REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Review of Related Literature consists of three points that must be explained in
this chapter. The three points are Contrastive Analysis, Error Analysis and Recount
Genre. They determine the writer on analyzing the students’ grammatical errors.
A. Contrastive Analysis
In Contrastive Analysis consists of two points, they are the meaning of
contrastive analysis and the hypothesis of contrastive analysis.
1. The Concept of Contrastive Analysis
Analysis means to study something or search to understand or curious
it with in finding the focus or the problem, then it is discussed from several
aspects with critics given comment then the result must be understand.
Contrastive Analysis means that comparing structures of two
languages (Native Language and Target Language) to find out similarities and
differences. Structures can be in the forms of phonology, morfology, syntax,
semantic and even cultures. Contrastive Analysis can be used to improve the
quality of teaching target language. From the result it can be predicted that the
learners do the interference or the mistake.
The most effective materials (for foreign language teaching) are based
upon a scientific description of the language to be learned carefully compared
with a parallel description of the native language of the learner (1945: 9). As
Lado says, contrastive analysis assumes maximum transfer and refers to
behaviour that is likely to appear with greater than random frequency. Di
Pietro finds out the contrastive analysis as a whole that there is a sound in L1
which will facilitate the learning of a certain target language sound.
Contrastive Analysis of two languages become useful when it is
adequately describing the sound structure and grammatical structure of two
languages with comparative statement giving due emphasis to the compatible
items in two system. It is assumed that learning of second language is
facilitated whenever there are similarities between that language and mother
tongue. Learning may be interfered with when there are marked contrasts
between mother tongue and second language (Nickel, 1971: 1).
Contrastive Linguistics or Contrastive Analysis (CA) indicates the
linguistic description of at least two languages (L1 and L2), which are
compared or contrasted in order to highlight points of sameness, similarity or
difference. Doing contrastive analysis presupposes familiarity with linguistics,
especially with the methods used for synchronic linguistic description. For
each chapter therefore, students participating have to revise their theoretical
knowledge by reading the relevant chapters in a linguistics primer. Thus, if we
are dealing with say, contrastive phonology, they ought to remember the
essential information about articulatory phonetics and about contrasts in
phoneme systems. CA is usually seen as belonging to apply linguistics
because doing contrastive analysis is of direct CA is usually seen as belonging
to applied linguistica rather than to theoretical linguistics.
Based on the explanations above, the writer concludes that contrastive
analysis is the linguistic description which are compared or contrasted to find
out similarities and differences of two languages (Native Language and Target
2. The Hypothesis of Contrastive Analysis
The contrastive analysis hypothesis stressed the interfering effects of
the first language on second language learning and claimed, in its strong form,
that second language learning and claimed, in its strong form, that second
language is primarily, if not exclusively, a process of acquiring whatever
items are different from the first language.
Dullay, Burt and Krashen (1982: 23) states that the contrastive
analysis hypothesis held that where structure in the native language different
from those in target language, error language will be produced.
Lee (1968: 186), the hypothesis of contrastive analysis as follows :
1. That the prime cause, or even the sole cause, of difficulty and error in First
2. That the difficulties are chiefly, or wholly, due to the differences between
the two languages.
3. That the greater these differences are the more acute the learning
difficulties will be.
4. That the results of a comparison between the two languages are needed to
predict the difficulties and errors which will occur in learning the first
5. That what there is to teach can best be found by comparing the two
languages and then subtracting what is common to them, so that what the
student has to learn equals the sums of the differences established by the
It must be mentioned that not all theoreticians and practitioners of
contrastive analysis would go along with this version of the contrastive
analysis hypothesis. In particular, scholars differ on how strongly they
wish to claim for interlingual interference the pride of place among error
types, and the rather simpliste correlation in Lee’s version, between
differences in structure and learning difficulty.
B. Error Analysis
1. The Meaning of Error Analysis
Error is a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a native
speaker, reflecting the interlanguage competence of the learner (Sujoko,
1989: 5). Errors as “goofs” defined in an earlier work (Dullay, Burt and
Error analysis is the fact that learners do make errors and that these
errors can be observed, analyzed and classified to reveal something of the
system operating within the learner, led to a surge of study of learners’
errors (Sujoko, 1989: 6). Error analysis easily superseded contrastive
analysis, as we discovered that only some of the errors a learner makes are
attributable to the mother tongue, that learners do notactually make all the
error that contrastive analysis predicted they should, and that learners from
disparate language backgrounds tend to make similar errors in learning one
Error analysis does not suffer from the inherent limitations of
contrastive analysis – restriction to errors caused by interlingual transfer:
error analysis brings to light many other types of errors frequently made by
learners (Richard, 1971a). Error analysis unlike contrastive analysis,
provides data on actual, attested problems and not hypothetical problems
and therefore forms a more efficient and economical basis for designing
pedagogical strategies (Lee, 1968). Error analysis is not confronted with the
complex theoretical problems encountered by contrastive analysis
The study of the systematic errors made by the learners of a target
language yields valuable insights into the nature of language – learning
strategies and hypothesis employed by learners and the nature of the
intermediate functional communicative systems or languages constructed by
them. Thus the theoretical aspect of error analysis is as worthy of study in
and of itself as is that of child language acquisition and can in turn, provide
insights into the process of language acquisition in general.
