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A GRAMMATICAL ERROR ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS WRITING OF TELLING UNFORGETTABLE MOMENT OF THE ELEVENTH YEAR STUDENTS OF SMK MUHAMMADIYAH 1 JATINOM IN 2009
A GRAMMATICAL ERROR ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS WRITING OF TELLING UNFORGETTABLE MOMENT OF THE ELEVENTH YEAR STUDENTS OF SMK MUHAMMADIYAH 1 JATINOM IN 2009
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Review of Related Literature consists of three points that must be explained in this chapter. The three points are Contrastive Analysis, Error Analysis and Recount Genre. They determine the writer on analyzing the students’ grammatical errors. A. Contrastive Analysis In Contrastive Analysis consists of two points, they are the meaning of contrastive analysis and the hypothesis of contrastive analysis. 1. The Concept of Contrastive Analysis Analysis means to study something or search to understand or curious it with in finding the focus or the problem, then it is discussed from several aspects with critics given comment then the result must be understand. Contrastive Analysis means that comparing structures of two languages (Native Language and Target Language) to find out similarities and differences. Structures can be in the forms of phonology, morfology, syntax, semantic and even cultures. Contrastive Analysis can be used to improve the quality of teaching target language. From the result it can be predicted that the learners do the interference or the mistake. The most effective materials (for foreign language teaching) are based upon a scientific description of the language to be learned carefully compared with a parallel description of the native language of the learner (1945: 9). As Lado says, contrastive analysis assumes maximum transfer and refers to 7 8 behaviour that is likely to appear with greater than random frequency. Di Pietro finds out the contrastive analysis as a whole that there is a sound in L1 which will facilitate the learning of a certain target language sound. Contrastive Analysis of two languages become useful when it is adequately describing the sound structure and grammatical structure of two languages with comparative statement giving due emphasis to the compatible items in two system. It is assumed that learning of second language is facilitated whenever there are similarities between that language and mother tongue. Learning may be interfered with when there are marked contrasts between mother tongue and second language (Nickel, 1971: 1). Contrastive Linguistics or Contrastive Analysis (CA) indicates the linguistic description of at least two languages (L1 and L2), which are compared or contrasted in order to highlight points of sameness, similarity or difference. Doing contrastive analysis presupposes familiarity with linguistics, especially with the methods used for synchronic linguistic description. For each chapter therefore, students participating have to revise their theoretical knowledge by reading the relevant chapters in a linguistics primer. Thus, if we are dealing with say, contrastive phonology, they ought to remember the essential information about articulatory phonetics and about contrasts in phoneme systems. CA is usually seen as belonging to apply linguistics because doing contrastive analysis is of direct CA is usually seen as belonging to applied linguistica rather than to theoretical linguistics. Based on the explanations above, the writer concludes that contrastive analysis is the linguistic description which are compared or contrasted to find 9 out similarities and differences of two languages (Native Language and Target Language). 2. The Hypothesis of Contrastive Analysis The contrastive analysis hypothesis stressed the interfering effects of the first language on second language learning and claimed, in its strong form, that second language learning and claimed, in its strong form, that second language is primarily, if not exclusively, a process of acquiring whatever items are different from the first language. Dullay, Burt and Krashen (1982: 23) states that the contrastive analysis hypothesis held that where structure in the native language different from those in target language, error language will be produced. Lee (1968: 186), the hypothesis of contrastive analysis as follows : 1. That the prime cause, or even the sole cause, of difficulty and error in First Language. 2. That the difficulties are chiefly, or wholly, due to the differences between the two languages. 3. That the greater these differences are the more acute the learning difficulties will be. 4. That the results of a comparison between the two languages are needed to predict the difficulties and errors which will occur in learning the first language. 5. That what there is to teach can best be found by comparing the two languages and then subtracting what is common to them, so that what the 10 student has to learn equals the sums of the differences established by the contrastive analysis. It must be mentioned that not all theoreticians and practitioners of contrastive analysis would go along with this version of the contrastive analysis hypothesis. In particular, scholars differ on how strongly they wish to claim for interlingual interference the pride of place among error types, and the rather simpliste correlation in Lee’s version, between differences in structure and learning difficulty. B. Error Analysis 1. The Meaning of Error Analysis Error is a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a native speaker, reflecting the interlanguage competence of the learner (Sujoko, 1989: 5). Errors as “goofs” defined in an earlier work (Dullay, Burt and Krashen, 1972). Error analysis is the fact that learners do make errors and that these errors can be observed, analyzed and classified to reveal something of the system operating within the learner, led to a surge of study of learners’ errors (Sujoko, 1989: 6). Error analysis easily superseded contrastive analysis, as we discovered that only some of the errors a learner makes are attributable to the mother tongue, that learners do notactually make all the error that contrastive analysis predicted they should, and that learners from disparate language backgrounds tend to make similar errors in learning one target language. 