ENGLISH IS THE by wuzhenguang

VIEWS: 13 PAGES: 16

									      ENGLISH:
IS THE “VIRUS” SPREADING?
     INFLUENCE OF ENGLISH
• English is spreading to other languages.

• A good example of this is the aviation industry.

• English has become increasingly important because of
  the importance of America as a super power particularly
  since the world wars.

• It is seen, particularly by the “youth”, as being “hip”
  because of the influence of Hollywood and western
  artists
        ENGLISH IN FRENCH
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YXpUEalMvIg
• The French believe that English loanwords continue to
  threaten their beloved mother tongue despite the
  “Académie Française”
• Words such as “le weekend” and “fast food” are just the
  beginning as French people begin to take words without
  adding French pronunciation.
• The government “terminology commissions” publishes a
  monthly lists of “official” new words which are deemed
  acceptable.
• Some French translations of English terms have not
  caught on “some we keep some we spit out”
        ENGLISH IN GERMAN
• Denglish owes its existence in part to the cultural
  predominance of English language pop music, computer
  slang and to the use of English as the lingua franca of
  politics, business and science.
• Well known examples include “dissen” “joggen” but other
  examples include those not usually seen in England
  such as “DJane”
• There has been much irritation at the spread of Denglish
  and calls for Laws against it.
• Proposal for an „Academy for the Cultivation and
  Protection of the German Language”
             Our Investigation
• We were interested to find to what extent German and
  French was being infiltrated by English
• We decided to discover this by seeing how much these
  languages were understandable English speakers
  because of the emergence of English words
• We found examples of text in both languages from
  “youth” magazines and from more “high-brow”
  magazines.
• We then asked people to highlight words they
  recognised as being derived from English and give a
  brief summary
                      RESULTS - French

          Elle1       Elle2       Elle3       Average   Le Monde1    Le Monde2   Le Monde3    Average
a            3.8         1.1         1.9      2.26667           0            0          2.2   0.733333
b                 3           4           0   2.33333           0          2.3           0    0.766667
c            4.5         4.5         2.2      3.73333           0          2.3          2.2        1.5
d            5.3         2.3         2.2      3.26667           0          2.3          2.2        1.5
e                 3           4      1.9      2.96667           0          2.3           0    0.766667
f            5.3         5.1         3.4          4.6          1.2         4.5          2.2   2.633333
g
h            5.3         4.5         3.4          4.4           0            0          2.2   0.733333
i                 3      2.8              3   2.93333           0          2.3          2.2        1.5
j            2.3              4      1.9      2.73333           0            0          2.2   0.733333
Average   3.9444      3.5889      2.2111      3.24815   0.13333333   1.7777778   1.71111111   1.207407


Control      5.3         5.1         3.4          4.6          1.2         4.5          2.2   2.633333
                   RESULTS - German
          Bravo1       Bravo2     Bravo3       Average    Spiegel1   Spiegel2   Spiegel3   Average
a              6.8          3.6       5.3      5.233333        5.1          0         0         1.7
b              8.5          4.1            3        5.2        7.7          0         0    2.566667
c                  6        3.6            3        4.2        7.7          0         0    2.566667
d              5.1          6.7       4.1           5.3        7.7          0         0    2.566667
e              6.8          7.8       4.1      6.233333        7.7          0         0    2.566667
f                  6        6.2       5.3      5.833333       10.3          0         0    3.433333
g                  6        8.8       7.1           7.3        7.7          0         0    2.566667
h              3.4          1.6            0   1.666667          0          0         0              0
i              6.8          7.3       5.9      6.666667        7.7          0         0    2.566667
j              4.3          5.7       4.7           4.9        7.7          0         0    2.566667
Average       5.97         5.54      4.25       5.25333       6.93          0         0        2.31



Control        8.5          8.8       7.1        8.1333       10.3          0         0      3.4333
      ANALYSIS OF RESULTS -
             German
• Bravo = youth magazine
  Der Spiegel = Political magazine
• Bravo – Actual % of English words = 8.1%
  people perceived as English only 5.1% of the words
  Why? Obvious words such as “Hit” and “Online”
• Der Spiegel - Actual % of English words = 3.4%
  people perceived as English only 2.31% of the words
• Much fewer English words in Der Spiegel than in Bravo
  reflecting that the “youth” adopt more Anglicisms than
  the Adult population
      ANALYSIS OF RESULTS –
              French
• Elle = Girl Fashion magazine
  Le Monde = national newspaper
• Elle – Actual % of English words = 4.6%, half as much
  as German (8.1%)
  However people still perceived as English only 3.2%
  again due to obvious words
• Le Monde – contained very few Anglicisms
  Actual % of English words = 2.6%
  People perceived only 1.2%
  Still, Le Monde seems to contain fewer Anglicisms that
  Der Spiegel
When asked to explain articles, average scores were:



Elle : 2.1/5, 2.4/5
Le Monde: 1.0/5


Bravo:   1.1/5,    1.4/5
Der Spiegel: 1.0/5


                                This confused us, so…
Harry’s Experiment:

“because Prince Charles has big ears, many people
  find his appearance amusing”



“Fo Prince Charles blatt ipp yarog zwitji, zim pinsyrik
  ljxta lin dooblax zftsit” (french order)

“Fo Prince Charles zwitji yarog blatt, ljxta zim pinsyrik lin
  dooblax zftsit” (german order)
        REFLECTION – IS THIS
     INFLUENCE BAD OR GOOD?
Are other languages
becoming more efficient?                    Globalisation



Are we
ruining the                Anglicisation
purity of
other
languages?

                                           Is this a “natural”
 Are we going to end up with one                process?
 language?
                LIMITATIONS
•   We were only able to sample 10 non-speakers for
    each language clearly this sample size is insufficient.

•   Everyone we asked had knowledge of other
    languages, which may have helped them and given
    them an advantage in the task.

•   The articles are not very representative

•   The articles did not cover the same subject matter, so
    the two were not strictly comparable

•   The high-brow topics were harder to understand.

•   Some people highlighted words which were in the
    language originally.
                 Conclusion
• The youth, and media targeted towards youth
  use more English language than those
  magazines or newspapers we used to represent
  media aimed at adults.
• This was true of both languages,
• The German extracts contained far more English
  than the French extracts
• A slightly baffling result of our investigation was
  that we found that people were more successful
  at giving summaries of the French articles than
  of the German ones.
               Evaluation
• If we were to do this investigation more
  thoroughly we would:
• Take far longer
• Asking far more people to complete our
  questionnaire
• Ideally these would also be monolingual
  English speakers
• Choose more similar texts
      Something to think about
“On the one hand, the impact of English on other
languages has been pretty disastrous in places -
like all major languages which have travelled
around the world. On the other hand, as we see
English spreading, we see it beginning to reflect
local cultural practices. When people adopt
English they immediately adapt it. So there is a
case for saying that cultural variation is being
maintained, but in new ways.” David Crystal

								
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