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REVISION PACK Powered By Docstoc
 5 Year

1. The Course in Outline

2. List of all Paper I questions

3. List of all paper II question [d]s

4. How to answer: advice on what the examiner is looking for

           a. Mark schemes
           b. Advice on how to answer a question
           c. Model answers
           d. Past student responses and marking exercises

5. Learning to learn

           a. Learning styles
           b. Advice on revision techniques

6. Resources- websites, library books

                                 1. The Course in Outline

Edexcel History A. Modern and World History. (1334)

There are two papers sat in the summer exam:

Paper One: Outline Studies

A5- A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80

Through the content specified below, candidates should develop an overview of the following:

    The growth and influence of the US economy
    Social and cultural divisions
    Political attitudes and divisions in the USA.

   Specified content:

      The impact of the Second World War on the US economy and society.
      McCarthyism and the ‘red scare’.
      The Civil Rights movements and their impact on US society.
      ‘New Frontier’, ‘Great Society’: the role of Kennedy and Johnson.
      Protest movements in the 1960s and early 1970s.
      The Watergate Scandal and its impact.

A6- Superpower Relations, 1945 – 1990

Through the content specified below, candidates should develop an overview of the following:

    The impact of the breakdown of the wartime alliance
    The struggle for worldwide supremacy
    Détente and the new world order.

   Specified content:

      Origins of the Cold War and the partition of Germany.
      The Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan and the Soviet response.
      NATO and the Warsaw Pact; the arms race.
      The nature of the Cold War; Hungary; Cuba.
      Détente: Cuba to Afghanistan, the role of Reagan and Gorbachev.

 The Paper:

 Two questions are set on each of A5 and A6. Students choose one question relating to
 A5 and one question relating to A6. Each question is comprised of two sections, a) and
 b). Section a) is comprised of four short sub–questions based around a piece of stimulus
 material; Section b) is composed of two longer sub–questions.

 Paper 1 is worth 40% of the total GCSE. It is two hours duration.

Paper Two: Depth Studies

B4- Nazi Germany, 1930c. – 1939

The study will focus on: why the Nazi Party was able to gain power in 1933; the development of the
Nazi state, the impact of Nazi rule on the people of Germany.

     Hitler, Nazism and Nazi beliefs.
     The Nazi rise to power: the role of Hitler.
     Creation of the totalitarian state: the elimination of the opposition.
     The Nazi state: propaganda, education, youth movements, the arts, sport, entertainment and
     Racism, citizenship and the treatment of minorities, persecution of the Jews; opposition to Nazi
     The social impact of Nazism on social classes; the role and status of women.

B5- The World at War, 1938-1945

    The study will focus on: the reasons for the outbreak of war; Blitzkrieg in the West; the reasons
    why the Allies won the war.

       Appeasement, 1938-9: the role of Neville Chamberlain; the outbreak of the Second World War.
       Reasons for early German success.
       The fall of France; the survival of Britain; Barbarossa and the Eastern front.
       The causes of the war in the Pacific.
       Reasons for the defeat of Germany.
       Reasons for the defeat of Japan.

The Paper

One question is set on B4 and one on B5. Students attempt both. Each of these questions
consists of four sub–questions on one or more pieces of evidence.

In brief, students should be taught to handle the following types of question:

   Comprehension: What can be learned from a source? Students will be expected to make
   Comparison: In what ways does one source support another? In such questions students
    may go beyond the identification of similarities of content or ideas, and refer to the tone and
    NOP of the sources;
   Utility: In what ways is a source of use to an historian pursuing a particular question?
    Students need to discuss both NOP and content.
   Interpretations: Students will be presented with a statement to investigate. They should
    combine own knowledge and the sources in their response.

Paper 2 is worth 35% of the total GCSE. It is 1 hr 45 mins duration.

                           2. List of all Paper I questions

                    A5- A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80

The Impact of the Second World War

Give ONE reason to explain why the Second World War was important to the development of the
civil rights movement in the USA.                                                        [3]

Why were Japanese-Americans placed in relocation camps after 1941?                            [3]

What was meant by „enemy aliens‟?                                                             [3]

Why was the Second World War important in the development of the civil rights movement in the
USA?                                                                                       [5]

In what ways did the Second World War affect the status and employment of black Americans in the
years to 1945?                                                                                [5]

Why were there race riots in some US cities during the Second World War?                      [5]

What was the impact of the Second World War on the employment and status of women in the USA
in the years to 1945?                                                                     [5]

Anti-Communism and the Red Scare

What was meant by the term „witch hunt‟?                                                      [3]

What is meant by the term „Hollywood Ten‟?                                                    [3]

Why were the cases of Alger Hiss and the Rosenbergs important in the growing fear of communism
within the USA?                                                                             [5]

In what ways did the trial and execution of the Rosenbergs contribute to a growing fear of
communism in the USA after the Second World War?                                        [5]

In what ways did Senator Joseph McCarthy try to win the support of US citizens during the early
1950s?                                                                                      [5]

Why had Senator Joseph McCarthy lost the support of most US citizens by the end of 1954?      [5]

Why was Senator Joseph McCarthy important in US politics in the period 1950-1954?             [5]

What were the consequences of McCarthyism for the people and government of the USA in the
1950s?                                                                               [10]

Why did the fear of Communism in the USA grow so quickly in the years 1945-54?               [15]

Why was the fear of Communism so strong in the USA in the years 1945-54?                     [15]

African-American Civil Rights in the 1950s

What was meant by segregation?                                                                  [3]

Describe the key features of the Brown v Topeka case [1954].                                     [5]

Why was the Brown v Topeka case important in the development of civil rights for black Americans?

Why was the Montgomery Bus Boycott important in the growth of the civil rights movement?         [5]

Describe the key features of the civil rights protest at Little Rock High School [1957].         [5]

In what ways were events at Little Rock High School [1957] important for the development of the
Civil Rights Movement?                                                                       [7]

In what ways did black US citizens secure improved civil rights in the years 1945 to 1960?      [15]

Why were black US citizens able to secure improved civil rights in the years 1945 to 1960?      [15]

African-American Civil Rights in the 1960s

Explain what is meant by „freedom riders‟.                                                       [3]

In what ways were the „Freedom Riders‟ important in the struggle for civil rights?               [5]

In what ways did Kennedy try to improve civil rights for black citizens in the United States?    [5]

Explain why the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was important in the struggle for civil rights.        [5]

Explain why the Civil Rights Act [1964] and the Voting Rights Act [1965] were important in the USA
in the 1960s.                                                                                   [5]

In what ways did civil rights improve for black US citizens in the years 1961-68?                [7]

Describe the key features of the improvements in civil rights in the years 1963-1968.            [7]

Describe the methods Martin Luther King and his supporters used to try to improve the position of
black Americans in the 1950s and 1960s.                                                      [10]

In what ways did black US citizens achieve improvements in civil rights in the years 1955-68?   [15]

The Emergence of Black Power

Give ONE reason why many black Americans came to oppose the methods of Martin Luther King.[3]

Describe the key features of the Black Power Movement.                                           [5]

Describe the methods used by the Black Panthers in the 1960s.                                    [5]

Why did the US involvement in the Vietnam War help the development of the Black Power
movement?                                                                          [5]

Explain why some people in the Civil Rights movement adopted violent methods in the 1960s.         [5]

Why did the Black Power movement develop in the USA in the1960s.                                   [5]

What were the main aims of the Black Power movement?                                               [7]

Why was there increased racial tension in the USA in the years 1964-70?                           [10]

Why did the methods of those involved in the struggle for civil rights change during the 1960s?   [10]

In what ways did the methods used by civil rights campaigners in the USA change during the 1950s
and 1960s?                                                                                   [15]

Kennedy and the New Frontier

What was meant by the term „New Frontier‟?                                                         [3]

Describe the key features of the „New Frontier‟ policy.                                            [5]

In what ways did Kennedy try to improve civil rights for black citizens in the United States?      [5]

Why did President Kennedy face problems in his attempts to carry out his „New Frontier‟ policy?    [5]

Johnson and the Great Society

Why did Johnson wish to create a „Great Society‟ in the USA after 1963?                            [5]

Why was the Medical Care Act passed in 1965?                                                       [5]

What problems did President Johnson face in his attempts to build a „Great Society‟ in the years
1963-1968?                                                                                   [5]

Why was President Johnson unable to build his „Great Society‟ in the years 1963-1968?              [5]

In what ways did President Johnson improve civil rights in the years 1963-68?                      [7]

Describe the key features of Johnson‟s „Great Society‟ in the USA in the years 1963-68.           [15]

Women’s Rights

What was the impact of the Second World War on the employment and status of women in the USA
in the years to 1945?                                                                     [5]

Describe the key features of the women‟s movement in the USA during the 1960s and 1970s.           [7]

In what ways did the women‟s movement develop in the USA during the 1960s and early 1970s? [7]

Why did the women‟s movement develop in the USA in the 1960s and 1970s?                            [7]

What were the main achievements of the women‟s movement in the 1960s?                              [7]

The Student Movement

Describe the key features of the student movement in the USA in the 1960s and 1970s.               [5]

Why did the student movement and the women‟s movement become important in the USA in the
1960s and early 1970s?                                                              [10]

Why were student protests important in the USA in the 1960s and early 1970s?                      [10]

Why did a „student movement‟ develop in the USA in the 1960s and 1970s?                           [10]

Why did protest movements develop in the USA in the 1960s and early 1970s?                        [10]

NB. Answers to questions on Civil Rights, Black Power, feminist and student protest may involve an
element of four i.e. it is possible to have a black feminist student who protested at the use of black
soldiers in the Vietnam War!


Describe the main features of the Watergate Scandal in the USA                                    [10]

In what ways was President Nixon involved in the Watergate Scandal?                               [10]

Why did President Nixon resign in 1974?                                                           [10]

What were the effects of the Watergate scandal on the USA in the 1970s?                           [10]

                     A6- Superpower Relations, 1945 – 1990

1945: Origins of the Cold War and the breakdown of the wartime alliance

What was meant by Cold War?                                                                       [3]

What was meant by „Superpower‟?                                                                   [3]

Why was Germany divided into four zones in 1945?                                                  [5]

What was the purpose of the Yalta conference?                                                     [5]

What were the key features of the Potsdam Conference?                                             [5]

What decisions were taken by the Allies about Germany at the Potsdam Conference?                  [5]

How did the Potsdam Conference contribute to the development of the Cold War?                     [5]

1946-48: Containment- the Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan

What was meant by the „Iron Curtain‟?                                                             [3]

Give one reason why Europe was divided by an Iron Curtain in the years after the Second World
War What was meant by „containment‟?                                                      [3]

Give one reason to explain why the Soviet Union did not allow free elections to take place in Eastern
Europe after 1945.                                                                                [3]

Describe the key features of the Truman Doctrine.                                                 [5]

Describe the ways in which Truman changed US policy towards the USSR when he became
President of the USA in 1945.                                                    [5]

Describe the key features of the Marshall Plan.                                                   [7]

Why was the Marshall Plan drawn up in 1947?                                                       [5]

Explain the effects of the Marshall Plan on relations between the Superpowers.                    [7]

Explain how the Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe contributed to the development of the Cold
War.                                                                                       [7]

Explain how the Soviet Union was able to gain control of Eastern Europe after the Second World
War.                                                                                      [10]

1948-50: The Soviet response- the Berlin Blockade and its consequences

Why was there a blockade of Berlin from 1948 to 1949?                                           [5]

Describe the key features of the Berlin Blockade [1948-9].                                      [7]

Why did the Berlin blockade fail?                                                               [7]

Why was NATO set up in 1949?                                                                    [5]

In what ways did the blockade change relations between the superpowers in the years to 1955?    [7]

Describe the ways in which relations between the USSR and the USA changed in the years 1945-
49.                                                                                      [7]

In what ways did relations between the USA and the USSR change in the years 1948-55?           [10]

1949- 61: Superpower Rivalry- Berlin, Hungary, the Arms Race

What was meant by „satellite state?                                                             [3]

Why was there an uprising in Hungary in 1956?                                                   [5]

Describe the key features of the Hungarian Uprising.                                            [7]

How did the Hungarian crisis affect Superpowers relations?                                      [7]

Explain why the Berlin Wall was built.                                                          [5]

How did the U2 incident of May 1960 change relations between the Superpowers?                   [5]

How did the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 affect relations between the Superpowers?       [5]

In what ways did the arms race change relations between the USSR and the USA during the 1950s?

