VIEWS: 209 PAGES: 20


More Info
									                                  CHAPTER II


       Review of Related Literature consists of three points that must be explained in

this chapter. The three points are Contrastive Analysis, Error Analysis and Recount

Genre. They determine the writer on analyzing the students’ grammatical errors.

A. Contrastive Analysis

       In Contrastive Analysis consists of two points, they are the meaning of

   contrastive analysis and the hypothesis of contrastive analysis.

   1. The Concept of Contrastive Analysis

              Analysis means to study something or search to understand or curious

       it with in finding the focus or the problem, then it is discussed from several

       aspects with critics given comment then the result must be understand.

              Contrastive Analysis means that comparing structures of two

       languages (Native Language and Target Language) to find out similarities and

       differences. Structures can be in the forms of phonology, morfology, syntax,

       semantic and even cultures. Contrastive Analysis can be used to improve the

       quality of teaching target language. From the result it can be predicted that the

       learners do the interference or the mistake.

              The most effective materials (for foreign language teaching) are based

       upon a scientific description of the language to be learned carefully compared

       with a parallel description of the native language of the learner (1945: 9). As

       Lado says, contrastive analysis assumes maximum transfer and refers to


behaviour that is likely to appear with greater than random frequency. Di

Pietro finds out the contrastive analysis as a whole that there is a sound in L1

which will facilitate the learning of a certain target language sound.

        Contrastive Analysis of two languages become useful when it is

adequately describing the sound structure and grammatical structure of two

languages with comparative statement giving due emphasis to the compatible

items in two system. It is assumed that learning of second language is

facilitated whenever there are similarities between that language and mother

tongue. Learning may be interfered with when there are marked contrasts

between mother tongue and second language (Nickel, 1971: 1).

        Contrastive Linguistics or Contrastive Analysis (CA) indicates the

linguistic description of at least two languages (L1 and L2), which are

compared or contrasted in order to highlight points of sameness, similarity or

difference. Doing contrastive analysis presupposes familiarity with linguistics,

especially with the methods used for synchronic linguistic description. For

each chapter therefore, students participating have to revise their theoretical

knowledge by reading the relevant chapters in a linguistics primer. Thus, if we

are dealing with say, contrastive phonology, they ought to remember the

essential information about articulatory phonetics and about contrasts in

phoneme systems. CA is usually seen as belonging to apply linguistics

because doing contrastive analysis is of direct CA is usually seen as belonging

to applied linguistica rather than to theoretical linguistics.

        Based on the explanations above, the writer concludes that contrastive

analysis is the linguistic description which are compared or contrasted to find

   out similarities and differences of two languages (Native Language and Target


2. The Hypothesis of Contrastive Analysis

          The contrastive analysis hypothesis stressed the interfering effects of

   the first language on second language learning and claimed, in its strong form,

   that second language learning and claimed, in its strong form, that second

   language is primarily, if not exclusively, a process of acquiring whatever

   items are different from the first language.

          Dullay, Burt and Krashen (1982: 23) states that the contrastive

   analysis hypothesis held that where structure in the native language different

   from those in target language, error language will be produced.

          Lee (1968: 186), the hypothesis of contrastive analysis as follows :

   1. That the prime cause, or even the sole cause, of difficulty and error in First


   2. That the difficulties are chiefly, or wholly, due to the differences between

      the two languages.

   3. That the greater these differences are the more acute the learning

      difficulties will be.

   4. That the results of a comparison between the two languages are needed to

      predict the difficulties and errors which will occur in learning the first


   5. That what there is to teach can best be found by comparing the two

      languages and then subtracting what is common to them, so that what the

          student has to learn equals the sums of the differences established by the

          contrastive analysis.

             It must be mentioned that not all theoreticians and practitioners of

          contrastive analysis would go along with this version of the contrastive

          analysis hypothesis. In particular, scholars differ on how strongly they

          wish to claim for interlingual interference the pride of place among error

          types, and the rather simpliste correlation in Lee’s version, between

          differences in structure and learning difficulty.

B. Error Analysis

      1. The Meaning of Error Analysis

             Error is a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a native

        speaker, reflecting the interlanguage competence of the learner (Sujoko,

        1989: 5). Errors as “goofs” defined in an earlier work (Dullay, Burt and

        Krashen, 1972).

             Error analysis is the fact that learners do make errors and that these

        errors can be observed, analyzed and classified to reveal something of the

        system operating within the learner, led to a surge of study of learners’

        errors (Sujoko, 1989: 6). Error analysis easily superseded contrastive

        analysis, as we discovered that only some of the errors a learner makes are

        attributable to the mother tongue, that learners do notactually make all the

        error that contrastive analysis predicted they should, and that learners from

        disparate language backgrounds tend to make similar errors in learning one

        target language.

