the ―Jazz
  – Jazz started to get a reputation as being immoral and
    many members of the older generations saw it as
    threatening the old values in culture and promoting
    the new decadent values of the Roaring 20s.
  – While New Orleans remained an important jazz
    center, Chicago became the main center during this
• Precursors and Influences of Big Band Swing
  – Bix Beiderbecke formed The Wolverines in 1924.

         (1903-1991)                   The Wolverines
– Also in 1924, Louis Armstrong joined the Fletcher Henderson
  Dance Band and then formed his virtuosic Hot Five Band.


                          Fletcher Henderson
                          Dance Band

                                                    Hot Five Band
– Jelly Roll Morton recorded with the New Orleans Rhythm Kings
  in an early mixed-race collaboration, then in 1926 formed his
  Red Hot Peppers.

    (1890 – 1941)
– There was a larger market for jazzy dance music played by white
  orchestras, such as Paul Whiteman’s orchestra. In 1924
  Whiteman commissioned Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, which
  was premièred by Whiteman's Orchestra.

    (1890 – 1967)                   Paul Whiteman Orchestra

                           George Gershwin (1898 – 1937
                           ―Rhapsody in Blue‖
       – Other influential large ensembles included Duke Ellington’s band
         (which opened an influential residency at the Cotton Club in
         1927) in New York, and Earl Hine’s Band in Chicago. All these
         performers and ensembles significantly influenced Big Band

                      Duke Ellington       Earl Hines
                      (1899 – 1974)        (1903 – 1983)

Duke Ellington Band                    Grand Terrace Café   Earl Hines Band
                      Cotton Club      Chicago
                      New York City
• Style
   – The 1930s belonged to popular swing big bands, in which some
     virtuoso soloists became as famous as the band leaders.
   – Swing was also dance music. It was broadcast on the radio 'live'
     nightly across America for many years especially by Hines and
     his Grand Terrace Cafe Orchestra broadcasting coast-to-coast
     from Chicago. Although it was a collective sound, swing also
     offered individual musicians a chance to 'solo' and improvise
     melodic, thematic solos which could at times be very complex.
   – Over time, social strictures regarding racial segregation began to
     relax in America: white bandleaders began to recruit black
     musicians and black bandleaders white ones.
• Proponents:
  Count Basie, Cab Calloway, Jimmy Dorsey and Tommy Dorsey,
  Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman, Fletcher Henderson, Earl Hines,
  Glenn Miller, Artie Shaw and Louis Armstrong
Tommy Dorsey and Jimmy Dorsey
(1905 – 1956)     (1904 – 1957)

                                                                Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra

    Tommy Dorsey ―Opus One‖
                         Harry James
                        (1916 – 1983)

                                                    Harry James Band

                                 Artie Shaw
                               (1910 – 2004)

                                                      Artie Shaw Orchestra

                               Glenn Miller
                              (1904 – 1944)

                                                               Glen Miller Orchestra

―Sing, Sing, Sing‖

 ―In the Mood‖
  Beginnings of European Jazz
• Outside of the United States the
  beginnings of a distinct European style of
  jazz emerged in France with the Quintette
  du Hot Club de France which began in
• Belgian guitar virtuoso Django Reinhardt (1910 – 1953)
  popularized gypsy jazz, a mix of 1930s American swing,
  French dance hall ―musette" and Eastern European folk
  with a languid, seductive feel. The main instruments are
  steel stringed guitar, violin, and double bass. Solos pass
  from one player to another as the guitar and bass play
  the role of the rhythm section.

                             J’attendrai Swing‖, 1959

                             ―Dark Eyes‖
1940s and 1950s

   Dixieland Revival
   Bebop
   Cool Jazz
   Hard Bop
   Modal Jazz
   Free Jazz
                 Dixieland Revival
• In the late 1930s there was a revival of ―Dixieland" music, harkening
  back to the original contrapuntal New Orleans style. This was driven
  in large part by record company reissues of early jazz classics by
  the Oliver, Morton, and Armstrong bands of the 1930s.
• There were two populations of musicians involved in the revival.
  One group consisted of players who had begun their careers playing
  in the traditional style, and were either returning to it, or continuing
  what they had been playing all along, such as Bob Crosby’s Bobcats,
  Max Kaminsky, Eddie Condon, and Wild Bill Davison. Most of these
  groups were originally Midwesterners, although there were a small
  number of New Orleans musicians involved.
• The second population of revivalists consisted of young musicians
  such as the Lu Watters Band. By the late 1940s, Louis Armstrong’s
  All-Stars Band became a leading ensemble. Through the 1950s and
  1960s, Dixieland was one of the most commercially popular jazz
  styles in the US, Europe, and Japan, although critics paid little
  attention to it.
 Bob Crosby
(1913 – 1993)
      ―Jazz Me Blues‖