11 Error analysis does not suffer from the inherent limitations of contrastive analysis – restriction to errors caused by interlingual transfer: error analysis brings to light many other types of errors frequently made by learners (Richard, 1971a). Error analysis unlike contrastive analysis, provides data on actual, attested problems and not hypothetical problems and therefore forms a more efficient and economical basis for designing pedagogical strategies (Lee, 1968). Error analysis is not confronted with the complex theoretical problems encountered by contrastive analysis (Wardhaugh, 1970). The study of the systematic errors made by the learners of a target language yields valuable insights into the nature of language – learning strategies and hypothesis employed by learners and the nature of the intermediate functional communicative systems or languages constructed by them. Thus the theoretical aspect of error analysis is as worthy of study in and of itself as is that of child language acquisition and can in turn, provide insights into the process of language acquisition in general. 2. The Sources of Error The final step in the analysis of learner speech is that or determining the source of error. To enumerate all possible sources of second language errors would be an impossible task, there are surely hundred of such sources. (Sujoko, 1989: 14) states that there are four sources of error, they are as follows: a. Interlingual Transfer 12 In these early stages, before the system of the second language is familiar, the native language is the only linguistic system in previous experience upon which the learner can draw. While it is not always clear that an error is the result of transfer from the native language, many such errors are detectable in learner speech. Fluent knowledge of analyzing such errors: however, even familiarity with the language can be help in pinpointing this common source. For example: a). I am running – running b). When I small The first sentence “I am running – running” is interfered by the learner’s mother tongue “Saya sedang lari – lari” which correctly is “I am running” while the second sentence “When I small” the learner transfer word by word only, and the right sentence is “When I was child”. Those errors are the result of negative transfer of the native language or interference. b. Intralingual Transfer Now clear that intralingual errors, or intralingual interference, the negative transfer or items within the target language or put another way, the incorrect generalization of rules within the target language is a major factor in second language learning. For example : a). Do you like apple? Yes, I did. b). I recreation have a picnic. 13 The first sentence, the learner puts did in the answer of the question by using do. The correct answer by adding do in the end of the answer. In addition, the second sentence, the error is the word recreation and picnic is same. Therefore, the learner has to choose one of them. c. Context of Learning Students often make errors because of a misleading explanation from the teacher, faulty presentation of a structure or word in a textbook, or even because of a pattern that was rotely memorized in a drill but not properly contextualized. For example : a). Let’s we put our lesson b). Please, dead the lamp In the first sentence, a learner puts a word put to explain lesson. It is not match to explain lesson. The correct one is start. In the second sentence, a learner puts dead to explain the lamp. It is not a proper adjective to explain the lamp. The correct sentence is Please, turn off the lamp. The social context of language acquisition will produce other types of can give rise to certain dialect acquisition which may itself be a source of error. d. Communication Strategies Communication strategies is clear that the category of communication strategies overlaps both inter – and intralingual transfer and context of learning, nevertheless, communication strategies form a separate and exceedingly significant source of error. A communication strategy is the 14 conscious employment of verbal or non verbal mechanisms for comunicating an idea when precise linguistic forms are for some reason not readily available to the learner at a point in communication. There are some strategies of communication, those are : 1). Avoidance Avoidance is a common communication strategy that can be broken down into several subcategories and thus distinguished from other type of strategy. The most common types of avoidance strategies are syntactic or lexical avoidance within a semantic category (Sujoko, 1989: 24). A learner commits the avoidance strategy for some reason not readily available to the learner. For example : (1) In syntactic category We took my potion. Instead of I took my medicine. (2) In phonological avoidance John and Brian hide the children. Instead of They are kidnappers. (3) In topic avoidance A whole topic of conversation (say, talking about what happened yesterday if the past tense is unfamiliar) might be avoided entirely. Learners manage to devise ingenious methods of topic avoidance : changing the subject, pretending not to understand, simply not responding at all, or noticeably abandoning a message when a thought become to difficult to continue expressing. 15 2) Prefabricated Patterns In this types of strategy, foreign learners only memorize certain stock phrase or sentences without understanding the knowledge of the structure of the phrase. Sujoko (1989: 25) states that “Tourist survival” language is full of prefabricated patterns, most of which can be found in pocket bilingual “phrase” books which list hundreds of stock sentences for various occasions. The errors will also occur in connecting process of prefabricated pattern adjacent forms, such as the English sentences errors which are often produced by learners. Example : 1. Do you know who is she ? Instead of Do you know who she is ? 2. What you are doing ? Instead of What are you doing ? 