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					Environmental Science: Toward a
Sustainable Future
Richard T. Wright

         Chapter 6
         Population and Development
                     PPT by Clark E. Adams
Population and Development

   Reassessing the demographic transition
   Promoting development – good and bad
   A new direction: social modernization
   The Cairo conference
What Is Unique about Kerala?
Kerala When Compared to India

   Life expectancy 71 years versus 61 for
   Infant mortality 17/1,000 versus 72/1,000
    for India
   Fertility rate 1.8 versus 3.3 for India
Kerala When Compared to India

   95% literacy rate
   All villages in state have access to school
    and modern health services
   Women as well educated as men
In Brief, This Chapter Is About

   Improving the lives of people
   Reducing fertility rates
   Protecting the environment
Reassessing the Demographic Transition

   Development must be linked to a reduction
    in poverty
   Existing poverty is an affront to humanity
    and should not be tolerated
   Both poverty and development are threats
    to the health of the environment
Demographic Transition: Developed and
Developing Countries
The Demographic Window
Fertility Rate and Income
Reasons for Large Families in Developing
   Old age security
   Infant and childhood mortality rates
   Children are an economic asset
   Importance of education
   Status of women
   Availability of contraceptives
The Poverty Cycle
How the Work Gets Done in Developing
Discuss Interrelationships of Factors
Influencing Family Size
   Importance of education and children viewed as
    economic assets or liabilities
   Status of women and importance of education
   Income and old age security
   Cultural views on child-bearing
   Contraceptive use and availability
Contraceptive Prevalence and Fertility
   Fertility Rate

                    Percent Using Contraceptive

   Psychological/Behavioral: abstention, calendar
    rhythm method
   Mechanical: condoms, diaphragms
   Chemical: the pill, Norplant
   Surgical: tubal ligation, vasectomy
   Intrauterine Devices (IUD): abortion device
Contraceptive Use and Fertility Rates
Adult Female Illiteracy: A Global
Promoting Development: Good and Bad

   Millennium development goals
   World agencies at work
   The debt crisis
   Development aid
Some Sobering Facts

   One-fifth of the world’s population (1.2
    billion) live on less than $1/day
   1.5 billion lack access to clean water
   2.4 billion lack access to sanitary facilities
Some Sobering Facts

   790 million are malnourished
   Environmental degradation is rampant
   Fertility rates highest in poorest countries
Millennium Development Goals (Table 6-2)

   Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
   Achieve universal primary education
   Promote gender equality and empower
   Reduce child mortality
Millennium Development Goals (Table 6-2)

   Improve maternal health
   Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other
   Ensure environmental sustainability
   Forge a global partnership for
Millennium Development Goal
World Agencies at Work: The World Bank

 Helped initiate the Millennium
  Development Goals
 Environmental strategy: Making
  Sustainable Commitments
World Agencies at Work: The World Bank

 No increased GNP
 Increased absolute poverty

 Large-scale decentralized projects:
  hydroelectric dams
 Large cattle operations (see Fig. 6-9)

 Cash crops
World Bank Reform

   Improving the quality of life
   Improving the quality of growth
   Improving the quality of the regional and
    global commons
The Debt Crisis

   $2.44 trillion in 2001
   The typical credit–debt trap
   Creditor countries primary beneficiaries
Coping with the Debt Crisis

 Grow cash crops
 Develop austerity measures

 Exploit natural resources
Development Aid
A New Direction: Social Modernization

   Improving education for girls and women
   Improving health and lowering infant
   Making family planning accessible
   Enhancing income through employment
   Improving resource management
The Greatest Challenge to Health Care in
Developing Countries
   AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency
Effect of AIDS on Future Population
    Impacts of AIDS Epidemic
   90% of all HIV-infected people (50 million by
    2004) live in developing countries
   Life expectancy in Botswana was 61 years in
    1980 – now 39 years
   One million elementary students lost teachers
   25 million AIDS orphans in developing world
    by 2010
Family Planning

   Counseling on: STDs, contraceptives,
    spacing children, pregnancy avoidance
   Supplying contraceptives
   Pre- and postnatal care
More or Less?

   Cutbacks in family-planning services lead
    to (more or less) unwanted pregnancies
    and (more or less) demand for abortions.
Employment and Income: Grameen
Bank Loans (Microlending)

     Primarily to women
     Do not upset existing social structure
     Utilize local resources
     Utilize central work places
     Help develop self-reliance
Resource Management

   Replant trees
   Prevent erosion
   Resource management educational
Putting It All Together: Social Development
The 1994 Cairo Conference

   All nations agreed that population is an issue of
    crisis proportions that must be confronted
   Formulated the 1994 International Conference
    on Population and Development Program of
    Action (ICPD Program of Action)
The 1994 ICPD Program of Action

   Maintaining and enhancing productivity of
    natural resources
   Empowerment of women
   Emphasis on family
The 1994 ICPD Program of Action

   Enhancing reproductive and basic health
    of women and children
   Improve education opportunities for
   Reduce population migrations
   International cooperation (0.7% GNP of
    developed world)
End of Chapter 6

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