Why did relations between the USA and the USSR change in the years 1949-62?

1962-79: The Cuban Missile Crisis- origin and consequences, Détente.

Why was the US government concerned about events in Cuba from 1959 to 1962                      [5]

Why was a telephone hot-line between the White House and the Kremlin set up in 1963?            [5]

Why did the Soviet Union agree to remove its missiles from Cuba in 1962?                        [7]

Why did the USSR and USA clash over Cuba in 1962?                                              [10]

In what ways did the Cuban Missile Crisis change relations between the Superpowers?            [10]

What was meant by Détente?                                                                      [3]

Why were the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) begun in 1972?                              [5]

Explain how the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks improved relations between the Superpowers      [5]

Describe the key features of the agreements made after the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks in 1972.

Describe the key features of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) of the 1970s.           [7]

What were the key features of Détente in the 1970s?                                             [7]

Why did relations between the USA and the USSR change in the years 1961-72?                    [15]

1979-90: Superpower relations- Reagan and Gorbachev and the end of the Cold War

Why did relations between the USA and the USSR change in the years 1979-1990?                  [10]

Explain how the invasion of Afghanistan damaged US-Soviet relations.                            [7]

Why did the USA begin to develop the Strategic Defence Initiative (Star Wars)?                  [7]

Why did President Gorbachev adopt a policy of détente when he became leader of the USSR?        [7]

In what ways did Reagan and Gorbachev attempt to end the Cold War?                              [7]

In what ways were Reagan and Gorbachev able to improve relations between the USA and USSR
after 1985?                                                                           [10]

                       3. List of all Paper II question [d]s

 All questions are preceded by the phrase…

 Study all the sources and use your own knowledge.

 …and succeeded by the phrase:

 Use the sources and your own knowledge, to explain whether you agree with this view.

B4- Nazi Germany, 1930c. – 1939

‘The main way of controlling the young in Nazi Germany in the years 1933-39 was the Hitler
Youth movement.’

‘Propaganda was the main reason why the Nazis were able to control most German people
in the years 1933-39.’

‘Conditions for German workers improved during the years 1933 to 1939.’

‘The main reasons for increased Nazi support in the period 1930-1932 was the personal
appeal of Hitler.’

‘The Communist Party was the main obstacle to Hitler’s creation of a Nazi dictatorship in the
years 1933-1934.’

‘German citizens fully supported the actions taken against the Jews in the years 1933-39.’

‘The Depression was the main reason why Hitler became leader of Germany.’

‘Hitler kept control of Germany because he controlled the minds of young people.’

‘The Nazi regime turned women into second-class citizens.’

B5- The World at War, 1938-1945

‘The main reason for the defeat of Germany in Europe was Germany’s failures against the
Soviet Union on the Eastern Front.’

‘The Dunkirk evacuation was the main reason for British survival against Germany in the
years 1940-41.’

‘The main reason for the defeat of Germany in 1945 was the success of the D-Day landings
in 1944.’

‘The main reason for the outbreak of war between the USA and Japan was the attack on
Pearl Harbour.’

‘Blitzkrieg was the main reason for early German success in the years 1939 and 1940.’

‘Operation Barbarossa failed because it was badly planned.’

‘The main reason why Britain went to war against Germany in 1939 was because Germany
had broken the Munich Agreement.’

‘The main reason why Germany was defeated in the Second World War was because of the
superior industrial power of the allies.’

‘Japan was defeated because it could not compete with the military and industrial
production of the USA and Britain.

    4. How to answer: advice on what the examiner is looking for

a. Mark schemes

Paper 1

Edexcel mark schemes follow a generic pattern as follows:

Level 1: Simple statements

[This means that there is little or no development- basic narrative or a loose
collection of facts]

Level 2: Developed statements

[This means that material is again largely descriptive but each point might be
developed with some additional information by way of explanation]

Level 3: Developed explanation

[This means that the answer explains or analyses why an event happened or
discusses the extent of change etc. Good answers will begin with an argument
and use appropriate examples to illustrate the point.]

Level 4: Sustained explanation

[This means that the answer is analytical throughout and will link factors
together and have a conclusion which establishes a rank of importance or
significance etc.]

Paper II

Edexcel mark schemes follow a generic pattern:

Answers again follow the standard pattern as for Paper I

i.e. Simple statements- Developed statements- Developed explanation-
Sustained explanation

However specific questions require certain key requirements:

Question a]     Requires inferences from the source

Question b]     Requires an assessment of degree of support between 3

Question c]     Requires assessment of content and NOP

Question d]     Requires use of source and own knowledge

b. Advice on how to answer a question

                           PAPER 1: STRUCTURE AND TECHNIQUE
           2 Hours/2 questions = 60 minutes per question

           One question [from two] on USA, 1941-1980 and one question [from two] on
            Superpower Relations, 1945-1990.

     Each question is subdivided as follows:

Question             Phrasing           Type                  Structure/Advice                 Mark

                 Explain what is    Key features    Very brief, ensure you make two or
                 meant by…                          three developed points rather than
                                                    simple statements.

                 Give one reason    Causation       Focus on either why something
            i]                                                                                  3       4
                 for…                               happened or define the meaning of a

                                                    Stick to the topic- don‟t waste time on

                 Describe the key                   Key features: Outline causes, events
           ii]   features of…                       and consequences of the issue asked         5      6.6
                                                    Try to link factors together. Split each
                                                    factor into paragraphs. May conclude
a]                                                  by emphasising most important
                                    Key features    feature.
                                                                                                5      6.6
                 In what ways…                      In what ways: May need to assess
                                                    importance of an event [i.e. its
                                                    consequences], or…
                                                    development of a movement or…
                                                    how something developed or was
                                                    achieved or…
                                                    simply recall information about an

                 Why…                Causation      Why: Need to assess reasons for
         iv]                                        something. List usually 3-4 reasons.        7      9.3
                                                    Top level answers will develop
                                                    and explain, linking and ranking
                                                    factors supported by relevant

Question          Phrasing           Type                  Structure/Advice                 Mark

              Why…               Causation       Straightforward causation question-
                                                 list reasons, link and conclude with a
                                                 priority. Don‟t describe!

              In what ways…      Change over     Asks for consideration of change over
                                 time            time- identify and list changes [and
                                                 possibly continuity] by linking events
                                                 to specific dates- be careful to stick
                                                 within the time frame given. Prioritise
                                                 most important change. Don‟t
       (i)                                                                                   10    13.3
              What were the      Key features    Identify key features by looking at
              key features…                      causes, events and consequences of
                                                 an event or issue.

              Choose 2 of the    Importance      Identify why an event, movement,
b)            following…                         individual etc. was important or
                                                 contributed to change. List your
                                                 reasons, link and prioritise. [Usually 5
                                                 marks per issue]. Don‟t describe!

                                                 Argument which develops using the
                                                 stimulus material: explain how factors
              Similar phrasing   Causation
                                                 answer the question, link and rank
                as for b) (i)
                                 Change over
                                                 N.B. Try to think of
                 Scaffolding     time
       (ii)                                      themes/factors/reasons to your              15     20
                question (four
                                                 answer and then use stimulus
               issues given to   Key features
                                                 material as examples. You will
                                                 therefore want to consider other
                                                 issues etc. not given in the stimulus
                                                 material. Don‟t describe!

     !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!REMEMBER THIS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

     Write clearly and use historical terms like ‘factor’, ‘consequence’, ‘reason’, ‘cause’,
      ‘effect’, ‘change’.

     List your reasons, factors etc. Use a paragraph per reason. Each paragraph should start
      with a reason and then be backed up with evidence- this way descriptive/narrative work
      will be avoided.

     Conclude by arguing which factor, event, change, consequence etc. is most important

                        PAPER 2: STRUCTURE AND TECHNIQUE
You will have to answer one question on B4 (Nazi Germany) and one on B5 (World at War
1938-1945). The exam lasts 1h45, so 52.5 minutes for each section.

The questions are always structured in a similar way – the more familiar you are with this
structure and what the examiner expects from you, the more successful you will be in your

                                                        Source(s)          Own
Qu.     Phrasing                 Advice                                                   NOP?       Time
                                                         studied        knowledge?

        What can
                        INFERENCE – at least 2/3
        you learn
(a)                    Use the word „infer‟, back up         A               NO            NO         7
      from Source
                      inference with quotation from
      A about …?

                        Comparison of sources –
      Does Source         content, style and tone:
        C support           1st Para: C with A
      the evidence          2nd Para: C with B
(b)                                                       A,B,C          Not really        NO        10.5
      of Sources A         3rd Para: Conclusion
      and B about     Look for degree of agreement.
           …?          Use words such as „largely‟,
                         „completely‟, „partly‟ etc.

                                   1st P: D
                                   2nd P: E
       How useful            3 P: Conclusion/
      are Sources                comparison                              Possibly to
(c)                                                        D,E                             YES       14
       D and E as        MUST assess NOP and                            assess utility
      evidence …?                 Content
                      What does it say, who says it,
                          when, where and why?
                         Avoid stock evaluations.
                             Extended answer
      “...” Use the    Must use at least 4 sources
      sources and     [make direct references] and
        your own              must include F
       knowledge         1st P: Address the given      All especially
(d)                                                                         YES            but       21
        to explain      factor in the question and           F
      whether you            agree or disagree
       agree with     2nd P: Consider other factors
         this view        and agree or disagree
                        3rd P: CCL with judgment

Use these templates to ensure that your answer covers the requirements of the mark


Question A

First in Source A we can infer that…STATEMENT……..because it says……DETAIL FROM

Second we can also infer that…..STATEMENT…..because it says in Source A that….DETAIL FROM

Question B [NB: this is only a template- be flexible because the sources will always be
different each time]

On the one hand Sources C largely agrees with Source A because…
However C also differs in some respects from A because…

On the one hand Sources C completely disagrees with Source B because…

On balance the Sources agree/disagree……… [Or Source B agrees with C more than A etc.]

Question C [NB: this is only a template- be flexible because the sources will always be
different each time]

Source D is useful because it tells us that………..DETAIL FROM SOURCE AND NOP
However Source D has limitations because……..DETAIL FROM SOURCE AND NOP

Source E is useful because it tells us that………..DETAIL FROM SOURCE AND NOP
However Source E has limitations because……..DETAIL FROM SOURCE AND NOP

In conclusion the sources are useful… [or, D is more useful than E, or Taken together they give the
same message and are therefore useful etc…]

Question D [N.B This is a only a template- the sources differ each time- you may largely
agree or disagree with the given factor]

On the one hand I agree with the ….GIVEN FACTOR
This is because…OWN KNOWLEDGE…and this is supported by sources…U/V/W

On the other hand I disagree because there are other factors to consider.