2. The Sources of Error
The final step in the analysis of learner speech is that or determining
the source of error. To enumerate all possible sources of second language
errors would be an impossible task, there are surely hundred of such
sources. (Sujoko, 1989: 14) states that there are four sources of error, they
are as follows:
a. Interlingual Transfer
In these early stages, before the system of the second language is
familiar, the native language is the only linguistic system in previous
experience upon which the learner can draw. While it is not always clear
that an error is the result of transfer from the native language, many such
errors are detectable in learner speech. Fluent knowledge of analyzing such
errors: however, even familiarity with the language can be help in
pinpointing this common source.
a). I am running – running
b). When I small
The first sentence “I am running – running” is interfered by the
learner’s mother tongue “Saya sedang lari – lari” which correctly is “I am
running” while the second sentence “When I small” the learner transfer
word by word only, and the right sentence is “When I was child”. Those
errors are the result of negative transfer of the native language or
b. Intralingual Transfer
Now clear that intralingual errors, or intralingual interference, the
negative transfer or items within the target language or put another way, the
incorrect generalization of rules within the target language is a major factor
in second language learning.
For example :
a). Do you like apple? Yes, I did.
b). I recreation have a picnic.
The first sentence, the learner puts did in the answer of the question by
using do. The correct answer by adding do in the end of the answer. In
addition, the second sentence, the error is the word recreation and picnic is
same. Therefore, the learner has to choose one of them.
c. Context of Learning
Students often make errors because of a misleading explanation from
the teacher, faulty presentation of a structure or word in a textbook, or even
because of a pattern that was rotely memorized in a drill but not properly
For example :
a). Let’s we put our lesson
b). Please, dead the lamp
In the first sentence, a learner puts a word put to explain lesson. It is
not match to explain lesson. The correct one is start. In the second sentence,
a learner puts dead to explain the lamp. It is not a proper adjective to explain
the lamp. The correct sentence is Please, turn off the lamp.
The social context of language acquisition will produce other types of
can give rise to certain dialect acquisition which may itself be a source of
d. Communication Strategies
Communication strategies is clear that the category of communication
strategies overlaps both inter – and intralingual transfer and context of
learning, nevertheless, communication strategies form a separate and
exceedingly significant source of error. A communication strategy is the
conscious employment of verbal or non verbal mechanisms for
comunicating an idea when precise linguistic forms are for some reason not
readily available to the learner at a point in communication. There are some
strategies of communication, those are :
Avoidance is a common communication strategy that can be broken
down into several subcategories and thus distinguished from other type of
strategy. The most common types of avoidance strategies are syntactic or
lexical avoidance within a semantic category (Sujoko, 1989: 24). A
learner commits the avoidance strategy for some reason not readily
available to the learner.
For example :
(1) In syntactic category
We took my potion. Instead of I took my medicine.
(2) In phonological avoidance
John and Brian hide the children. Instead of They are kidnappers.
(3) In topic avoidance
A whole topic of conversation (say, talking about what happened
yesterday if the past tense is unfamiliar) might be avoided entirely.
Learners manage to devise ingenious methods of topic avoidance :
changing the subject, pretending not to understand, simply not
responding at all, or noticeably abandoning a message when a thought
become to difficult to continue expressing.
2) Prefabricated Patterns
In this types of strategy, foreign learners only memorize certain
stock phrase or sentences without understanding the knowledge of the
structure of the phrase. Sujoko (1989: 25) states that “Tourist survival”
language is full of prefabricated patterns, most of which can be found in
pocket bilingual “phrase” books which list hundreds of stock sentences
for various occasions.
The errors will also occur in connecting process of
prefabricated pattern adjacent forms, such as the English sentences
errors which are often produced by learners.
1. Do you know who is she ? Instead of Do you know who she is ?
2. What you are doing ? Instead of What are you doing ?
3) Cognitive and Personality Style
Sujoko (1989: 26) comments “ A revlective and conservative
style in very careful but hesitant production of speech with perhaps
fewer errors indicative of the conscious application or rather,
misapplication – of learned rules. Such a person might also commit
errors of over formality.