      Error analysis does not suffer from the inherent limitations of

 contrastive analysis – restriction to errors caused by interlingual transfer:

 error analysis brings to light many other types of errors frequently made by

 learners (Richard, 1971a). Error analysis unlike contrastive analysis,

 provides data on actual, attested problems and not hypothetical problems

 and therefore forms a more efficient and economical basis for designing

 pedagogical strategies (Lee, 1968). Error analysis is not confronted with the

 complex theoretical problems encountered by contrastive analysis

 (Wardhaugh, 1970).

      The study of the systematic errors made by the learners of a target

 language yields valuable insights into the nature of language – learning

 strategies and hypothesis employed by learners and the nature of the

 intermediate functional communicative systems or languages constructed by

 them. Thus the theoretical aspect of error analysis is as worthy of study in

 and of itself as is that of child language acquisition and can in turn, provide

 insights into the process of language acquisition in general.

2. The Sources of Error

      The final step in the analysis of learner speech is that or determining

 the source of error. To enumerate all possible sources of second language

 errors would be an impossible task, there are surely hundred of such

 sources. (Sujoko, 1989: 14) states that there are four sources of error, they

 are as follows:

 a. Interlingual Transfer

     In these early stages, before the system of the second language is

familiar, the native language is the only linguistic system in previous

experience upon which the learner can draw. While it is not always clear

that an error is the result of transfer from the native language, many such

errors are detectable in learner speech. Fluent knowledge of analyzing such

errors: however, even familiarity with the language can be help in

pinpointing this common source.

For example:

a). I am running – running

b). When I small

     The first sentence “I am running – running” is interfered by the

learner’s mother tongue “Saya sedang lari – lari” which correctly is “I am

running” while the second sentence “When I small” the learner transfer

word by word only, and the right sentence is “When I was child”. Those

errors are the result of negative transfer of the native language or


b. Intralingual Transfer

     Now clear that intralingual errors, or intralingual interference, the

negative transfer or items within the target language or put another way, the

incorrect generalization of rules within the target language is a major factor

in second language learning.

For example :

a). Do you like apple? Yes, I did.

b). I recreation have a picnic.

          The first sentence, the learner puts did in the answer of the question by

 using do. The correct answer by adding do in the end of the answer. In

 addition, the second sentence, the error is the word recreation and picnic is

 same. Therefore, the learner has to choose one of them.

c. Context of Learning

          Students often make errors because of a misleading explanation from

 the teacher, faulty presentation of a structure or word in a textbook, or even

 because of a pattern that was rotely memorized in a drill but not properly


 For example :

 a). Let’s we put our lesson

 b). Please, dead the lamp

          In the first sentence, a learner puts a word put to explain lesson. It is

 not match to explain lesson. The correct one is start. In the second sentence,

 a learner puts dead to explain the lamp. It is not a proper adjective to explain

 the lamp. The correct sentence is Please, turn off the lamp.

          The social context of language acquisition will produce other types of

 can give rise to certain dialect acquisition which may itself be a source of


d. Communication Strategies

          Communication strategies is clear that the category of communication

 strategies overlaps both inter – and intralingual transfer and context of

 learning, nevertheless, communication strategies form a separate and

 exceedingly significant source of error. A communication strategy is the

conscious employment of verbal or non verbal mechanisms for

comunicating an idea when precise linguistic forms are for some reason not

readily available to the learner at a point in communication. There are some

strategies of communication, those are :

1). Avoidance

     Avoidance is a common communication strategy that can be broken

 down into several subcategories and thus distinguished from other type of

 strategy. The most common types of avoidance strategies are syntactic or

 lexical avoidance within a semantic category (Sujoko, 1989: 24). A

 learner commits the avoidance strategy for some reason not readily

 available to the learner.

 For example :

 (1) In syntactic category

     We took my potion. Instead of I took my medicine.

 (2) In phonological avoidance

     John and Brian hide the children. Instead of They are kidnappers.

 (3) In topic avoidance

     A whole topic of conversation (say, talking about what happened

     yesterday if the past tense is unfamiliar) might be avoided entirely.

     Learners manage to devise ingenious methods of topic avoidance :

     changing the subject, pretending not to understand, simply not

     responding at all, or noticeably abandoning a message when a thought

     become to difficult to continue expressing.

2) Prefabricated Patterns

             In this types of strategy, foreign learners only memorize certain

   stock phrase or sentences without understanding the knowledge of the

   structure of the phrase. Sujoko (1989: 25) states that “Tourist survival”

   language is full of prefabricated patterns, most of which can be found in

   pocket bilingual “phrase” books which list hundreds of stock sentences

   for various occasions.