In  conclusion the evidence  suggests                  that…AGREE/DISAGREE            WITH      THE

c. Model answers

                                   USA, Divided Union
Give ONE reason to explain why President Johnson introduced the Civil
Rights Act in 1964. (3)

President Johnson used the legacy of JFK to introduce the CR Act in 1964. Johnson
appealed to Congress members to pass the Civil Rights Act as a fitting tribute to Kennedy,
hoping that they would vote sympathetically following Kennedy‟s assassination, particularly
as Kennedy had introduced a Civil Rights Bill in 1963.

Describe the key features of the methods used by MLK to secure
improved civil rights in the USA in the 1960s (5)

Ultimately MLK was dedicated to the method of civil disobedience Factor: Non-violence
and non-violence in order to secure improved civil rights. King
believed that through non-violent protest African Americans would
attract widespread support, especially in the face of white aggression
and media exposure.

First King tried to challenge segregation economically. He Factor: Economic
supported sit-ins at lunch counters to highlight problems of segregation methods
and target the economic security of white-owned businesses. This
policy had been employed in the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

Second, King’s emphasis on peaceful protest which developed to
                                                                         Factor: Publicity to gain
challenge white racism and southern violence ensured media
                                                                         white support
coverage of civil rights protests and emphasised the illegal behaviour
of southern whites in contrast to the peaceful demeanour of black
protestors. An example of this was the Birmingham Alabama campaign Link: non-violence
in 1963 which highlighted the racist attitudes of police chief „Bull‟
Conner. The actions of the police in using dogs and hoses was
captured by television and the images beamed across the US and the

Finally, King also organised protest marches (e.g. March on Factor: other means of
Washington) and gave inspirational speeches, generating increased raising awareness
support and, most importantly, further pressure on Federal government
to act.

 In what ways did the methods of the civil rights campaigners change in
                       the years 1961-1968? (7)

In the early 1960s, the civil rights movement was characterised by Factor: Non-violent
non-violent protest. MLK and other civil rights leaders organised sit- protest in early 60s and
ins, freedom rides, boycotts, and marches to attract sympathy for the use of media
cause of black rights. When such protests were met by white violence,
such as at Birmingham in 1963, the civil rights campaigners exploited
media coverage of the events to generate further support and increase
pressure on federal government to act.

However, despite gains such as the Civil Rights Act and the Factor: Slow pace of
Voting Rights Act, some African Americans were disenchanted change and frustrations
with the slow rate of progress in civil rights and initiated a change in with non-violence and
approach. Many African Americans lived in extreme poverty, and they peaceful protest
believed that the current campaign was doing little to alleviate this. In
the North, the successes of the south had little relevance as de facto
segregation continued. The „Black Power‟ campaigners, who promoted
violence as a way of securing civil rights, exploited such unrest.

Unlike King and the SCLC, groups like the SNCC under Stokely Factor: Policies of the
Carmichael, and the Black Panthers, emphasised that African Black Power movement
Americans should actively pursue rights forcefully, to pressure the
Federal government to act. Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam
promoted the idea of Black supremacy and the exclusion of white
supporters from the campaign, which was in stark contrast to MLK‟s
philosophy in the early 1960s.

The focus of Black Power shifted the debate from one of legal               Conclusion: Core

rights to tackling the problems of poverty, day to day racism and differences summarised
white complacency.

Why did President Nixon resign in 1974? (10)

President Nixon resigned in August 1974 in order to avoid             Factor: Impeachment
impeachment proceedings. The United States Congress were
threatening to impeach him on the charge of bringing the office
                                                                      Supported by evidence
of the President into serious disrepute, something that his
involvement in covering up the Watergate scandal would
probably guarantee his being found guilty.
                                                                      Factor: Involvement of the
Evidence had been found showing he had been involved in
                                                                      White House in the cover-
trying to cover up the incident, despite apparently not being         up
involved in the initial break-in to the Democrat offices in the
                                                                      Link: White House and
Watergate building, The Senate investigating committee had            Nixon
revealed the involvement of White House officials in the bribing
of the burglars to ensure their silence.

The involvement of the White House officials seemed to                Factor: Tapes and Nixon
indict Nixon and this was confirmed when he was forced to
hand over taped White house conversations to the Senate
committee in December 1973. The evidence from the tapes
themselves linked Nixon strongly to the cover-up, but more
                                                                      Link: Congress convinced
importantly a section of tape was missing, clearly indicating that
                                                                      of guilt –
Nixon was attempting to conceal evidence. The missing tapes
revealed Nixon‟s illegal use of funds, his dirty-tricks campaign
against opponents and his role in the cover-up. This evidence
was enough to convince Congress that he was guilty.

In addition to convincing Congress, the tapes also turned             Factor: Public opinion
                                                                      also turned
US public opinion against Nixon, as his bad language, racist
and sexist comments, lies and anti-Semitism alienated liberal
America. The final proof from the missing tape also directly          Supported by evidence

contradicted his public televised denial of involvement in the
cover-up. The public thus realised that Nixon had lied to them.

The political danger from impeachment proceedings in                  Conclusion: Linking

conjunction with a total loss of support from the electorate          factors together

forced Nixon into resigning, in order to avoid a trial and possible

Why were black US citizens able to secure improved civil rights in the
years 1941-1960? (15)

First the Second World War had a significant impact in Factor: WW2
securing improved civil rights for black US citizens. The
Double V Campaign highlighted the cause of black civil rights by
emphasising the injustice in fighting oppression abroad whilst Supported by evidence
black Americans were persecuted at home. The war created a
labour shortage, which was filled by African Americans, thus
providing a valuable contribution to the war effort and increased
integration    into    society.   African   Americans   also   proved
                                                                        Developed explanation -
themselves through armed service, leading to desegregated importance
combat units in 1948. By 1945 black expectations of change had
increased. However, some gains were short lived, as many black
Americans lost their wartime jobs after demobilisation, therefore
the actions of federal government were perhaps more important
in explaining improved civil rights in this period.
                                                                        Factor – Supreme
Second in the 1950s the Supreme Court was instrumental
in furthering black civil rights, focussing primarily on                Court
desegregation. In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled in the Brown
v Board of Education case that the concept of „separate but
equal‟ was unconstitutional and that desegregation in education         Supported by
should take place „with all deliberate speed‟. This also opened         evidence
up all forms of segregation to legal challenge. However despite
                                                                        Link: Further federal
setting a precedent for increased black access to education, the
vague nature of and the white reaction to the decision limited its      action

effectiveness. Further federal action was needed to force the

Third presidential action helped. Eisenhower was the first
                                                                        Factor – Presidents
President to intervene and force the issue of desegregation. In         e.g. Eisenhower
1957 Eisenhower used federal troops to protect the educational
rights of 9 black students to attend Little Rock High School,
                                                                        Supported by evidence
Arkansas. In the face of extreme white opposition, the President
had overruled the state government to secure improvements in
rights   for   black    Americans.    However,    Eisenhower    was

pressured into action by international media coverage of white
violence   against   black   Americans.   Such     coverage   was
damaging the USA‟s reputation as a „free‟ country and
                                                                    Link – role of media
increasing support for the civil rights movement, forcing the
President to act. Therefore the media was of critical importance
in securing improved rights for black Americans.

                                                                    Factor – MLK and the
Fourth the actions of black US citizens were also
                                                                    civil rights movement
important in gaining civil rights in this period. Martin Luther
King was at the forefront of the campaign for black civil rights,   Supported by evidence
organising protests, boycotts, and marches to attract support
and pressure federal government into action. For example, the
                                                                    Link – MLK & federal
Montgomery Bus Boycott led to the desegregation of buses in         action
Montgomery. Such actions could not be ignored and were
fundamental to the extension of rights in the late 1950s.
                                                                    Conclusion assessing
Overall, black US citizens secured a number of improvements         importance and linking
in civil rights in the years 1941-1960, particularly in terms of
desegregation. The most important reason for this was the role
of MLK, whose constant campaigning pressured federal
government to intervene and force the issue of desegregation.

                              Superpower Relations, 1945-1990

Give ONE reason to explain why the Helsinki agreement was signed in
1975. (3)

The Helsinki Agreement was signed in 1975 as part of the policy Factor
of détente. The USA, USSR, and 33 other nations agreed to
forge greater economic, cultural, and scientific links to promote Developed explanation
international cooperation

Why did the discovery of missile sites in Cuba lead to a crisis between
the USA and the USSR in October 1962? (5)

First, missile sites in Cuba represented a significant threat to the USA,      Factor/Theme: Threat of

as most US cities fell within the target range of the missiles. In one swift   missiles

deployment Khrushchev had helped balance the arms race, established            Explanation – why was it a
MAD, and dealt a blow to US prestige by threatening the US in her „own

backyard‟ of Latin America.

Second this initial threat was exaggerated by neither side’s
                                                                               Factor/Theme: Initial
willingness to back down. Khrushchev, under pressure from Kremlin              Responses

„hard-liners‟ to act tough refused to withdraw the missiles and Kennedy‟       Supported by evidence
subsequent naval blockade and threat of air-strikes and invasion of Cuba

risked open conflict with the USSR, thus increasing the sense of crisis.

Both leaders pursued a policy of brinkmanship which could have resulted in

nuclear war.                                                                   Factor/Theme: Unresolved
Third when negotiations were opened up, the strong willed nature of
                                                                               Supported by evidence
both leaders again escalated the crisis, as Khrushchev demanded the

removal of threatening US missiles in Turkey, but Kennedy was unprepared
                                                                               Conclusion: answers
to agree to such terms.
                                                                               question and links factors
Therefore the threat of missiles in Cuba combined with an inability to

resolve the issue lead to a crisis between the USA and USSR.

Describe the key features of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)
in the 1970s. (5)

The SALT agreements were an example of détente in practice,           Theme – Reasons for SALT -
                                                                      limit arms race
whereby the USA and USSR tried to limit the number of

armaments each side had developed during the arms race of

the 1950s and 1960s. Both sides and particularly the USSR

wanted to limit the economic impact of the arms race. Both sides      Supported by evidence

post-Cuba wanted to stabilise the idea of MAD to maintain world


For example, the SALT I agreement imposed a 5 year freeze on
                                                                      Theme- specific detail on
the total number of ICBM and SLBM launchers each country had,         SALT I

and the ABM Treaty restricted the USA and USSR to two ABM

missile sites and 100 ABMs each. However, the agreement did not

include limitations on strategic bombers or MIRVs, and was            Developed explanation –
therefore of limited significance in controlling the arms race.
                                                                      Theme – Specific detail of
SALT II began in 1975, lasting for four years, and it addressed the SALT II

weaknesses of the first agreement. For example, MIRVs and

strategic nuclear delivery systems were limited to 1320 and 2400 on   Supported by evidence

each side respectively. However, due to the USSR‟s invasion of
                                                                      Developed explanation –
Afghanistan and the USA‟s belief that such limits could not be weaknesses

verified, the US Senate refused to ratify SALT II, which again

drastically affected the impact of the negotiations.

                                                                      Conclusion: Long term
Overall neither treaty succeeded in limiting the arms race and
                                                                      success questioned.
indeed after 1980 the arms race escalated with the Soviet

deployment of missiles in Europe and the USA‟s SDI programme.

