HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Kirkpatrick's evaluation model
A meeting was held on 21 Jun 2009, with CEO of Nickey’s Carpet Cleaning Company to assess the needs of this organization. Through the needs assessment process, it was discovered that Nickey’s Carpet Cleaning Company has been exhibiting the following symptoms:
Low morale and poor attitudes Not reaching the standard set by the organization Problems achieving work standard Unable to deliver quality in customer service Decreased work performance Lack of cooperation among employee
It is concluded that Nickey’s Carpet Cleaning Company would like to enhance their workplace culture, improve communication between employees, better service their customers, and improve cooperation in their organization. To make these improvements, Nickey’s Carpet Cleaning Company recognizes the need to further develop their employee.
The Goal Setting and Motivation training program has been proposed as solutions to help improve Nickey’s Carpet Cleaning Company’s organizational performance through people performance:
Name of the Programme
Goal Setting and Motivation Training Program
The Goal Setting and Motivation Training Programs aims to provide participants with fundamental customer service and working as team concepts as well as essential, executive-level methodologies, tools and techniques to offer top-quality customer service and efficiently plan and manage standard in service activities. Most people don’t take the time to set goals and create an action plan for reaching them. In this workshop, participants will learn how to increase productivity through goals, create an action plan that gets results, and gain tools to help stay motivated and determined to reach their goals.
All level of employee (support staff and management level) in the workplace 5.0 Duration
16 hours with 4 modules of training
7th and 21st July 2009 (Saturdays)
Seri Tanjung Seminar Room Nickey’s Carpet Cleaning Sdn Bhd Wisma Rampai Sari Lot 1128 Seksyen 16/23 Petaling Jaya Selangor Darul Ehsan
By the end of this session the participant will be able to: • Evaluate personal identity and values. • Identify personal attitudes toward change. • Develop a sense of purpose in the overall company strategy. • Explain the importance of adapting to new situations in today’s competitive workplace. • Work with others to create change for the better. • Identify typical excuses and limiting beliefs when trying to implement standard goals. • Set personal and professional smart work goals. • Create a goal action plan. • Practice techniques to recognize and manage customer service management. • Communicate effectively with others in changing situations. • Create a personal action plan to successfully be a part of change.
a) Lesson plan
MODULE ONE Creating a Positive Team Culture Implementing your vision and mission and company survival Linking vision and mission to culture Your role as a team Using team strengths and limitation Team phases and team roles
MODULE TWO Why Can’t You Think & Act Like Me? Identifying personal preferences Strengths and limitations Adapting and communicating Identifying the various styles
MODULE THREE Developing Team Skills Effective team characteristics Situational self-leadership Team communication Effective verbal, nonverbal & listening skills to create open communications Learning to give positive and negative feedback to each other & the boss Giving positive and negative feedback Dealing with difficult feedback situations & practice Problem solving & decision making
MODULE FOUR Customer Service Management Definition Importance Cost of acquiring new customers Benefits of effective customer service Creating a customer care culture Customer satisfaction Quality of service Quality assurance
Training will be conducted through series of joint session with employee, lectures, interactive activities, brainstorming session and skill and team building. The training programs combine expert presentations, workshops, case studies and discussions on real-life situations faced by participants. Complete training material is provided to all participants for future reference and follow-up action plans. 11.0 Schedules
Sessions are typically scheduled in 4 hour modules, every other week. With this investment of time, the module programs can be delivered in 4 hours every first and every third week. 12.0 Trainers
Expert trainer and personnel from Neotalis Mawar Sdn Bhd, a training and consultancy company which based here in Petaling Jaya will be conducting the training session for the company. 13.0 Future Plans
Nickey’s Carpet Cleaning Company must willing and prepare to support the any future training initiative through the creation of individualized development plans focusing on planned action steps identified through the modules of each of the programs.
QUESTION TWO Learning evaluation is a widely researched area. This is understandable since the subject is fundamental to the existence and performance of education around the world, not least universities, which of course contain most of the researchers and writers. Donald Kirkpatrick's 1975 book entitle Evaluating Training Model Programs is the most widely used and popular model for the evaluation of training and learning. Kirkpatrick's fourlevel model is now considered an industry standard across the HR and training communities.