3) Cognitive and Personality Style Sujoko (1989: 26) comments “ A revlective and conservative style in very careful but hesitant production of speech with perhaps fewer errors indicative of the conscious application or rather, misapplication – of learned rules. Such a person might also commit errors of over formality. 4) Appeal to Authority In this error the students just memorize without understanding and the students just store the particular word or phrase, get the difference they ask or check in the dictionary. 16 5) Language Switch The students use their native language in the target language, because the students just have limited vocabulary. Sujoko (1989: 28) states that surprisingly, the context of communication coupled with some of the universal of non verbal expression sometimes enable a learner to communication an idea in his own language to someone unfamiliar with that language. Example : 1. I am SMP now. 2. BI keeps the rate of money. Such marvels of communication are attribute to the universality of human experience and a balm for those who feel the utterance despair of attempting to communicate in foreign tongue. 3.The Types of Errors According to Dullay, Burt and Krashen (1982: 155), there are four types of errors based on the surface strategy taxonomy, omission, addition, misinformation and misordering. a. Omission Omission errors are characterized by the absence of items that must be present in a well – formed utterance. Example : 1) She makes coffee 2) He is best singer 17 In utterance (1) the student omits an indefinite a cup of for She makes a cup of coffee, while in utterance (2) a definite article the is omitted for He is the best singer. b. Addition Addition errors are the opposite of omission errors. They are characterized by the presence of an item, which must not be present in a well – formed utterance. Dullay, Burt and Krashen (1982: 156) divides addition error into three types, double marking, regularization and simple addition. (1) Double Marking Many addition errors more accurately described as the failure to delete certain items which are required in some linguistic construction but not in others. Example : a) He does borrows the dictionary b) We did listened our teacher’s story In utterance (a) the two items rather than one are marked for the same feature (tense in these example). The correct one is He borrows the dictionary. While in utterance (b), the correct one is We listened our teacher’s story. (2) Regularization Regularization errors refers to an error having exceptional items of the given class that do not take a marker. 18 Examples : a) The peoples run to the road b) The datas is valid In utterance (a) has incorrect use of peoples and the correct one is people. While utterance (b), the correct one is data. (3) Simple Addition Errors of simple addition refer to the addition of one element to the correct utterance. Examples : a) I must to study hard b) We are is playing football In utterance (a), the student adds to follow must. After the word must, the students needn’t adding to, but must be followed V – 1. So, the sentence is I must study hard. While in utterance (b), the student adds is after are. The correct sentence is We are playing football. c. Misformation Errors Misformation errors are characterized by the use of the unacceptable forms of the morpheme or structure. There are three subtypes of misformation errors, regularization errors, archi forms, and alternating forms. 1) Regularization Errors Regularization errors are in which regular marker are used in place of irregular ones. 19 Examples : a. datas b. readed This type of misformation errors has been called regularization. Datas should become data, because singular or plural from the word data is same. While readed, the correct one is read. 2) Archi form The selection of marker of one member of class of forms to represent other in the class in a common characteristic of all stages of second language acquisition. The forms selected by the learner are called archi form. The following examples are dealing with the use of demonstrative adjective this, that, these, and those. Examples : a) That books b) This motorcycle c) These plate d) Those butterfly This type of misformation error has been called archi form. That and this should be followed by singular form, while these and those should be followed by plural form. 3) Alternating Form As learners’ vocabulary and grammar now, the use of archi-form often gives away to the apparently free alternation of various member of class with each other. 20 Examples: a) I would have forgot you b) I drawn the flower The utterances about have incorrect use of the forgot and drawn instead forgotten and drew respectively. d. Misordering Error The incorrect placement of a morpheme or group of morphemes in an utterance characterized misordering error. Misordering errors occurs systematically for both L1 and L2 learners. Examples: a) What your is hobby? b) How you are now? In utterance a has misordering use is what is your hobby? While in utterance b has misordering use are for How are you now? 4. The Practical Uses of Error Analysis Error provide feedback, they tell the teacher something about the effectiveness of his teaching materials and his teaching techniques. They show him what pants of the syllabus he has been following have been inadequately learned or taught and need further attention. Studying learner’s errors serve some benefits, particularly for the teacher. As Sujoko (1989: 48) states, the most obvious 21 practical use of error analysis is to the teacher. Some practical uses of error analysis are: a. Errors provide feedback; they tell the teacher something about the effectiveness of his teaching and his teaching techniques. b. They show him parts of syllabus he has following have been inadequately learned or taught and need further attention. c. They enable him to do decide whether he must devote mote time to the items he has been working on. This is the day-to- day value of error. But in terms of boarder planning and with new group of learner. d. They provide him information for designing a remedial syllabus or a program of retouching. The matter, however, is not quieting as simple as this. As mentioned above the practical use of error analysis is very significant both to the teacher and to the learners. The significant of the practical uses of error analysis is to the teacher, it means that she analysis the learner’s error and correct these errors made by the learners. The practical uses of error analysis can facilitate them improving the English mastery. 