Why did the Berlin Blockade fail? (7)

First the American government was determined not to be                    Factor/Theme:          Growing
                                                                          tension         and           US
forced out of Berlin, and were willing to spend time and money to
maintain their presence and support the people of West Berlin.
Berlin was crucial to the West as a symbol of capitalism and
democracy, surrounded as it was by the Soviet controlled eastern          Link: Money spent to save
sector. This is why they had supported West Berlin with Marshall          Berlin

Aid and introduced a new currency in 1947.

Second this determination not to be bullied by the USSR led               Factor: Berlin Airlift success
the USA with the help of Britain to launch the Berlin Airlift,
specifically designed to supply all the necessities Berliners needed
by air: coal and food to keep the city alive during the winter. Despite
the expense, it was continued all through the winter, and the             Link: failure of USSR aims

USSR‟s aim of starving Berlin failed.

Moreover, the West had imposed a counter-blockade on East                 Factor: Counter-Blockade

Germany, preventing goods from travelling from Western Europe
into the Eastern zone. This had a seriously detrimental effect on the
                                                                          Link: Soviet economy
Soviet zone‟s economy, which had not sufficiently recovered from
the ravages of World War Two to cope.

Finally Stalin had little option but to end the blockade since he
                                                                          Factor:   Stalin’s     lack   of
could only halt the airlift by threatening war- by shooitng down
planes- a war which the USSR would lose because it did not as yet
have nuclear weapons.
                                                                          Conclusion:     Link    factors
In conclusion, the US determination to maintain their presence led
                                                                          together to finally answer
to the expensive but successful Berlin Airlift, reflecting the strength
                                                                          the question.
of the US economy. This contrasted with the damaging effect of the
counter-blockade on the much weaker Soviet economy, and
convinced Stalin to call off the Blockade in 1949. Ultimately, the
Blockade failed because of the disparity between the US and the
Soviet economies, and the firm decision by the USA not to
relinquish West Berlin.

In what ways did the Cuban Missile Crisis change relations between the
USA and the USSR in the 1960s? (10)

                                                                            Theme – worsened
Initially, at the time of the crisis, relations between the USA and relations
USSR had worsened. Both sides were unwilling to back down to such Supported by
an extent that war was narrowly avoided in 1962. Ultimately, considering evidence
the military strength of both sides, neither was prepared to risk nuclear
war, as the likely outcome would have been Mutually Assured Developed
                                                                            explanation - MAD

Therefore, recognising the need to avoid a similar situation from Theme – improved
                                                                            relations, linked to
occurring in the future, relations between the USA and USSR previous factor
improved in the long-term. Communication between the countries was
improved by a „hotline‟ telephone link directly connecting Moscow and Supported by
Washington. Trade links were explored as the US supplied essential
grain to the USSR. The superpowers also addressed the arms race by
signing the Partial Test Ban Treaty in August 1963, which brought an
end to the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. Such
                                                                            explanation – arms
agreements highlight how relations had improved after the Cuban
Missile Crisis, and they laid the foundations for future cooperation
throughout the 1960s, such as the beginning of the talks which set a
precedent for arms limitations such as the 1972 SALT I Treaty.

                                                                            Theme – improved
The extent to which the Cuban Missile Crisis improved relations relations in face of
between the USA and the USSR can be seen in their reactions to potential conflict
potentially confrontational incidents in the 1960s. For example, Supported by
Nixon and Brezhnev worked together to negotiate an end to the Vietnam
War in 1968, and again used diplomacy to resolve the Arab-Israeli War
in 1973. Such events serve to highlight how relations between the USA explanation -
and USSR had improved after 1962, the main reason being that neither importance
side was prepared to risk nuclear war.

Why did relations between the USA and the USSR change in the years
1945-1950? (15)
Relations in this period got worse- from being war time allies to tense
                                                                       Evaluate the
opponents by 1950. The defeat of Germany in 1945 removed the one question and
uniting factor in the US-Soviet alliance and underlying tensions which
predated 1945 came to the fore.

The underlying reason why relations worsened was because both Identify a factor
                                                                       [and establish
countries had opposing economic and political systems with each
                                                                       importance] and
side seeing the other as a threat. For America communism represented use the wording
                                                                       of the question to
a system which was oppressive, undemocratic and attacked American
values of freedom and capitalist enterprise. Kennan‟s Long telegram in
1946 suggested that the USSR wanted to expand communism and this
view was clearly summed up in Truman‟s doctrine of 1947 which stated it        Back up with
was America‟s role to resist communism- hence the policy of containment.
Stalin and the USSR saw capitalism and the West as equally aggressive-
trying to control other countries economies for their own gain. Hence his
concern to build up allies against what he thought would be US aggression.

Events during and before World War Two certainly heightened this
                                                                               Identify a second
tension. Stalin was suspicious of America and Britain for their failure to
stop Hitler before 1939 and the delay over the 1944 Second Front. His
                                                                           Back up with
conclusion was that the West was encouraging Hitler to destroy
                                                                           evidence [not
communism. For the US the Soviet failure to support the Polish Warsaw contained in the
Uprising suggested that he was intent on extending communist influence
after the war by allowing the Nazis to destroy the non-communist groups in

Events in Europe from 1945-1950 clearly contributed to the Identify a third
breakdown in relations to such an extent that by 1950 Europe was
divided by two hostile and armed camps, symbolised by the Iron
Curtain. This links to the first point since both sides accused the other of
attempting to extend their power and economic systems. The post war Linking
meetings of Yalta and Potsdam seemed to confirm each side‟s suspicions.
At Potsdam the West was angry that Stalin‟s promise at Yalta to hold free
elections in Eastern Europe were not being carried out- particularly in
Poland. The Soviet control of Eastern Europe between 1945-8 and
particularly the way it was achieved- rigged elections, arrests, Red Army

occupation- angered the US as did Soviet attempts to control Turkey and      Back up with
                                                                             evidence- use the
Iran to secure access for their Black Sea fleet and control Middle East oil.
On the other hand Stalin resented the limited influence the USSR was points as
                                                                             illustration to the
given over Japan after Potsdam, were mistrustful of US military power
                                                                             factor not as the
following the use of the Atom Bomb on Japan and resented the West‟s basis of the
                                                                             answer itself.
refusal to hand over reparations from their zones in Germany. Furthermore
Marshall Aid [1948] and the economic unification of the US and British
German zones in 1947 seemed to threaten communism‟s hold over
Eastern Europe. The USSR accused the USA of trying to buy support by
creating a dependency on US dollars. Stalin‟s response- the 1948-9 Berlin
Blockade and the resulting crisis brought the former allies to the brink of
conflict. The creation of West and East Germany brought to a logical
conclusion the arguments of the past 5 years.

Events in the wider world and particularly Asia also helped to Identify a fourth
generate mistrust and contribute to frosty relations. This links with
both side’s fears about control of Europe to create a fear that the USSR      Linking
was backing a global communist movement and the US a capitalist one. In
Asia the fall of China to communism in 1949 and the invasion of capitalist
                                                                              Back up with
South Korea by communist North Korea seemed to threaten the capitalist
world. By 1949 the USA had backed the creation of NATO as a way of
counter-acting the communist threat. For this the USSR this defensive pact
seemed an aggressive move.

                                                               Conclude and
In conclusion relations worsened because of the irreconcilable prioritise
differences between communism and capitalism. Both sides have to
share the blame to some extent- both were fearful and mistrustful of the
other‟s intentions. Both thought the other intended to invade and therefore
sought to establish defensive measures such as alliances, the atomic
bomb or in the USSR‟s case a buffer zone in Eastern Europe. Both acted
aggressively- in terms of setting up rival economic aid packages or
controlling governments.

                        Examiner’s comments

 Sustained argument- clear factors made and referred back to
  the questions throughout the answer. Closely supported by
 evidence and new evidence introduced not in the scaffolding.
         Factors linked and some attempt at priority.

                                     Nazi Germany

a. What can we learn from Source A about the effects of
propaganda under the Nazis?

From source A we can infer that German propaganda seemed            Inferential    statement
to be failing. This is because it says that people „turn away       first, then back up with
from propaganda‟ and no longer read newspapers. The source          detail from the source.
also comments that there was „little enthusiasm for Nazism‟         Use the word ‘infer’ in
among „a large section‟ of the population.                          your answer.

We can infer that propaganda did have an impact on more             Second       inferential
impressionable groups in Nazi Germany because it says in the        statement backed up
source that children and young men were „enthusiastic about         with evidence. Use of
Hitler‟, possibly because they had not yet done military service.   quotations.

One must conclude that with age propaganda had to be more
subtle in order to influence the minds of older and more Final                    developed
experienced Germans.                                      statement               with    a

b. Does Source C support the evidence of Sources A and
B about the effects of propaganda under the Nazis?                         Comments
Explain your answer.

C seems to strongly contradict the evidence of A. A suggests        Compare C with A.
that propaganda had little effect on the older generation,          Look for similarities
whereas C suggests that, despite heavy doses of alternative         and/or differences.
views from foreign media such as the BBC, the journalist was
influenced and misled by „a steady stream of lies and               In this case the two
distortions‟, and that it was „easy to be taken in by a lying and   sources are very
censored press‟. C also says it was difficult to escape this        different.
propaganda whereas as A suggests that people simply no
longer read the newspapers and turned away from Nazi

On the other hand C seems to agree with B. B is a painting of Compare C with B.
a German family listening to a radio broadcast by Hitler. This Look for similarities
suggests that through radio Hitler was able to speak to the and/or differences.
entire nation. Even poor families, as shown in the picture, could
afford cheap radio sets.
                                                                  Finish with a developed
Overall C strongly disagrees with source A. However C explanation which may
partially agrees with B but one has to be careful with this try to explain the
source since we can not gauge how receptive the family were similarities and/or
to Hitler‟s words and we must remember that this is an differences or assess
idealised picture- itself a piece of Nazi propaganda!             the degree of

c. Study Source D and E. How useful are these two
sources as evidence about how the Nazis used religion?

D is useful for two reasons.                                           Analyse source D first.

In terms of content it shows Nazi banners in a Berlin church           Assess content
suggesting they were trying to use religion to put forward Nazi        stressing what is
ideas. The banners are unfurled next to the minister and the           useful- make clear
altar to increase the congregation‟s focus.                            references to source.

In terms of its nature, origin and purpose it is also useful. Berlin   Now assess the NOP of
was the capital of Germany so one can presume this image               the source. Look for
may have been broadcast across Germany. It is also from                ways it is useful.
1934 when the Nazis were still trying to consolidate their hold        Avoid throw away stock
on power. However the source does have limitations in the              evaluations!
sense that it is only one example of the Nazis using religion- it      Also assess any
gives us very little information of other methods or indeed how        limitations of the
people viewed this display.                                            source.

E is similarly useful for two reasons.                        Analyse source E
In terms of content it illustrates how the Nazis used Assess content
indoctrination in orphanages and schools through prayers. The stressing what is
prayer suggests that God has sent Hitler to liberate Germany useful- make clear
and protect the people.                                       references to source.

In terms of NOP, it is a prayer used in a Nazi-run orphanage.          Now assess the NOP of
While this is clear evidence of the Nazi use of religion, it only      the source. Look for
gives us one facet of Nazi policy and tells us little about how        ways it is useful.
the Nazis used religion to influence the wider German                  Also assess any
population.                                                            limitations of the

On balance both sources support each other in the sense that           Conclude. Try and
they agree that the Nazis used religion positively to identify         assess the two sources
Hitler and the Nazi movement with God to promote Nazi ideals           together. Do they back
and values.                                                            each other up?

d. Study all the sources.
Propaganda was the main reason why the Nazis were able to control most German
people in the years 1933-39.’
Use the sources and your own knowledge, to explain whether you agree with this

To some extent propaganda was important.                   Deal with the stated factor
                                                           first. Use language like ‘To
Propaganda allowed the Nazis to promote positive some extent…’
messages about Hitler and Nazi policy while at the same Start with own knowledge.
time restricting and censoring anti-Nazi views and
promoting negative images of their enemies- the Jews,
communists, socialists etc. Goebbels developed many
methods to do this- cheap radios, mass rallies, the Berlin
Olympics, posters and film.