4) Appeal to Authority
In this error the students just memorize without understanding
and the students just store the particular word or phrase, get the
difference they ask or check in the dictionary.
5) Language Switch
The students use their native language in the target language,
because the students just have limited vocabulary. Sujoko (1989: 28)
states that surprisingly, the context of communication coupled with
some of the universal of non verbal expression sometimes enable a
learner to communication an idea in his own language to someone
unfamiliar with that language.
1. I am SMP now.
2. BI keeps the rate of money.
Such marvels of communication are attribute to the
universality of human experience and a balm for those who feel the
utterance despair of attempting to communicate in foreign tongue.
3.The Types of Errors
According to Dullay, Burt and Krashen (1982: 155), there are four
types of errors based on the surface strategy taxonomy, omission, addition,
misinformation and misordering.
Omission errors are characterized by the absence of items that
must be present in a well – formed utterance.
1) She makes coffee
2) He is best singer
In utterance (1) the student omits an indefinite a cup of for She
makes a cup of coffee, while in utterance (2) a definite article the is
omitted for He is the best singer.
Addition errors are the opposite of omission errors. They are
characterized by the presence of an item, which must not be present in
a well – formed utterance. Dullay, Burt and Krashen (1982: 156)
divides addition error into three types, double marking, regularization
and simple addition.
(1) Double Marking
Many addition errors more accurately described as the failure
to delete certain items which are required in some linguistic
construction but not in others.
a) He does borrows the dictionary
b) We did listened our teacher’s story
In utterance (a) the two items rather than one are marked for
same feature (tense in these example). The correct one is He borrows
the dictionary. While in utterance (b), the correct one is We listened
our teacher’s story.
Regularization errors refers to an error having exceptional
items of the given class that do not take a marker.
a) The peoples run to the road
b) The datas is valid
In utterance (a) has incorrect use of peoples and the correct one
is people. While utterance (b), the correct one is data.
(3) Simple Addition
Errors of simple addition refer to the addition of one element to
the correct utterance.
a) I must to study hard
b) We are is playing football
In utterance (a), the student adds to follow must. After the word
must, the students needn’t adding to, but must be followed V – 1. So,
the sentence is I must study hard. While in utterance (b), the student
adds is after are. The correct sentence is We are playing football.
c. Misformation Errors
Misformation errors are characterized by the use of the
unacceptable forms of the morpheme or structure. There are three
subtypes of misformation errors, regularization errors, archi forms, and
1) Regularization Errors
Regularization errors are in which regular marker are used in
place of irregular ones.
This type of misformation errors has been called regularization.
Datas should become data, because singular or plural from the word
data is same. While readed, the correct one is read.
2) Archi form
The selection of marker of one member of class of forms to
represent other in the class in a common characteristic of all stages of
second language acquisition. The forms selected by the learner are
called archi form. The following examples are dealing with the use of
demonstrative adjective this, that, these, and those.
a) That books
b) This motorcycle
c) These plate
d) Those butterfly
This type of misformation error has been called archi form.
That and this should be followed by singular form, while these and
those should be followed by plural form.
3) Alternating Form
As learners’ vocabulary and grammar now, the use of
archi-form often gives away to the apparently free alternation of
various member of class with each other.
a) I would have forgot you
b) I drawn the flower
The utterances about have incorrect use of the forgot and
drawn instead forgotten and drew respectively.
d. Misordering Error
The incorrect placement of a morpheme or group of
morphemes in an utterance characterized misordering error.
Misordering errors occurs systematically for both L1 and L2
a) What your is hobby?
b) How you are now?
In utterance a has misordering use is what is your hobby?
While in utterance b has misordering use are for How are you
4. The Practical Uses of Error Analysis
Error provide feedback, they tell the teacher something
about the effectiveness of his teaching materials and his teaching
techniques. They show him what pants of the syllabus he has been
following have been inadequately learned or taught and need
Studying learner’s errors serve some benefits, particularly
for the teacher. As Sujoko (1989: 48) states, the most obvious
practical use of error analysis is to the teacher. Some practical uses
of error analysis are:
a. Errors provide feedback; they tell the teacher something about
the effectiveness of his teaching and his teaching techniques.
b. They show him parts of syllabus he has following have been
inadequately learned or taught and need further attention.
c. They enable him to do decide whether he must devote mote
time to the items he has been working on. This is the day-to-
day value of error. But in terms of boarder planning and with
new group of learner.
d. They provide him information for designing a remedial
syllabus or a program of retouching. The matter, however, is
not quieting as simple as this.
As mentioned above the practical use of error analysis is
very significant both to the teacher and to the learners. The
significant of the practical uses of error analysis is to the teacher, it
means that she analysis the learner’s error and correct these errors
made by the learners. The practical uses of error analysis can
facilitate them improving the English mastery.