5. The Methodology of Error Analysis In order to analyze the error in erroneous sentences, the writer shows the methodology that enables her to do it. The methodology stated by Shridar (1985: 222): 22 a. Collection of the data (either from a “free” composition by students on give theme or from examination answer). b. Identification of error (labelling with varying degree of precision depending on the linguistic sophistication brought to bear on the task with respect to thee exact nature of the deviation-dangling preposition, anomalous sequence of the tense, etc) c. Classification into error types. d. Statement of relative frequency of error type. e. Identification of the areas of difficulties in the target language. f. Therapy (remedial drill, lessons, etc) As the follow up and to make the investigation more sophisticated, Duskova suggests including one or both of the following: 1) Analysis of the source of errors (e.g. mother tongue interference, over generalization, inconsistency in the spelling system of the target language). 2) Determination of the degree of disturbance caused by the error (or the seriousness of the error in term of communication, norm, etc). The methodology by Ellis (1986: 296) 1) Collection of sample data 2) Identification of error 3) Clarification of error types 23 4) Classification into error types. 5) Evaluating the errors. There is one modification of methodology of error analysis namely “ideal methodology” (Tarigan, 1988: 71). The methodology is in the following: a. Collecting the data (students’ error taken from examination answers, composition, or conversations). b. Identifying and classifying error c. Stating the frequency d. Clarifying error e. Predicting the area of difficulties f. Correcting error. C. Recount Writing Recount is story to retell what happened. The purpose of a factual recount is to document a series of events and evaluate their significance in some way. The purpose of the literary or story recount is to tell a sequence of events so that it entertains. The story recount has expressions of attitude and feeling usually made by the narration about the events. Recounts are organized to include: 1. A record of events usually recounted in chronological order; 2. Personal comments and/or evaluative remarks which are interspersed throughout the record of events; 3. A reorientation which founds of the sequence of event. 24 Common grammatical patterns of a recount include: 1. Use of nouns and pronouns to identify people animals or things involved; 2. Use of action verbs to refer to events; 3. Use of past tense to locate events in relation to speaker’s or writer’s time; 4. Use of conjunctions and time connectives to sequence the events; 5. Use of adverbs and adverbial phrases indicate place and time; 6. Use of adjectives to describe nouns. Board of Studies (1998b: 287) Accurate sentences in legible handwriting. The second strand emphasizes development of a shared language for talking about language, and using this to evaluate texts in terms of effectiveness, meaning and accuracy. An explicit focus on grammar is therefore central as it enables students not only to understand how sentences are structured so that they are meaningful, clear and syntactically accurate, but also to think about the relationship between a text and its context, how language changes. Writing Recount Outcomes 1. Produces a wide range of well-structured and well-presented literary and factual texts for a wide variety of purposes and audiences using increasingly challenging topics, ideas, issues and written language features. 2. Uses knowledge of structure, grammar and punctuation to edit own writing. 3. Spells most common words accurately and uses a range of strategies to spell unfamiliar words. 4. Produces texts in a fluent and legible style and uses computer technology to present these effectively in varieties of ways. 25 5. Critically analyses own texts in terms of how well they have been written, how effectively they present the subject matter and how they influence the reader. 6. Critically evaluates how own texts have been structured to achieve their purpose and discusses ways of related grammatical features and conventions of written language to shape readers’ and viewers’ understanding of texts. Board of Studies (1998b: 295) Students should work with and construct extended recounts with well developed orientation, record of events and reorientation stages. In factual recounts the orientation may need to include background information, which is essential to understanding the events. The content will be mainly factual. Students will need to undertake extensive research using pro forma and charts for building up notes. Learning Experience 1. Have students write a recount in the form of a diary, after researching topic. 2. Provide a pro forma for students to use to collect information about a series of events with questions such as, when did it happen? What happened? Ask students to use this to write a factual recount. 3. Jointly construct a factual recount of a class excursion. Individual/small groups of students develop the recount by adding in word/phases to describe people, events, locations, time, in more detail. 4. Have student’s select key events in a recount and create a visual text to enhance these. Abbreviated from Board of Studies (1998b: 290-295) 26 Research in functional linguistics has also informed many of the materials developed to support the syllabus in classrooms by providing clear procedure for implementing the approach (e.g. Derewianka, 1998; Knapp and Warking, 1994). These materials are principally designed to help teacher and learners explorer text though an explicit focus on genre features, providing information that can be draw on in the context of purposeful language use. A good example is a classroom practice suggested by Derewianka (1990) for introducting recount to grade 2 children.
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