Some of these methods are shown in the sources. B Now draw on information
shows how radio could allow German families to listen to from the sources.
Hitler [though we must remember this is an idealised
picture.] A reports that the press was censored and D
and E show how religion was used to push out positive
images of the party and Hitler as the saviour of Germany.
C suggests that the constant barrage of lies and
distortions did eventually influence ideas.

However there is some evidence to suggest that Discuss limitations if
propaganda had its limitations. Many Germans disliked appropriate.
the unsubtle methods used. The portrayal of Jews in the
film „The Eternal Jew‟ revolted most Germans. Goebbles
indeed realised that film had to be used far more subtly
with more subliminal images to promote Aryan Germans.
Source A suggests that a lot of propaganda was simply
ignored by Germans and there was little enthusiasm for
                                                         Now discuss other factors.
On the other hand there were other methods of control, Use a phrase like ‘On the
arguably more important.                                 other hand…’

The Nazis also sought to extend their control over all
aspects of German life. They created a common enemy         Discuss each factor in turn
in the Jews to unite Germans. On Kristallnacht 30,000       and start with own
Jews were sent to concentration camps. Nazi control         knowledge.
over youth was exerted through indoctrination in schools    List factors.
and via the Hitler Youth. Workers were controlled by        For each factor make
abolishing trade unions and replacing them with the DAF.    reference to relevant
The creation of the German Faith Movement, Reich            sources.
Church [Source D and E] and the Concordat with the
Pope were all designed to neutralise religion. Opposition
priests were imprisoned.

Perhaps most important was the Nazis heavy reliance on Try to prioritise- is one
force to keep control. Germany was a one-party police factor the most important?
state following the 1934 Enabling Law. The SS and
Gestapo were able to use a network of informers and
block leaders to control Germany. This is shown clearly in
F which suggests that propaganda „went hand in hand
with terror.‟ The police had the power to arrest without
trial and put political opponents such as the communists
in concentration camps constructed quickly after 1933.
Civil liberties had been suspended following the
Reichstag Fire in February 1933. Opposition groups were
rare or were driven underground by 1939.

In conclusion it is clear that the Nazis used a variety of Conclusion- try to link
methods to control the Nazis. Propaganda was used to factors together.
promote a positive image of Nazism but it would never
convince everybody and so a policy of terror also had to
be used. Perhaps only the young- easily indoctrinated-
could be fully influenced by propaganda. But even here
there were some opposition groups such as the
Edelweiss Pirates and these had to be dealt with using

d) Use all the sources and your own knowledge. To what extent do you agree that the
Depression was the most important reason for the Nazi rise to power?

Yes to some extent the Depression was very important              Deal with the given factor
in the Nazi rise to power.                                        and agree to some extent.
Unemployment increased to 6 million by 1933, affecting all
classes of German society, as shown by Sources A and B,           Use own knowledge backed
and the wider effects of Depression such as falling wages hit     up by sources.
most German families, as shown by Source C.
As a result of this crisis Germans blamed what they saw as a      Develop the point using
weak and indecisive government- Bruning could only cut            further own knowledge.
taxes which seemed to make matters worse- and so
therefore turned to other parties usually at the extremes of
the political spectrum. As a result the Nazi vote increased
dramatically- from about 3% of the vote in 1928 to 43% by
November 1932. As leader of the largest party in the
Reichstag, Hitler demanded the post of Chancellor in 1933.

However the Depression was not the only factor. Linked            Now turn to other factors. If it
to the Depression was the clear message of the Nazis.             is possible stress how the
The Nazis promised work and hope, as shown by Source D,           factor is linked to the given
as well as the restoration of farm incomes. For middle class      factor.
Germans the Nazis also offered protection against socialist
and communist elements. Hitler also offered the Germans a
scapegoat- the Jews- for Germany‟s woes, as well as a             Again use own knowledge
solution- restoration of national pride by reversing the Treaty   first then back up with
of Versailles. As Source F seems to suggest, the Nazis            reference to the sources.
appealed to all sectors of society.                               Must use Source F.

Linked to this was the effective use of propaganda to Develop further points and
spread this political message. Source D shows just one of back up if possible with the
the many posters created to raise support. An even greater sources.
asset was the magnetism of Hitler himself- a great orator and
ideologue who inspired millions such as Albert Speer
[Source E], travelling the length and breadth of Germany in
a plane. Hitler also had the financial backing of some
German big businesses and wealthy industrialists.

However to just focus on the Nazis would be only half              Develop further points- even
the story- the fact is Hitler was helped into power by             if there are no sources to
President Hindenburg- a fact not supported by any of               back up the point. State
the sources.                                                       there are none if this is the
It is true that by 1933 Hitler was the leader of the largest       case to signal your use of
party in the Reichstag but Hindenburg could possibly have          own knowledge.
continued to rule by decree or through the army. However he
miscalculated- he believed he could control Hitler as
Chancellor and ditch him as the Depression bottomed out.
His main concern was the threat that civil war might develop
between the left and the right. He was also pushed into the
decision because it seemed impossible to create a workable
government due to the system of proportional representation
which hampered stable government and prevented more
moderate parties from working together. His chancellors
between 1930-3 had been failures and he had had to use
emergency law to rule. Hindenburg hoped that Hitler might
offer some form of stability.
In conclusion it is true that without the Depression Hitler        Conclude: try to come to a
probably would not have come to power- the Nazis were              judgement about
an extreme, small regional party in 1928. Furthermore the          importance and also link
Depression created the instability which Hindenburg found          factors together if possible
so hard to control. But already before 1928 Germany was a
divided society, with many still bitter over the legacy of World
War One- and in the Nazis there was a party and leader who
had the drive to take power when the opportunity was

                                       World War II

a. What can we learn from Source A about the D-Day                         Comments
landings on Omaha Beach?

From source A we can infer that the Germans were ready             Inferential statement first,
and well prepared for the US attack because it says in the         then back up with detail
source that US troops faced „heavy shelling, machine gun           from the source.
fire‟ and were hit by mines and shells before they even            Use the word ‘infer’ in your
landed. The source also refers to pill boxes on the cliffs- this   answer.
suggests that the Germans were well protected.

We can also infer that the US troops took many casualties          Second         inferential
because it says in the source that „men were hit as they           statement backed up with
came down the ramps‟, and many others „were killed by              evidence.     Use       of
mines.‟ The fact that the beach was full of soldiers suggests      quotations.
they were sitting ducks.

Overall the attack was not a success. It was a struggle.           Final developed statement
                                                                   with a judgement.

b. Does Source C support the evidence of Sources A
and B about what happened during the D-Day landings?                       Comments
Explain your answer.

C seems to contradict the evidence of A. Whereas C says            Compare C with A.
that the Germans „had been taken by surprise‟, A suggests          Look for similarities and/or
that the Germans were ready and waiting since US                   differences.
causalities occurred before reaching the beach. A clearly          In this case the two
suggests plenty of German resistance whereas C reports             sources are very different.
that Allied troops reached the shore „almost unopposed‟.
„Everything went according to plan‟- hardly the case in A
where landing craft were sunk and US causalities high.

On the other hand C seems to agree with B which shows US Compare C with B.
troops landing relatively unopposed and in good order. Look for similarities and/or
Landing craft seem to be moored safely and soldiers are differences.
walking ashore.

Overall one must suppose that the report in Source C may           Finish with a developed
have been about conditions on Utah beach- as in source B           explanation which may try
or one of the other beaches where the allies faced less            to explain the similarities
resistance- Gold, Sword or Juno. At Omaha beach the                and/or differences.
Americans faced stiff resistance- as reported in A.

c. Study Source D and E. How useful are these two
sources as evidence of the Allied bombing attacks on                  Comments
German cities?

D is useful for two reasons.                                  Analyse source D first.

In terms of content it gives clear and precise information Assess content stressing
about the devastation caused by allied bombing of Hamburg what is useful- make clear
saying that 800,000 were homeless and the city was references to source.
destroyed. It also suggests that air raids were common and
presumably Germany could put up little resistance to the
                                                                  Now assess the NOP of the
In terms of its nature, origin and purpose it is also very source. Look for ways it is
useful. The source is by Goebbels. As minister of useful.
propaganda and one close to Hitler he would have access to Avoid throw away stock
precise information and detail. Since this report is in his diary evaluations!
one can assume it is a reliable source since he would have
no need to conceal figures. In terms of the overall Also assess any limitations
effectiveness of the allied attacks it is less useful because it of the source.
tells us little about the impact on industrial production,
German morale or indeed the effectiveness of the attacks
across the whole of Germany.
                                                                  Analyse source E second.
E is similarly useful for two reasons.
                                                                  Assess content stressing
In terms of content it clearly corroborates Source D in terms what is useful- make clear
of the havoc reeked on Hamburg, since it shows complete references to source.
destruction with few building standing. One can presume that
this left many homeless.
                                                                  Now assess the NOP of the
In terms of NOP, it is a photograph which clearly shows the source. Look for ways it is
damage of the raid. But as an official photograph it may have useful.
less use because it could be used from a propaganda front Also assess any limitations
to stir up anti-British sentiment and it may not be of the source.
representative of the wider impact of allied attacks on
                                                                  Conclude. Try and assess
On balance since both sources support each other one may the two sources together.
conclude that allied bombing was devastating to Hamburg Do they back each other
and its people, though the wider effect on other German up?
cities and industry is less certain.

d. Study all the sources. ‘The main reason for the German defeat in 1945 was the
success of the D-Day landings in 1944.’ Use these sources and your own knowledge,
to explain whether you agree with this view.

To some extent D-Day was important in the German defeat.               Deal with the stated factor
This is because it opened up a second front in Europe and meant        first. Use language like ‘To
the Germans were fighting a war on two fronts. Within a week of        some extent…’
D-Day over 300,000 allied troops were in France tying down 25%
of the German army. By March 1945 the allies had crossed the           Start with own knowledge.
Rhine into Germany. This is clearly shown in sources A, B and C.
Whereas US losses at Omaha were serious the Germans were               Now draw on information
too stretched to defend Utah and the other beaches. Source F           from the sources.
reports that after Normandy the allies „advanced through France
and Low Countries‟.

On the other hand there were other reasons, arguably more Now discuss other factors.
important.                                                        Use a phrase like ‘On the
                                                                  other hand…’
First the allied bombing campaign seriously devastated the cities
of Germany and disrupted industrial production, tying down huge List factors.
numbers of anti-tank guns for defence. Source D and E record the
destruction wrought on Germany by allied bombing. F reports that For each factor make
it„badly affected‟ war production.                                reference to relevant sources.