    The Bob Cats
                                               Lu Watters
                                             (1911 – 1989)

                                                       Lu Watters’ Band

―Frankie and Johnny‖
•   Origins and Style
     – In the early 1940s bebop performers helped to shift jazz from danceable popular
       music towards a more challenging "musician's music." Differing greatly from
       swing, early bebop divorced itself from dance music, establishing itself more as
       an art form but lessening its potential popular and commercial value.
     – Since bebop was meant to be listened to, not danced to, it used faster tempos.
       Beboppers introduced new forms of chromaticism and dissonance into jazz; the
       dissonant tritone (or "flatted fifth") interval became the "most important interval of
       bebop" and players engaged in a more abstracted form of chord-based
       improvisation which used "passing" chords, substitute chords, and altered
     – The style of drumming shifted as well to a more elusive and explosive style, in
       which the ride cymbal was used to keep time, while the snare and bass drum
       were used for unpredictable, explosive accents.

•   Proponents: Thelonious Monk, trumpeters Dizzy Gillespie and Clifford
    Brown, tenor sax player Leston Young, and drummer Max Roach
              Charlie Parker (1920 – 1955)
              Dizzie Gillespie (1917 – 1993)

• ―Hot House‖
  Charlie Parker
  Dizzie Gillespie

                                                Charlie Parker

  Dizzie Gillespie
Thelonious Monk
 (1917 – 1982)

       • ―Blue Monk‖
                                       Bud Powell
                                     (1924 – 1966)

• ―A Night in
•   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8GECOc5y1EI
 Max Roach
(1924 – 2007)

      • ―Mr. Hi Hat‖
                        Cool Jazz
• Origins and Style
   – By the end of the 1940s, the nervous energy and tension of
     bebop was replaced with a tendency towards calm and
     smoothness, with the sounds of cool jazz, which favored long,
     linear melodic lines. It emerged in New York City, as a result of
     the mixture of the styles of predominantly white jazz musicians
     and black bebop musicians, and it dominated jazz in the first half
     of the 1950s.
• Proponents:
  Chet Baker, Dave Brubeck, Bill Evans, Gil Evans, Stan Getz, the
  Modern Jazz Quartet. An important recording was trumpeter Miles
  Davis’ Birth of Cool (tracks originally recorded in 1949 and 1950 and
  collected as an LP in 1957).
 Miles Davis
(1926 – 1991)
                • “Jeru” from
                  Birth of the

                • ―Cool Jazz‖
                                             Dave Brubeck
                                             (1920 - 2009)

• ―Take Five‖
                        Hard Bop
• Origins and Style
   – Hard bop is an extension of bebop (or "bop") music that
     incorporates influences from rhythm and blues, gospel music,
     and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing.
   – Hard bop was developed in the mid-1950s, partly in response to
     the vogue for cool jazz in the early 1950s.
   – The hard bop style coalesced in 1953 and 1954, paralleling the
     rise of rhythm and blues.
• Proponents
   – Miles Davis' performance of "Walkin'" the title track of his album
     of announced the style to the jazz world.
   – The quintet Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers, fronted by
     Blakey and featuring pianist Horace Silver and trumpeter Clifford
     Brown, were also leaders in the hard bop movement.
 Miles Davis
(1926 – 1991)

                                              Art Blakey
                                            (1919 – 1990)

• ―Bu’s

                                            The Jazz Messengers
                       Modal Jazz
• Origins and Style
   – Modal jazz is a development beginning in the later 1950s which
     takes the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical
     structure and improvisation.
   – Previously, the goal of the soloist was to play a solo that fit into a
     given chord progression. However, with modal jazz, the soloist
     creates a melody using one or a small number of modes. The
     emphasis in this approach shifts from harmony to melody.

• Proponents:
   – Miles Davis recorded the best selling jazz album of all time in the
     modal framework: Kind of Blue
   – Other innovators in this style include John Coltrane (1926 –
     1967) and Herbie Hancock (b. 1940).
Miles Davis: Kind of Blue

               ―All Blues‖
                       Free Jazz
• Origins and Style
   – Free jazz broke through into an open space of "free tonality" in
     which meter, beat, and formal symmetry all disappeared, and a
     range of world music from India, Africa, and Arabia were melded
     into an intense, even religiously ecstatic style of playing.
   – While rooted in bebop, free jazz tunes gave players much more
     latitude; the loose harmony and tempo was deemed
     controversial when this approach was first developed.