The four levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluation model essentially measure: a) Reaction of student: what they thought and felt about the training b) Learning: the resulting increase in knowledge or capability c) Behavior: extent of behavior and capability improvement and
implementation/application d) Results: the effects on the business or environment resulting from the trainee's performance While Kirkpatrick's model is not the only one of its type, for most industrial and commercial applications it suffices; indeed most organizations would be absolutely thrilled if their training and learning evaluation, and thereby their ongoing people-development, were planned and managed according to Kirkpatrick's model. Table One below illustrates the basic Kirkpatrick structure on training evaluation Table One: Basic Kirkpatrick Structure on Training Evaluation Level Evaluatio n Type Evaluation Description and Characteristics Examples of Evaluation Tools and Methods 'Happy sheets', feedback forms Also verbal reaction, post-training surveys or questionnaires Relevance and Practicability
Reaction evaluation is how the participant (employee) felt about the training or learning experience
Quick and very easy to obtain not expensive to gather or to analyze
Learning evaluation is the measurement of the increase in knowledge before and after
Typically assessments or tests before and after the training interview or observation can also be used
Relatively simple to set up; clear-cut for quantifiable skills less easy for complex learning
Behavior evaluation is the extent of applied learning back on the job implementation
Observation and interview over time are required to assess change, relevance of change, and sustainability of change
Measurement of behavior change typically requires cooperation and skill of line-managers
Results evaluation is the effect on the business or environment by the trainee
Measures are already in place via normal management systems and reporting - the challenge is to relate to the trainee
Individually not difficult; unlike whole organization Process must attribute clear accountabilities
Table Two below illustrates the Kirkpatrick's structure on training evaluation with details, and particularly the modern-day interpretation of the Kirkpatrick learning evaluation model, usage, implications, and examples of tools and methods. Table Two: Kirkpatrick Learning Evaluation Model, Usage, Implications, and Examples of Tools and Methods Level Evaluation Type
Evaluation Description and Characteristics Reaction evaluation is how the participant (employee) felt, and their personal reactions to the training or learning experience, for example: Did the participant (employee) like and enjoy the training? Did they consider the training relevant? Was it a good use of their time? Did they like the venue, the style, timing, domestics and so on Level of participation
Examples of Evaluation Tools and Methods
Relevance and Practicability
Typically 'happy sheets' Feedback forms based on subjective personal reaction to the training experience Verbal reaction which can be noted and analyzed Post-training surveys or questionnaires Online evaluation or grading by delegates Subsequent verbal or written reports given by participant (employee) to management back at their jobs
Can be done immediately the training ends Very easy to obtain reaction feedback Feedback is not expensive to gather or to analyze for groups Important to know that people were not upset or disappointed Important that people give a positive impression when relating their experience to others who might be deciding whether to experience same
Ease and comfort of experience Level of effort required to make the most of the learning Perceived practicability and potential for applying the learning Learning evaluation is the measurement of the increase in knowledge or intellectual capability from before to after the learning experience: Did the participants (employee) learn what intended to be taught? Did the participant (employee) experience what was intended for them to experience? What is the extent of advancement or change in the participant (employee) after the training, in
Typically assessments or tests before and after the training Interview or observation can be used before and after although this is time-consuming and can be inconsistent Methods of assessment need to be closely related to the aims of the learning Measurement and analysis is possible and easy on a group scale Reliable, clear scoring and measurements need to be established, so as to limit the risk of inconsistent assessment Hard-copy,
Relatively simple to set up, but more investment and thought required than reaction evaluation Highly relevant and clear-cut for certain training such as quantifiable or technical skills Less easy for more complex learning such as attitudinal development, which is famously difficult to assess Cost escalates if systems are poorly designed, which increases work required to measure and analyze
the direction or area that was intended?
electronic, online or interview style assessments are all possible
Behavior evaluation is the extent to which the trainees applied the learning and changed their behavior, and this can be immediately and several months after the training, depending on the situation: Did the participant (employee) put their learning into effect when back on the job? Were the relevant skills and knowledge used Was there noticeable and measurable change in the activity and performance of the trainees when back in their roles? Was the change in behavior and new level of knowledge sustained?
Observation and interview over time are required to assess change, relevance of change, and sustainability of change Arbitrary snapshot assessments are not reliable because people change in different ways at different times Assessments need to be subtle and ongoing, and then transferred to a suitable analysis tool Assessments need to be designed to reduce subjective judgment of the observer or interviewer, which is a variable factor that can affect reliability and consistency of measurements The opinion of the trainee, which is a relevant indicator, is also subjective and unreliable, and so needs to be measured in a consistent defined
measurement of behavior change is less easy to quantify and interpret than reaction and learning evaluation
Simple quick response systems unlikely to be adequate Cooperation and skill of observers, typically linemanagers, are Important factors, and difficult to control Management and analysis of ongoing subtle assessments are difficult, and virtually impossible without a welldesigned system from the beginning Evaluation of implementation and application is an extremely important assessment - there is little point in a good reaction and good increase in capability if nothing changes back in the job, therefore evaluation in this area is vital, albeit challenging Behavior change
Would the participant (employee) be able to transfer their learning to another person? Is the participant (employee) aware of their change in behavior, knowledge, skill level?