Second and arguably one of the most important factors was the Next factor.
Eastern Front. The German army committed over 75% of its
forces against the Russians. By 1944 the Russians had Own knowledge.
successfully pushed the Germans out of Eastern Europe following
the loss of the Sixth Army at Stalingrad. In total the Russians
destroyed 600 German divisions in comparison to the British and
Americans who destroyed 180. By April the Russians were in
Berlin and Hitler was forced to commit suicide ending the war.
This suggests that even without D Day the Russians may have Now refer to source.
defeated Germany herself. This is shown in Source F which
reports that the Russians liberated Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and

Underlying these factors was probably the most important               Next factor- notice there is a
factor- resources and population. After 1941 and the entry of the      sense of priority here.
USA Germany was massively outnumbered in terms of population
and resources. She was dependent on oil from Romania- ended
when that country pulled out of the war in August 1944. In total her
aircraft production was one quarter the allies and tank production
only half. This means that by 1944 Germany was out-gunned and          No source to back this point
out-numbered. The allies had total air superiority the key to          up- no worry!
success on D-Day and in all other campaigns after 1944.

In conclusion the reasons are linked. By 1944 Germany was              Conclusion- try to link factors
overstretched on both fronts and could not concentrate on either       together.
and so was forced to withdraw. For example in December 1944
Hitler committed most of his panzer reserves on defeating the US       Try and back up the
at the Battle of the Bulge- this left the Russian front seriously      conclusion with a source if
weakened. Underlying this fact was the total superiority of allied     possible.
resources and manpower which made German defeat almost
inevitable after 1943. Hence Source F says that „German forces
were everywhere overstretched and on the retreat‟.

d. Past student responses and marking exercises

                                 USA, DIVIDED UNION


Give one reason to explain why the Cold War in Europe helped create a fear of communism
in the USA in the years 1945-49                                                     [3]

Candidate                                      Response                                           Official

            As the cold war developed from 1945-49 there was a growing fear of
            communism. This was because the USSR had taken control of East Berlin after
            the Second World War had ended and wanted to begin spreading communism
    A       all across Eastern Europe. As the USSR had tried to spread communism this
            meant that the fear of it taking over the whole of Europe was rising. Especially in
            the United States where there was a very large hatred of communism.
            In conclusion I feel that there a real fear of communism in the USA because the          2
            USSR had taken over half of Berlin and threatened to take over the rest of
            eastern Europe also meaning that they were getting more power and were also
            getting closer and closer to America.

            One reason why the Cold War in Europe helped create a fear of communism in
    B       the USA is by illustrating to the Americans that communism exists and are there
            to destroy the capitalist idealisms America stands for, creating a fear to the
            Americans as they felt their democracy could be at risk.                                 1

            The cold war made US citizens fear communism as it led to the widespread
    C       belief that communism was spreading. They feared communism as it went
            directly against their capitalist society. They also knew the USSR had developed
            an atomic bomb.                                                                          2

            Fear of communism in the USA was created by the Cold War because the
    D       USSR was spreading communism to satellite states such as Bulgaria and
            Romania, in Eastern Europe. In summary the Soviet takeover of eastern Europe
            in 1948 onwards                                                                          1

In what ways were the cases of the Hollywood Ten and Alger Hiss important in the growing
fear of communism in the USA in the years to 1950?                                    [5]

Candidate                                        Response                                              Official

            The Hollywood ten were a group of both actors and directors from Hollywood. They
            had been accused of trying to spread communist ideas to the rest of America in films
            and programmes on TV. They had been accused of HUAAC, an organisation set up
            by Senator Joe McCarthy for this. The fact that they were famous and from
            Hollywood scared the rest of the USA as they were such powerful role models for
            people of all ages. Politicians were especially sacred by these accusations.
            Alger Hiss was a member of the democrat party also accused of trying to infiltrate
            and spread communist ideas. He being accused spread the fear even more due to
    A       the fact he was a politician high up in politics so the public saw this as communists
            starting to infiltrate their system and trying to change the ideas of other politicians,
            eventually turning it communist.
            In conclusion I feel that the reason these two factors stuck out so much was                  3
            because each of them contain people who are highly respected for what they do and
            also because each of them is easily capable of putting new ideas in the publics

            The cases of the Hollywood Ten and Alger hiss were important in the growing fear of
            communism to the USA for a number of reasons.
            Firstly it scared the Americans to think that communists could be operating at such
            high and responsible levels, „Reds under the Bed‟ worrying them to think that the
            threat of communism was so close to home.
            The cases also publicised however that communists were indeed in America
            creating more fear in the people as they were worried they could lose their freedom
            and democracy, the two ideals which America itself stands for.                                2

            The case of the hollywood ten increased the irrational American fear of communism
    C       due to the feeling that communists were everywhere [reds under the Bed]. They
            began to question everyone as no one could know be trusted. The case of Alger
            Hiss increased this fear. These cases were the beginning of what was to become
            huge, the communist witch hunts.

            The Hollywood Ten and Alger Hiss added to more fears to an already tense time
            period. When Alger Hiss was convicted of handing over two hundred state
            department documents to a communist, people were alarmed. Hiss was a state
            department official, and his involvement in handing documents over seemed
            shocking in 1948, as it showed there were communists in high government jobs.
            This frightened people that communists could be influencing American democratic
            The case of the ten writers and producers or the „Hollywood Ten‟ raised fears about
            communism in 1947, because communists could have infiltrated the film industry.               5
            This was more alarming to politicians who feared their communists views could be
            reflected on the big screen to a large audience, who might become sympathetic t

Describe the key features of the methods used by Senator Joseph McCarthy to win the
support of US citizens during the early 1950s.                                  [5]

Candidate                                         Response                                             Official

            Senator Joe McCarthy was extremely anti-communist. His idea was to get rid of all
            communists in Hollywood, the political system and generally from powerful positions
            around the USA. He basically told the public he would rid of the communists as long as
            he had their support.
            He accused ten actors and directors from Hollywood of spreading communist ideas in
            their films. He set up HUAAC to investigate this. As well as this he accused Alger Hiss,
   A        a leading politician in his time. The third main thing he did was sentence the
            Rosenbergs, a man and wife of selling nuclear secrets to the USSR as they both used
            to be nuclear scientists. They were both sentenced to the electric chair.
            In conclusion McCarthy knew exactly what the public wanted and he knew how
            strongly they feared communism. He used this and propaganda to get them on his side           2
            in order fro him to become more powerful in politics.

            During the early 1950s Senator Joseph McCarthy used a variety of key methods to
            earn support.
            He gave speeches with confidence, telling people that there were communists in
            government and that he would eradicate them. The American peoples who were
            already very scared of losing their democracy therefore trusted and supported him in
   B        his campaign as he used the fear of communism to get support for himself. Another
            key feature was the way in which he manipulated the people into supporting him, using
            no proof in his claims but saying it with such assurance that the people took it as true
            and therefore supported McCarthy as he showed a solution to the fear of communism             4
            in the USA

            Senator Joe McCarthy took advantage of the growing fear of communist and used it to
            his advantage. He organised communist witch hunts, putting innocent people to trial for
   C        „crimes‟ such as sympathies with communists. The USA greatly feared communism as
            it was very different to their capitalist way of life and senator McCarthy promised to
            stop communist spreading. He coined the term McCarthyism, accusing everyone of
            being a communist and claiming no one be trusted. The people felt that the only way to
            rid themselves of communism was to support McCarthy and his methods.                          3

            Senator Joseph McCarthy, a republican, used communism, arguably to advance his
            own career. At a time when cold war tensions were high [in 1949 China had become
            communist and in 1950 the communist North Korea had invaded the pro-American
            South Korea] McCarthy burst onto the political scene claiming the American State
            department had been infiltrated by 200 communists. He produced wildly changing lists
   D        of „known communists‟ [which were usually exaggerated and at one time it was
            reduced to just 57 which one magazine labelled the Heinz variation‟] and summoned
            over 2300 before HUAC. He bullied witnesses, made sarcastic remarks to the accused
            and many of McCarthy‟s victims committed suicide under pressure. He played on
            people‟s fears telling people to look out for „Reds Under the Bed‟. By creating an
            alarmist atmosphere, he was able to win people‟s support- people had to support him           4
            or they risked being summoned before him.

Why had McCarthyism died out by the end of 1954?                                                       [7]

Candidate                                         Response                                             Official

            At the beginning of McCarthyism the majority of the public backed the senators they
            wanted all communists out as they were extremely scared of the idea of America
            turning communist.
            He started out well however after a while he started to go down in the publics opinion.
            This was because he had originally gone out to get rid of the communists but all the
            people he had accused of this, he had no evidence to say that they were actually
    A       communist and they were spreading ideas. For example the Hollywood Ten were all
            falsely accused and in the end non of them got prosecuted. In fact he wrongly accused
            nearly everybody. The only people he was able to prosecute and sentence to death
            was the Rosenbergs and later it even turned out that they had been falsely accused.
            This means that, the man who the public had backed and supported in the beginning
            had now lost all his power and had been made to look paranoid and also to a certain           2
            extent, he had been made to look like a lier as he had tried to pin things on all these
            people but actually had no evidence.
            This meant that McCarthyism went down the drain and was unable to prosecute any

            McCarthyism died out by the end of 1954 for a number of reasons.
            Firstly McCarthy‟s accusations into people in government and eventually congress
    B       backfired on him as the high rulers of congress were shocked at the claim, dismissing it
            and McCarthy believing he had got too big for his boots. This view was then shared by
            the American people as it was found out that McCarthy had no proof in his claims of
            people who were communists and was now merely lieing. The people therefore
            dropped their support for him and the memory of McCarthyism slowly died out.                  2

            McCarthy had simply got carried away by 1954, he had begun to accuse anyone and
    C       everyone including people high up in government. He said he had the names of over
            200 communist sympathisers, although he provided no evidence for this claim and
            these names never materialised. Eventually people began to lose faith in him and he
            became a laughing stock. He had begun to simply name anyone out of desperation
            and never provided any evidence for his claims people quickly began to realise that he
            was not doing anything to fight communism he was just increasing the fear of it.              3

            By the end of 1954, McCarthyism had died out for several reasons. Firstly many people
            began to tire of his communist „witch-hunt‟. Moreover he never produced any hard
            evidence to back up his claims, nor did he actually formally convict anybody of being a
            communist. His claims soon seemed ridiculous and his malicious nature clear as he
            branded intellectuals, „twisted thinking eggheads born with silver spoons in their
            Televised hearings were broadcast across America and the world, and they showed
    D       the public McCarthy was a bully and a liar. The American people soon knew that what
            McCarthy was doing was wrong as he had ruined thousands of his victims lives. Things
            got worse for McCarthy when in 1953 he claimed the American army was harbouring
            communists which was unpatriotic and a lie. The final straw came in 1954 when he              7
            suggested war hero President Eisenhower was a communist sympathiser, angering the
            president. McCarthy was publicly condemned by the Senate that year and died an
            alcoholic in 1957.