             The errors will also occur in connecting process of

   prefabricated pattern adjacent forms, such as the English sentences

   errors which are often produced by learners.

   Example :

   1. Do you know who is she ? Instead of Do you know who she is ?

   2. What you are doing ? Instead of What are you doing ?

3) Cognitive and Personality Style

             Sujoko (1989: 26) comments “ A revlective and conservative

   style in very careful but hesitant production of speech with perhaps

   fewer errors indicative of the conscious application or rather,

   misapplication – of learned rules. Such a person might also commit

   errors of over formality.

4) Appeal to Authority

             In this error the students just memorize without understanding

   and the students just store the particular word or phrase, get the

   difference they ask or check in the dictionary.

 5) Language Switch

               The students use their native language in the target language,

     because the students just have limited vocabulary. Sujoko (1989: 28)

     states that surprisingly, the context of communication coupled with

     some of the universal of non verbal expression sometimes enable a

     learner to communication an idea in his own language to someone

     unfamiliar with that language.

     Example :

     1. I am SMP now.

     2. BI keeps the rate of money.

               Such marvels of communication are attribute to the

     universality of human experience and a balm for those who feel the

     utterance despair of attempting to communicate in foreign tongue.

3.The Types of Errors

      According to Dullay, Burt and Krashen (1982: 155), there are four

 types of errors based on the surface strategy taxonomy, omission, addition,

 misinformation and misordering.

 a. Omission

               Omission errors are characterized by the absence of items that

     must be present in a well – formed utterance.

     Example :

     1) She makes coffee

     2) He is best singer

          In utterance (1) the student omits an indefinite a cup of for She

 makes a cup of coffee, while in utterance (2) a definite article the is

 omitted for He is the best singer.

b. Addition

          Addition errors are the opposite of omission errors. They are

   characterized by the presence of an item, which must not be present in

   a well – formed utterance. Dullay, Burt and Krashen (1982: 156)

   divides addition error into three types, double marking, regularization

   and simple addition.

   (1) Double Marking

          Many addition errors more accurately described as the failure

   to delete certain items which are required in some linguistic

   construction but not in others.

   Example :

   a) He does borrows the dictionary

   b) We did listened our teacher’s story

          In utterance (a) the two items rather than one are marked for


   same feature (tense in these example). The correct one is He borrows

   the dictionary. While in utterance (b), the correct one is We listened

   our teacher’s story.

   (2) Regularization

          Regularization errors refers to an error having exceptional

   items of the given class that do not take a marker.

 Examples :

 a) The peoples run to the road

 b) The datas is valid

        In utterance (a) has incorrect use of peoples and the correct one

 is people. While utterance (b), the correct one is data.

 (3) Simple Addition

        Errors of simple addition refer to the addition of one element to

 the correct utterance.

 Examples :

 a) I must to study hard

 b) We are is playing football

        In utterance (a), the student adds to follow must. After the word

 must, the students needn’t adding to, but must be followed V – 1. So,

 the sentence is I must study hard. While in utterance (b), the student

 adds is after are. The correct sentence is We are playing football.

c. Misformation Errors

        Misformation errors are characterized by the use of the

 unacceptable forms of the morpheme or structure. There are three

 subtypes of misformation errors, regularization errors, archi forms, and

 alternating forms.

 1) Regularization Errors

        Regularization errors are in which regular marker are used in

 place of irregular ones.

Examples :

a. datas

b. readed

           This type of misformation errors has been called regularization.

Datas should become data, because singular or plural from the word

data is same. While readed, the correct one is read.

2) Archi form

           The selection of marker of one member of class of forms to

represent other in the class in a common characteristic of all stages of

second language acquisition. The forms selected by the learner are

called archi form. The following examples are dealing with the use of

demonstrative adjective this, that, these, and those.

Examples :

a) That books

b) This motorcycle

c) These plate

d) Those butterfly

           This type of misformation error has been called archi form.

That and this should be followed by singular form, while these and

those should be followed by plural form.

3) Alternating Form

              As learners’ vocabulary and grammar now, the use of

    archi-form often gives away to the apparently free alternation of

    various member of class with each other.


   a) I would have forgot you

   b) I drawn the flower

           The utterances about have incorrect use of the forgot and

   drawn instead forgotten and drew respectively.

d. Misordering Error

           The incorrect placement of a morpheme or group of

   morphemes in an utterance characterized misordering error.

   Misordering errors occurs systematically for both L1 and L2



   a) What your is hobby?

   b) How you are now?

           In utterance a has misordering use is what is your hobby?

   While in utterance b has misordering use are for How are you


4. The Practical Uses of Error Analysis

           Error provide feedback, they tell the teacher something

   about the effectiveness of his teaching materials and his teaching

   techniques. They show him what pants of the syllabus he has been

   following have been inadequately learned or taught and need

   further attention.