360-degree feedback is useful method and need not be used before training, because respondents can make a judgment as to change after training, and this can be analyzed for groups of respondents and trainees Assessments can be designed around relevant performance scenarios, and specific key performance indicators or criteria Online and electronic assessments are more difficult to incorporate assessments tend to be more successful when integrated within existing management and coaching protocols Self-assessment can be useful, using carefully designed criteria and measurements
evaluation is possible given good support and involvement from line managers or participant (employee), so it is helpful to involve them from the start, and to identify
Benefits for them, which links to the level 4 evaluation below
Results evaluation is the effect on the business or environment resulting from the improved performance of the trainee - it is the acid test Measures would typically be business or organizational key performance indicators, such as: Volumes, values, percentages, timescales, return on investment, and other quantifiable aspects of organizational performance, for instance; numbers of complaints, staff turnover, attrition, failures, wastage, noncompliance, quality ratings, achievement of standards and accreditations, growth, retention, etc.
It is possible that many of these measures are already in place via normal management systems and reporting The challenge is to identify which and how relate to to the trainee's input and influence Therefore it is important to identify and agree accountability and relevance with the trainee at the start of the training, so they understand what is to be measured This process overlays normal good management practice - it simply needs linking to the training input Failure to link to training input type and timing will greatly reduce the ease by which results can be attributed to the training For senior employee particularly, annual appraisals and ongoing agreement of key business objectives are integral to
Individually, results evaluation is not particularly difficult; across an entire organization it becomes very much more challenging, not least because of the reliance on linemanagement, and the frequency and scale of changing structures, responsibilities and roles, which complicates the process of attributing clear accountability Also, external factors greatly affect organizational and business performance, which cloud the true cause of good or poor results
measuring business results derived from training
The parameters for such an evaluation conducted at Nickey’s Carpet Cleaning Company is ultimately depend on what the human resource function is to responsible and evaluate according to expectations set by the company. Like anything else, evaluating the employee training program must first begin with a clear appreciation of internal expectations which is the expectation that are agreed, stated in order to provide the basis for evaluating all types of results derived from the training program. If the employees of Nickey’s Carpet Cleaning Company have expectations which go beyond the company business agendas and actual responsibilities, it will almost certainly offer an opportunity to add value to company’s activities, and to add value and competitive advantage to the organization as a whole. As conclusion in this fast changing world, human resource management department is increasingly the institution which is most likely to see and respond to new opportunities for the support, development of the employee and to add value in the organization.
Sample Training Evaluation Form
I am a: ........................................................................... (your position in the company) Please indicate your impressions of the items listed below. Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Agree 1. The training met my expectations. 2. I will be able to apply the knowledge learned. 3. The training objectives for each topic were identified and followed. 4. The content was organized and easy to follow. 5. The materials distributed were pertinent and useful. 6. The trainer was knowledgeable. 7. The quality of instruction was good. 8. The trainer met the training objectives. 9. Class participation and interaction were encouraged. 10. Adequate time was provided for questions and discussion. 11. How do you rate the training overall? Excellent Good Strongly Disagree
10. What aspects of the training could be improved?
11. Other comments?
THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION
REFERENCE Darlene F. Russ-Eft, Hallie S. Preskill. (2001). Evaluation in Organizations: A Systematic Approach to Enhancing Learning, Performance, and Change. New York: Perseus, 2001 Kirkpatrick, D. (1975). Evaluating Training Programs. Madison, WI. American Society for Training and Development. Kirkpatrick’s learning and training evaluation theory. (April 2009) available at http://www.businessballs.com/kirkpatricklearningevaluationmodel.htm. Retrieved on 3 June 2009. Peter H. Rossi, Mark W. Lipsey, and Howard E. Freeman (2004) Evaluation: A Systematic Approach. (7th editions). Thousand Oak, California: Sage Pub Richard A. Swanson, Elwood F. Holton, Ed Holton (2001) Foundations of Human Resource Development. San Francisco California: Berrett-Koehler