• Proponents:
  Ornette Coleman, Cecil Taylor. John Coltrane, Archie Shepp,
  Sun Ra, Albert Ayler and Pharoah Sanders
                                             John Coltrane
                                             (1926 – 1967)

• A Love
Farrell ―Pharoah‖ Saunders
          (B. 1940)

         • ―Thembi‖
                                                Sun Ra
                                             (1914 – 1993)

• Sun Ra and His
1960s and 1970s

   Latin Jazz
   Post Bop
   Soul Jazz
   Fusion
                Latin Jazz
• Origins and Style
  – Latin jazz combines rhythms from African and
    Latin American countries, often played on
    instruments such as conga, timbale, guiro,
    and claves, with jazz and classical harmonies
    played on typical jazz instruments (piano,
    double bass, etc.)
  – There are two main varieties: Afro-Cuban jazz
    and Brazilian jazz
    Afro-Cuban Latin Jazz
– Afro-Cuban jazz was played in the US right
  after the bebop period
– It began as a movement in the mid-1950s as
  bebop musicians such as Dizzy Gillespie and
  Billy Taylor started Afro-Cuban bands
  influenced by such Cuban and Puerto Rican
  musicians as
– Proponents: Xavier Cugat, Tito Puente and
  Arturo Sandoval
                            Xavier Cugat
                           (1900 – 1990)

• ―Tico Taco‖
 Tito Puente
(1923 – 2000)

    • ―Mambo Birdland‖
                 Brazilian Jazz
• Brazilian jazz became more popular in the 1960s
• Brazilian jazz such as bossa nova is derived from samba,
  with influences from jazz and other 20th century classical
  and popular music styles
• Bossa is generally moderately paced, with melodies
  sung in Portuguese or English. This style was pioneered
  by Brazilians Joao Gilberto and Antonio Carlos Jobim.
• The related term jazz-samba describes an adaptation of
  bossa nova compositions to the jazz idiom by American
  performers such as Stan Getz and Charlie Byrd.
                       Joao Gilberto
                         (b. 1931)

• ―Desafinado‖
  Stan Getz
(1927 – 1991)

      • ―Bossa Nova Medley‖
                        Post Bop
• Origins and Style
   – Post-bop is a term for a form of small-combo jazz music that
     evolved in the early-to-mid sixties from earlier bop styles.
   – Generally, the term post-bop is taken to mean jazz from the mid-
     sixties onward that assimilates influence from hard bop, modal
     jazz, avant-garde jazz, and free jazz, without necessarily being
     immediately identifiable as any of the above.
   – By the early seventies, most of the major post-bop artists had
     moved on to jazz fusion of one form or another.

• Proponents:
   – John Coltrane, Miles Davis, Bill Evans, Charles Mingus, Wayne
     Shorter and Herbie Hancock
                                         Wayne Shorter
                                           (b. 1933)

• ―Fee Fi Fo Fum‖
Herbie Hancock
   (b. 1940)

       • ―Dolphin Dance‖
         from Maiden
                       Soul Jazz
• Origins and Style
   – Soul jazz was a development of hard bop which incorporated
     strong influences from blues, gospel and rhythm and blues in
     music for small groups, often the organ trio which featured the
     Hammond organ. Tenor saxophone and guitar were also
     important in soul jazz
   – Soul jazz was developed in the late 1950s and was perhaps
     most popular in the mid-to-late 1960s,
   – Although the term "soul jazz" contains the word "soul," soul jazz
     is only a distant cousin to soul music, with its origins in gospel
     and R&B rather than jazz.
   – Unlike hard bop, soul jazz generally emphasized repetitive
     grooves, melodies, and melodic hooks. The kinds of rhythms
     used tend to vary as well.
• Proponents: Lee Morgan, Herbie Hancock, Horace
                                              Lee Morgan
                                             (1938 – 1972)

• ―The Sidewinder‖
Herbie Hancock
   (b. 1940)

       • Cantaloupe Island
•   Origins and Style
     – Fusion or, more specifically, jazz fusion or jazz rock, was developed in the late
       1960s from a mixture of elements of jazz such as its focus on improvisation with
       the rhythms and grooves of funk and R&B and the beats and heavily amplified
       electric instruments and electronic effects of rock.
     – While the term "jazz rock" is often used as a synonym for "jazz fusion", it also
       refers to the music performed by late 1960s and 1970s-era rock bands when
       they added jazz elements to their music such as free-form improvisation.
     – After a decade of development during the 1970s, fusion split into different
       branches in the 1980s. While some 1980s performers continued the
       improvisatory and experimental approaches of the 1970s, others moved towards
       a lighter, more pop-infused easy-listening style called smooth jazz which often
       included vocals.
     – Fusion music is typically instrumental, often with complex time signatures,
       meters, rhythmic patterns, and extended track lengths, featuring lengthy
     – Many prominent fusion musicians are recognized as having a high level of
       virtuosity, combined with complex compositions and musical improvisation in
       complex or mixed meters.
•   Proponents: Gary Burton, Larry Coryell, Miles Davis
                                              Miles Davis
                                             (1926 – 1991)