5. The Methodology of Error Analysis
In order to analyze the error in erroneous sentences, the
writer shows the methodology that enables her to do it.
The methodology stated by Shridar (1985: 222):
a. Collection of the data (either from a “free” composition by
students on give theme or from examination answer).
b. Identification of error (labelling with varying degree of
precision depending on the linguistic sophistication brought to
bear on the task with respect to thee exact nature of the
deviation-dangling preposition, anomalous sequence of the
c. Classification into error types.
d. Statement of relative frequency of error type.
e. Identification of the areas of difficulties in the target language.
f. Therapy (remedial drill, lessons, etc)
As the follow up and to make the investigation more
sophisticated, Duskova suggests including one or both of the
1) Analysis of the source of errors (e.g. mother tongue
interference, over generalization, inconsistency in the spelling
system of the target language).
2) Determination of the degree of disturbance caused by the error
(or the seriousness of the error in term of communication,
The methodology by Ellis (1986: 296)
1) Collection of sample data
2) Identification of error
3) Clarification of error types
4) Classification into error types.
5) Evaluating the errors.
There is one modification of methodology of error analysis
namely “ideal methodology” (Tarigan, 1988: 71). The
methodology is in the following:
a. Collecting the data (students’ error taken from examination
answers, composition, or conversations).
b. Identifying and classifying error
c. Stating the frequency
d. Clarifying error
e. Predicting the area of difficulties
f. Correcting error.
C. Recount Writing
Recount is story to retell what happened. The purpose of a factual
recount is to document a series of events and evaluate their significance in some
way. The purpose of the literary or story recount is to tell a sequence of events so
that it entertains. The story recount has expressions of attitude and feeling usually
made by the narration about the events.
Recounts are organized to include:
1. A record of events usually recounted in chronological order;
2. Personal comments and/or evaluative remarks which are interspersed
throughout the record of events;
3. A reorientation which founds of the sequence of event.
Common grammatical patterns of a recount include:
1. Use of nouns and pronouns to identify people animals or things involved;
2. Use of action verbs to refer to events;
3. Use of past tense to locate events in relation to speaker’s or writer’s time;
4. Use of conjunctions and time connectives to sequence the events;
5. Use of adverbs and adverbial phrases indicate place and time;
6. Use of adjectives to describe nouns. Board of Studies (1998b: 287)
Accurate sentences in legible handwriting. The second strand emphasizes
development of a shared language for talking about language, and using this to
evaluate texts in terms of effectiveness, meaning and accuracy. An explicit focus
on grammar is therefore central as it enables students not only to understand how
sentences are structured so that they are meaningful, clear and syntactically
accurate, but also to think about the relationship between a text and its context,
how language changes.
Writing Recount Outcomes
1. Produces a wide range of well-structured and well-presented literary and
factual texts for a wide variety of purposes and audiences using increasingly
challenging topics, ideas, issues and written language features.
2. Uses knowledge of structure, grammar and punctuation to edit own writing.
3. Spells most common words accurately and uses a range of strategies to spell
4. Produces texts in a fluent and legible style and uses computer technology to
present these effectively in varieties of ways.
5. Critically analyses own texts in terms of how well they have been written,
how effectively they present the subject matter and how they influence the
6. Critically evaluates how own texts have been structured to achieve their
purpose and discusses ways of related grammatical features and conventions
of written language to shape readers’ and viewers’ understanding of texts.
Board of Studies (1998b: 295)
Students should work with and construct extended recounts with well
developed orientation, record of events and reorientation stages. In factual
recounts the orientation may need to include background information, which is
essential to understanding the events.
The content will be mainly factual. Students will need to undertake
extensive research using pro forma and charts for building up notes.
1. Have students write a recount in the form of a diary, after researching topic.
2. Provide a pro forma for students to use to collect information about a series of
events with questions such as, when did it happen? What happened? Ask
students to use this to write a factual recount.
3. Jointly construct a factual recount of a class excursion. Individual/small
groups of students develop the recount by adding in word/phases to describe
people, events, locations, time, in more detail.
4. Have student’s select key events in a recount and create a visual text to
enhance these. Abbreviated from Board of Studies (1998b: 290-295)
Research in functional linguistics has also informed many of the
materials developed to support the syllabus in classrooms by providing clear
procedure for implementing the approach (e.g. Derewianka, 1998; Knapp and
Warking, 1994). These materials are principally designed to help teacher and
learners explorer text though an explicit focus on genre features, providing
information that can be draw on in the context of purposeful language use. A
good example is a classroom practice suggested by Derewianka (1990) for
introducting recount to grade 2 children.