unit3.les19.Fertility and Naughty Sounding F.doc OH

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					                  Fertility and Naughty Sounding F’s (Fecundity)


Fertility: refers to actual reproduction (fertility rates, the actual number of children
had by women, can be affected by physical, social, and environmental factors)

Fertility Rates: the actual number of children had by women, can be affected by
physical, social, and environmental factors

Fecundity: denotes the ability to reproduce


Trends in Developed and Developing Nations

    Fertility rates in general are on the decline. Developed Nations account for
     the sharpest decline in fertility rates
    The Canadian fertility rate is 1.5 (the number to stop our population from
     declining is 2.1 this is how many children women would need to have on
     average to meet the replacement level – the number of births required to
     maintain a stable population).

Trends Related to Declining Fertility Rates

   1. Age: Women are opting to have children at a later age. As women get older
      the risk of carrying a healthy baby to term decreases. I.e. after the age of
      35 there is an increased risk of chilled birth defects, like Downs Syndrome
      (many women will choose not to carry an unhealthy baby to term)
   2. Career: Many women are choosing to start their careers before having
      children.
   3. Divorce: Many couples are marrying late. Marrying late and not
      experiencing a positive relationship could prompt some couples to
      postpone further starting a family because they do not want a child to have
      a broken home.
   4. Cost: Raising a child is expensive. It is estimated that to raise a child with
      the “basic necessities” until he/she is 18 will cost $164,000.
   5. Infertility: Not all couples are able to have children. Couples are considered
      to have fertility problems if they have been trying unsuccessfully for a year
      to conceive. Stress, diet, sexually transmitted infections, and environmental
      factors reduce reproduction ability.

				
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