• ―Black Comedy‖
  from Miles in the
1980s to 2010

    In the 1980s, the jazz community shrank dramatically and split.
    A mainly older audience retained an interest in traditional and
    straight-ahead jazz styles.

   Pop Fusion
   Hip-Hop
   Straight Ahead
   Experimental
                 Pop Fusion
• Origins, Style and Proponents
  – In the early 1980s, a lighter commercial form of jazz
    fusion called pop fusion or ―smooth jazz" became
  – A smooth jazz track is downtempo, layering a lead,
    melody-playing instrument over a backdrop that
    typically consists of programmed rhythms and various
    pads and/or samples radio airplay.
  – Proponents include Grover Washington, Jr., Kenny
    G, Najee and Michael Lington.
Kenny G. [Kenneth Gorelick]
         (b. 1956)

           • ―Sentimental‖

           • ―Baby G‖
                            Hip Hop
• Origins and Style
   – Hip hop originated in the 1970s in New York City (Bronx)
   – Hip hop's "golden age" is a name given to a period usually from the late
     1980s to early 90s - said to be characterized by its diversity, quality,
     innovation and influence. There were strong themes of Afrocentricity
     and political militancy, while the music was experimental and the
     sampling was eclectic. There was often a strong jazz influence
   – Hip hop music may be based around either live or produced music, with
     a clearly defined drum beat (almost always in 4/4 time signature),
     presented either with or without vocal accompaniment.
   – Hip hop was almost entirely unknown outside of the United States prior
     to the early 1980s. During that decade, it began its spread to every
     inhabited continent and became a part of the music scene in dozens of
• Proponents: Public Enemy, KRS-One, Eric B and Rakim, De La
  Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, Jungle Brothers
                                 Public Enemy
• ―Don’t Believe
  the Hype‖ from
  It Takes a
  Nation of
  Millions to Hold
  Us Back
[Lawrence Krishna Parker]
        (b. 1965)

         • ―MC’s Act Like They
           Don’t Know‖
               Straight Ahead
• In the 2000s, straight ahead jazz continues to appeal to
  a core group of listeners.
• Well-established jazz musicians, such as Dave Brubeck,
  Wynton Marsalis, Wayne Shorter and Jessican Williams
  continue to perform and record.
• In the 1990s and 2000s, a number of young musicians
  emerged, including US pianists Brad Mehldau, Jason
  Moran, and Vijay Iyer, guitarist Kurt Rosenwinkel,
  vibrophonist Stefon Harris, trumpeters Roy Hargrove and
  Terence Blanchard, and saxophonists Chris Potter and
  Joshua Redman.
                                    Joshua Redman
                                       (b. 1969)

• Live in Lausanne
• The more experimental end of the
  spectrum has included US trumpeters
  Dave Douglas and Rob Mazurek,
  saxophonist Ken Vandemark, Norwegian
  pianist Bugge Wesseltoft, the Swedish
  group E.S.T, and US bassist Christian
Christian McBride
    (b. 1972)

     • ―Bye-Bye Blackbird‖
        Dance or Pop Music
• Toward the more dance or pop music end
  of the spectrum are St. Germain [Ludovic
  Navarre] , who incorporates some live jazz
  playing with house beats, and
• Jamie Cullum, who plays a particular mix
  of jazz standards with his own more pop-
  oriented compositions.
                                          St. Germain
                                       [Ludovic Navarre]

• ―Pseudodementia‖
  from Boulevard
•   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p7NTuwX6v6c&feature=PlayList&p=5585FE6930591A
                                            Jamie Cullum
                                              (b. 1979)

• ―What a
  Difference a Day
•   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1r6GcPqFSo
• In 1987, the US House of Representatives and
  Senate passed a bill proposed by Democratic
  Representative John Conyers, Jr. to define jazz
  as a unique form of American music stating,
  among other things, "...that jazz is hereby
  designated as a rare and valuable national
  American treasure to which we should devote
  our attention, support and resources to make
  certain it is preserved, understood and
Prelude: The Advent of Rock

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