In what ways did the fear of communism develop in the USA in the years 1945-54?
You may use the following information to help with your answer:

      The beginnings of the Cold War
      The Hollywood 10
      The trials of Alger Hiss and the Rosenbergs
      McCarthyism                                                                      15

From the mid 40s to the mid 50s communism was seen as a big problem and an
anti-american idea for the government and citizens of the USA but fear of
communism actually developed for many reasons such as the beginnings of the
cold War, The Hollywood ten, the Hiss and Rosenberd trials, Macarthysm and the
leader of the FBIs and other political figurs‟ hatred of communists.
         Firstly the beginnings of the cold war between Russia and the USA meant
that there was tension between the two countries who had contrasting political
ethics. As a result of this communism and the spread of socialism was growing.
         Secondly this lead to the leader of the FBI J Edgar Hoover to form the
HAUAC which tried to combat all „Un-American‟ activities [mainly communism] and
forced laws against communism. As a result of this the Hollywood Ten emerged.
         Thirdly the Hollywood Ten were a group of Hollywood actors, directors and
writers that wereaccused of being communist. However, when it went to trial it
emerged that they could plead the first Amendment because they weren‟t doing
anything illegal. This lead to further unrest in American people, which was not
helped by actual convictions.
Fourthly Algar Hiss, a high ranking government official was convicted of pergery
after being accused of communism at the trial of someone who was American
denying knowing this person at his own The case lead to great astonishment by
the American people and fear that there was a possibility of a member of the
government being a communist.
Fifthly a couple called the rosenburgs who were nuclear scientists were convicted
of selling nuclear secrets to the Russians and executed. This lead to vast unrest as   9
the case was highly publicised.
Lastly Marcarthyism, Senator Marcarthy was a bully. He wanted faim and sought it
through the exploitation of the fear of communism. He lead which hunts and
increased the fear of communism by accusing senators of being communist. He
was later discovered to be for what he was but by this time the damage was done.
The public were against communism.
In conclusion it was a chain of events and occurances that helped the fear of
communism to spread and develop and as time went on it just got worse and


    Give ONE reason            President kennedy faced opposition to his civil rights
    to explain why             bill because the people of America were not ready to
    President Kennedy          accept Black people as their equals due to the tradition
    faced opposition to        of slavery and oppression on black citizens.
    his civil rights bill in                                                              2
    1963 [3]

    Describe the key           The key features of methods used by reverend Dr
    features    of  the        Martin Luther King were non violence, which meant
    methods used by            marches and demonstrations and breaking laws that
    Martin Luther King         he believed unfair by doing „sit ins‟
    to secure improved         Secondly he also made powerful speeches and tried to       3
    civil rights in the        co-operate with kennedy his political skill helped
    USA in the 1960s           secure improved civil rights.

    In what ways was           The civil rights movement was successful because it
    the     civil   rights     firstly improved awareness around the world and it
    movement                   helped secure improved civil rights.
    successful          in     The main benefits were the education reforms which
    achieving its aims         made segregated schools illegal and images of the          2
    for     black      US      treatment black people were getting broadcast around
    citizens in the years      the world this meant that the American government
    1963-8? [5]                was put under pressure to change.

    Why did some US            Some black US citizens opposed the work and
    citizens oppose the        methods of Martin Luther King. These included Malcon
    work and methods           Little also know as Malcom X and other young males.
    of Martin Luther           The reason why Malcom X opposed Luther Kings work
    King? [7]                  is because he thought that he was not getting progress
                               fast enough and he thought that force, not peaceful
                               protest, was the only answer.
                               Secondly other young males groups saw the opposition
                               as a war where the white citixzens and government
                               were the enemy These groups included the black
                               panthers and saw king to be „fratonising with the
                               In conclusion Kings methods were opposed by those
                               who believed force was the only option.


       Question                                   Response                              Mark/Official

Give One reason to        The womens movement began in the 1960s because
explain why the           women were not getting the Respect or Equal as the men
women‟s movement          were, so they wanted to do something about it, like getting        1
began in the 1960s [3]    the VOTE!

                          Student movement was a march only for woman
Describe the key          demonstrating on how they want to be able to vote as well
features of the student   as men and want the same respect on how men are
movement of the 1960s     treated they want to be treated the same way. So getting
[5]                       all the women together and demanding there rights on the
                          streets, shows that all these women are sticking by each           0
                          other and they feel the same way about each other.

                          The students movement and womans movement where
                          important for 3 main reasons. They influenced woman‟s
                          rights, the students at the time were born during the baby
                          boom. They caused great reforms to the ways in which
                          the USA was governed.
                          Women‟s rights were not very good at the start of the 60s
Why were the students‟    but as more and more protests occured women joined the
movement and              bandwagon and so when changes were made the got
women‟s movement          their rights as well.
important in the USA in   The children who had been born after the baby boom
the 1960s? [10]           were taught equality by their parents who had witnesst the
                          war. The war also mad women learn the value of their
                          The protest of the 60s were also significant because they
                          caused many major changes due to protesting being
                          successful and popular.
                          These three factors meant that America changed its ways.
                          In conclusion the students and women‟s movement were               2
                          important because that came at a time of protest and

                        The student movement developed in the 1960s and 1970s
                        for several factors. Students had much more disposable
                        income and were able to buy luxuries such as cars.
                        Students were being influenced by the rebellic ways of
                        James Dean a movie star and Elvis Presley and his
                        swinging hipps. Sex drugs and rock n‟ roll became the
                        new trend with youths and because the contraceptive pill
                        was more available students could experiment more
                        sexually. Youths were no longer going in to full time jobs
In what ways did the    the majority were going to university where they spent
student movement        time with more youths and partied. Their disposable
develop in the USA in   income meant they could buy drugs and were willing to
the 1960s and early     experiment. The cold war was also occurring and the
1970s?     [10]         students thought the world could end any day so they
                        decided to go with the moto live today. They were
                        peaceful and believed in flower power, they protested
                        against the war in Vietnam and artists such as Jimi
                        Hendrix and Simon and Garfunkel sang about the war in
                        protests. They were influenced by music and became
                        hippies. Students also began to question things and set
                        up the organisation SDS so they could have more of a say     4
                        in university courses. Women were becoming more
                        educated and questioned their roles as housewives. They
                        also wanted more say over their bodies and the abortion
                        became legal. Students also helped in the protest for
                        black civil rights and joined in with groups such as CORE
                        and SNCC doing freedom rides and sit ins.

In what ways did President Kennedy and President Johnson try to improve the lives of US
citizens in the years 1961-68?

You may use the following information to help you with your answer:

        Employment opportunities
        Improved civil rights
        Medical care                                                                       [15]

Candidate                                       Response                                          Official

             President Kennedy was president from 1961-4 when he got assassinated. All
             through out this time he had tried to help the poor and the elderly and also
             blacks to gain civil rights.
             The first of the things that he did for the USA was provide Medical care for the
             elderly. He called this Medicare and it meant for people over the age of 65
             who had retired they were entitle to free medical care from the government.
             The same sort of idea as the NHS. Later on president Johnson also provided
             medical care however this was to the poor. This meant that a lot of the people
    A        receiving this were black.
             Both of these presidents also did a lot for black civil rights. During this period
             of time segregation was abolished and blacks were now allowed by the
             supreme court to enter white schools. This now meant that the black children
             who had previously had poor education were now getting a good education in
             white schools.                                                                          3
             The final thing that as introduced during this time was employment
             opportunities for the poor and for people who were out of work. Programmes
             were set up to give these people work such as motorway building, bridge
             building cleaning cities etc. All of these things provided by the government just
             to encourage people to earn more money and to stop living off the state.

             President Kennedy and president Johnson used many ways in trying to
             improve the lives of US citizens, these included:
             Firstly, prior to 1961, improved civil rights for the blacks with the introduction
             of both the 1957 Act and the 1960 Act, each aimed at promoting black rights
             and equality.
             From the years 1961 onwards Kennedy submitted numerous bills to congress
             in which would include a minimum wage being set up along with medical care
    B        for the elderly being paid for by the state, congress rejected these bills and in
             1963 Kennedy was assassinated. Lyndon B Johnson then came to be
             President a republican unlike the democrat Kennedy was before him.
             LBJ therefore was more popular with the southerners and dixiecrats in                   4
             congress managing to free the log jam Kennedy left behind and improve not
             only the medical care but civil rights for women and students, education and
             the employment opportunities to people, making LBJ‟s Great Society a reality.

    The lives of ordinary USA citizens greatly improved between 1961-68. Although
    president Kennedy in reality got very little through congress he helped to improved
    lives by being a president they could trust. He set up his new frontier intent on
    improving America and making it a more unified place. He did this by starting to
    desegregate the schools after the desegregation of buses after the Montgomery bus
    boycott in 1955, the next logical step was to stop segregation in schools. This was
C   done in little rock after the brown vs board. When Johson took over after Kennedy‟s
    death. He continued trying to improve civil rights for blacks and for women after the
    women‟s movement. He greatly increased the amount spent on education as now a
    lot more people were able to go to university and be students [leading to the student
    movement]. He also improved medical care making it a state thing and therefore
    allowing medical care to be open for everyone. As the economy grew there were                  5
    many more employment opportunities leading to a huge dip in unemployment levels,
    America was now very rich being the richest country in the world due to capitalism
    and exports.

    Presidents Kennedy and Johnson shared the same views on the whole, with Kennedy
    starting the ideas and Johnson carrying them out. Kennedy‟s New Frontier aimed at
    improving the quality of life for black people and other domestic policies. Kennedy
    knew he could not fully support civil rights by passing bill after bill- that would cost him
    white votes in the south of the USA. Instead he used gesture politics. For example he
    appointed five black federal judges to congress [including Thurgood Marshall] and
    when James Meredith was refused to study at the University of Alabama Kennedy
    sent I federal troops to escort Meredith onto the campus in 1962. Kennedy also
    proposed a civil rights bill in 1963, which was alter passed by Johnson. Kennedy also
    increased minimum wage to $1.25, and Kennedy also proposed „Medicare‟ for old
    people but this was thrown out by Congress, but overall it has to be said that Kennedy
    achieved less as he was more interested in foreign affairs and faced opposition from
    southern dixiecrats.
D   After Kennedy‟s assassination in 1963, Johnson was his successor. He announced a
    „Great Society‟ waging war on poverty and discrimination for both blacks and whites.
    The Civil Rights movement was helped enormously by the efforts of Johnson. A
    series of acts were passed in the 1960s. the civil rights act of 1964 banned any form
    of discrimination or segregation especially in schools as after this bill, thousands of
    black children started to attend desegregated schools. In 1965 the Voting Rights Act
    lifted the literacy qualifications blacks faced, resulting in a further one million people
    voting. Another bill in 1967 banned laws forbidding inter-racial marriage. Which meant
    blacks and white could legally engage in relationships, giving them more freedom.
    Finally in 1968 another civil rights Act banned segregation in public housing, allowing
    further freedoms for blacks to live where they wanted.                                         15
    Johnson also made other improvements to everyday life. He launched Kennedy‟s
    rejected Medicare programme, allowing people over 65 free medical treatment and
    also Medicaid which gave free treatment to poorer parts of America. This improved
    the standards of health of a large portion of American society. He also launched a
    „food stamp‟ programme, allowing poorer people to buy food cheaper.
    Johnson helped American youths to train in skills for a job, in his youth project
    meaning more young people had a better chance of getting a decent job. He
    improved the quality of roads and his „Model Cities Act‟ identified a hundred cities in
    America in need of slum clearance. Overall Johnson arguably achieved more in
    improving people‟s lives than Kennedy but both ensured that social matters were
    addressed and dealt with.

Why was the Watergate Scandal important for politics in the USA in the 1970s?                               [10]

Candidate                                             Response                                                   Official
             The Watergate Scandal was a huge scandal in the 1970s by the republican Party.
             Whilst Richard Nixon was in power in the 1970s an organisation was set up called CREEP.
             This organisation was set up to try and stop the Democrat party coming in to power at the
             next election.
             During his time in office there was a break in by CREEP in the Watergate Building to
    A        sabotage their documents. When it came out that it was CREEP who had done this Nixon
             was asked if had known about it. He broadcast to the whole of the nation, he knew nothing
             about the break in and he was going to look into it however he was lieing.
             It later turned out that he knew all about the break in before it happened and he had lied to the      2
             public on national television. This was uncovered when tapes of him were found talking about
             the break in and also talking about blacks. He was found to be a bad mouthed racist and was
             This whole scandal made the nation unsure about politics and left them not trusting politicians
             any more as their president had lied straight to them.

             The Watergate Scandal was important for USA policies in the 1970s because it shook
             people‟s beliefs and views of the President and American politics.
             All through the Watergate Scandal president Richard Nixon denied any involvement in the
             Watergate break in, the people believed him and re-elected him president for his second term
             in office.
    B        However when he tried to block Congress enquiries it was clear he was involved, the
             infamous Watergate Tapes showed this, and when people listened, they were disgusted at his
             repetitive foul language, saying he sounded more like a gangster plotting a crime, a key 18
             minute section of the tape had been wiped „accidentally‟ by Nixon‟s secretary.                         7
             Support for Nixon collapsed and was now faced with impeachment and jail, Nixon chose to
             resign in 1973 and is to this day the only president to have done so, the Watergate Scandal
             turned American politics on its head as it shows just what happens behind closed doors.

             The Watergate Scandal was very important as it lead to the deep fear and mistrust of
             politicians. As a result of it Nixon was forced to resign from office. It made the US citizens
             wander what else he had been hiding although he denied any involvement in the actual
    C        bugging he was put on trial for withholding evidence and many people saw the disappearance
             of 9 crucial minutes of tape as suspicious. It meant future presidents had to be very careful as       5
             they knew what could happen to them, they also had to win back the trust of the voters. It
             could have been one of the causes of the student movement.

             The Watergate Scandal in the 1970s both strengthened and weakened politics in the USA.
             When the whole scandal was uncovered, several investigations were launched including one
             by the Senate which got hold of the secret tapes. This showed an urgency to discover the
             truth. The trials of the CREEP burglars in 1973 showed the American justice system was
             strong and offered reassurance to anyone who doubted that. The scandal also showed that
             even the president risked being put on trial [impeached] and as a result limitations on the
             power of the president were put forward in eh form of various ac6s after the scandal. Any
             mistrust in politicians after the scandal disappeared as enthusiasm for Nixon‟s replacement
             Jimmy Carter was great- he promised „I will never lie to you‟.
    D        The Watergate Scandal however was clearly damaging to American politics. President Nixon
             had his reputation destroyed and all his achievements during his career were overshadowed
             by the scandal. America became a laughing stock as the USSR used the incident as proof of              8
             a corrupt capitalist system. The scandal undermined peoples confidence in politicians and
             began to wonder if all were like Nixon. The Whitehouse Tapes exposed Nixon‟s nature- he
             was a racist and sued foul language, which shocked the public who thought he was different.
             Overall Watergate was both damaging and strengthening to American politics.

                                     5. Learning to learn

a. Learning styles

Each individual has a different method of learning information. It is important that you develop a
system that works best for you. We will show you just a few methods which can be used to improve
your overall retention of information. If you know the material well then more time can be spent in
an exam planning and structuring an answer rather than simply remembering information.

First let us tell you about inefficient learning. This is the type of revision which involves the simple
reading of notes, where the student crams information for a day or two, then leaves revision for a
week or two…or even a year. As the graph below shows most of the information learnt soon fades
away. This is a waste of time- ask yourself how much you would remember from the 4th year had
you not revised the material.

Revision needs to be planned and involve regular reviews. Such reviews need not be lengthy affairs
but do need to keep your memory ‘topped up’. The graph below shows how you can maintain your
knowledge by this process.

                                     The Sensory Experience

        ‘I hear, I forget. I see, I remember. I do, I understand’ [Chinese proverb]

In the next section are examples of how to learn information. The key thing to remember with all
memory techniques is to make the whole experience a sensory one- i.e. the use of all the senses to
aid recall:

                                     Vision- see the atom bomb
                                     Hearing- hear MLK’s speech
                     Taste- taste the wallpaper bread at the siege of Stalingrad
                               Touch- feel Bull Conner’s water hoses

                                  Smell- … can you think of one???

Additional methods which help are:

       Movement- make images in your mind three dimensional or see an event in a moving way
       e.g. Birmingham Alabama, 1964- image police dogs unleashed by Bull Conner

       Association and Symbolism- Associate a word, phrase or image to another word, phrase
       or image

       Sex- Link anything to sex and we always remember it
       e.g. Sorry- too rude to show you

       Humour- Make an event ridiculous or humorous

       Imagination- Use your imagination to link and associate events

       Numbers- Numbers make things specific and ordered

       Colour- Add colour coding to notes to highlight historical concepts
       e.g. blue for short term, red for long term. Colours for different consequences- political
       social, economic etc.

       Order and sequence- Put information into an order of sequence of priority
       e.g. Long term short term causes. Most important reason to least important etc.

       Exaggeration- Always enlarge or exaggerate images to help memory.

b. Advice on revision techniques

                                a. The LINK System

This is the simplest way to remember information using associations, imagination,
exaggeration, colour, movement etc.

 Frustration with King and      Police brutality- need to arm      Black Power and Islam
    slow pace of change                 communities

 Poverty and urban decay-                                         Limits of the Civil Rights
     life in the ghetto        Why did Black Power Emerge?         and Voting Rights Acts

                                      Leadership of X

                             b. The MNEMONIC System

Good for learning a string of factors/causes etc- though less useful in terms of ordering and

USA Divided Union 1941-1980

Why did the Hiss and Rosenberg affairs contribute to a growing fear of
communism in America?

S     Spying               Both cases raised fears about communist spies in government
E     Ethel                Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were found guilty of passing on
                           atomic secrets to the Soviets
C     Chambers             Whittaker Chambers, an ex-communist, accused Hiss of copying
                           sensitive government documents
R     Richard Nixon        Nixon accused Hiss of lying and helped publicise the case
E     Electric Chair       The method of death for the Rosenbergs
T     Typewriter           Hiss‟ apparently copied documents using his typewriter
                                                                           [Devised by Charlie Cawood]

Why did McCarthy win the support of many American citizens?

M     Mid-West             Mid West fears that east coast Washington dominated by
                           socialists, Jews, and homosexuals!
c     Claims               Claims that the State Department harboured 205 communists
C     Chairman             Use of Chairmanship of Senate Committee on Investigations
A     Anti-Communism Wider fears of communism among American people
R     Republican           McCarthy had the support of the Republican Party up to 1954
T     Ten                  McCarthy linked fear to earlier cases such as Hiss/Rosenberg
                           and the Hollywood Ten
H     H-Bomb               Americans feared spying might help the Russians catch up
Y     Yellow Peril         China went communist in 1949- McCarthy blamed the State
                                                                              [Devised by Becky Helm]

Why had McCarthy lost the support of most American civilians by 1954?

B    Bullying        McCarthy‟s style of questioning which offended many Americans
E    Ed              Murrow- CBS journalist who dared to publicly attack McCarthy‟s
A    Army            The most patriotic organisation in America which McCarthy
                     dared to accuse
S    Senate          The Senate committee who publicly censured McCarthy in 1954
T    Total Failure   McCarthy‟s failure to convict anyone in 4 years

What was the impact for blacks of the Montgomery Bus Boycott?

P    Protest         First mass protest which led to change
A    Action          Action of the Supreme Court in ending Montgomery‟s bus
                     segregation law
R    Raised          Raised expectations and hope for future success among blacks
K    King            King emerged as the leader of the movement
S    SCLC            Formation of King‟s Southern Christian Leadership Conference

                                                                       [Devised by Lydia Rowland-

Why did Johnson face opposition to his Great Society reforms?

P    Problems        Problems in Vietnam led to a decline in Johnson‟s overall
                     popularity. He refused to stand for re-election in 1968
R    Republicans     Republican Party accused him of wasting money
O    Opposition      Opposition of Southern Democrats [Dixiecrats] to Civil Rights
B    Blacks          Whites resented money being spent on poor blacks and ghettos
L    Low Tax         Wealthy Americans wanted a low tax economy
E    Economy         Welfare distorted the economy and created a „dependency
M    Money wasted    Money spent on fuelling the Vietnam War could not be spent on
S    Socialism       LBJ‟s reforms were accused of being socialist and undermining
                     American individualism
                                                                   [Devised by Henry Laverack]

Account for the rise of the Women’s Movement

S    Sexual Liberation   Career before children and access to the pill
E    Ennui               Boredom with middle class suburban life
X    X Rated             Opposition to pornography/Miss World
I    Inequality          Low pay and the glass ceiling in the workplace
S    Second World War    Lost opportunities after 1945
M    Mystique            Consciousness raising by Betty Friedan and NOW

What were the consequences of the Watergate Scandal?

W    Working well        At least the political system exposed Nixon and the
                         Senate was about to impeach him
A    Acts of Congress    To limit presidential powers- War Powers Act, Privacy Act,
                         Budget Control Act
T    Trust               Loss of trust in the presidency and politicians
E    Election            Of the Democrat Jimmy Carter in 1976
R    Reputation          Of Nixon in tatters after he lied on TV
G    Gate                Suffix applied to most future political scandal
A    Actions of Ford     Pardoning Nixon contributed further to sense of corruption
T    Tarnished           Tarnished presidency due to racist and abusive language
                         used by Nixon on the tapes
E    Embarrassment       Of US abroad- USSR claimed it was a product of a corrupt
                         capitalist system

Superpower relations 1945-1990

Why did Khrushchev put missiles in Cuba?

B    Balance             Balance the arms race by giving the USSR a first strike
O    Opponents           To silence opponents in the Kremlin who were unhappy
                         with his policy of De-Stalinisation
M    Maintain            Maintain Castro in Cuba as a base for further communist
                         advance in Latin America
B    Bargain             As a bargaining chip for Jupiter missiles in Turkey
                          c. Roman Room System

This was a system developed by the Romans [surprisingly] in which a string of
words or phrases which need to be memorised were turned into a journey
around a room or through a house [Alternatively you could see it as a journey].
Things in the room or house [or journey] can be used as pegs on which to hang
your words, phrases etc.

How would you plan a journey through your house with the following
list of factors?

             Why did Germany lose the Second World War?

                       Allied Bombing of Germany
                               Eastern Front
                    Loss of Allies- e.g. Italy/Rumania
                     Economic factors- tanks/planes

                                      d. Mind Maps

What is a Mind Map?
A mind map is a visual representation of words and images to help trigger ideas and associations
based on the central question/issue posed.
Mind maps work for some because of the fusion of words and images which help as a memory aid.
It’s based on the idea that our minds don’t necessarily process things in a list format.
Mind maps can either be hand drawn or generated using a computer [with help from an images
search engine!]

Mind maps have certain key rules:

                             A coloured image at the centre

                                  Images to aid memory

                                       Printed words

                   Printed words on lines connected to other lines

                                     One word per line


Such mind maps can be used to take notes from a book, notes from a
lecture, or to summarise material for revision. The key is to ensure
that each word triggers information in your brain!

Example 1

Example 2

Example 3

                                 e. Flip Cards

This is a simple device to enable you to test yourself.
Use them to revise material as you pass from one lesson to the next!
Keep the information simple- use a mnemonic if it helps.

         Why was Japan defeated?

                Atom Bomb
              Island Hopping
           Capture of Philippines
              US negotiations
             Blockade of Japan
            Economic imbalance

              6. Resources- websites, library books

 - really useful revision site. Covers Cold
  War, Nazi Germany, some of World War Two

 - covers Superpower
  Relations and Nazi Germany – some useful revision quizzes and diagrams

 - covers Superpower Relations and
  Nazi Germany, and some of World War Two

 -
  covers Superpower Relations and Nazi Germany – some quick revision
  quizzes and concise notes

 - covers World War Two
  and Nazi Germany – quite dense notes

 - online resource with lots
  of information for GCSE


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