           Studying learner’s errors serve some benefits, particularly

   for the teacher. As Sujoko (1989: 48) states, the most obvious

   practical use of error analysis is to the teacher. Some practical uses

   of error analysis are:

   a. Errors provide feedback; they tell the teacher something about

       the effectiveness of his teaching and his teaching techniques.

   b. They show him parts of syllabus he has following have been

       inadequately learned or taught and need further attention.

   c. They enable him to do decide whether he must devote mote

       time to the items he has been working on. This is the day-to-

       day value of error. But in terms of boarder planning and with

       new group of learner.

   d. They provide him information for designing a remedial

       syllabus or a program of retouching. The matter, however, is

       not quieting as simple as this.

           As mentioned above the practical use of error analysis is

   very significant both to the teacher and to the learners. The

   significant of the practical uses of error analysis is to the teacher, it

   means that she analysis the learner’s error and correct these errors

   made by the learners. The practical uses of error analysis can

   facilitate them improving the English mastery.

5. The Methodology of Error Analysis

           In order to analyze the error in erroneous sentences, the

   writer shows the methodology that enables her to do it.

           The methodology stated by Shridar (1985: 222):

a. Collection of the data (either from a “free” composition by

   students on give theme or from examination answer).

b. Identification of error (labelling with varying degree of

   precision depending on the linguistic sophistication brought to

   bear on the task with respect to thee exact nature of the

   deviation-dangling preposition, anomalous sequence of the

   tense, etc)

c. Classification into error types.

d. Statement of relative frequency of error type.

e. Identification of the areas of difficulties in the target language.

f. Therapy (remedial drill, lessons, etc)

       As the follow up and to make the investigation more

sophisticated, Duskova suggests including one or both of the


1) Analysis of the source of errors (e.g. mother tongue

   interference, over generalization, inconsistency in the spelling

   system of the target language).

2) Determination of the degree of disturbance caused by the error

   (or the seriousness of the error in term of communication,

   norm, etc).

The methodology by Ellis (1986: 296)

1) Collection of sample data

2) Identification of error

3) Clarification of error types

                  4) Classification into error types.

                  5) Evaluating the errors.

                           There is one modification of methodology of error analysis

                  namely     “ideal   methodology”       (Tarigan,   1988:   71).   The

                  methodology is in the following:

                  a. Collecting the data (students’ error taken from examination

                      answers, composition, or conversations).

                  b. Identifying and classifying error

                  c. Stating the frequency

                  d. Clarifying error

                  e. Predicting the area of difficulties

                  f. Correcting error.

C. Recount Writing

            Recount is story to retell what happened. The purpose of a factual

   recount is to document a series of events and evaluate their significance in some

   way. The purpose of the literary or story recount is to tell a sequence of events so

   that it entertains. The story recount has expressions of attitude and feeling usually

   made by the narration about the events.

      Recounts are organized to include:

   1. A record of events usually recounted in chronological order;

   2. Personal comments and/or evaluative remarks which are interspersed

      throughout the record of events;

   3. A reorientation which founds of the sequence of event.

   Common grammatical patterns of a recount include:

1. Use of nouns and pronouns to identify people animals or things involved;

2. Use of action verbs to refer to events;

3. Use of past tense to locate events in relation to speaker’s or writer’s time;

4. Use of conjunctions and time connectives to sequence the events;

5. Use of adverbs and adverbial phrases indicate place and time;

6. Use of adjectives to describe nouns. Board of Studies (1998b: 287)

       Accurate sentences in legible handwriting. The second strand emphasizes

development of a shared language for talking about language, and using this to

evaluate texts in terms of effectiveness, meaning and accuracy. An explicit focus

on grammar is therefore central as it enables students not only to understand how

sentences are structured so that they are meaningful, clear and syntactically

accurate, but also to think about the relationship between a text and its context,

how language changes.

   Writing Recount Outcomes

1. Produces a wide range of well-structured and well-presented literary and

   factual texts for a wide variety of purposes and audiences using increasingly

   challenging topics, ideas, issues and written language features.

2. Uses knowledge of structure, grammar and punctuation to edit own writing.

3. Spells most common words accurately and uses a range of strategies to spell

   unfamiliar words.

4. Produces texts in a fluent and legible style and uses computer technology to

   present these effectively in varieties of ways.

5. Critically analyses own texts in terms of how well they have been written,

   how effectively they present the subject matter and how they influence the


6. Critically evaluates how own texts have been structured to achieve their

   purpose and discusses ways of related grammatical features and conventions

   of written language to shape readers’ and viewers’ understanding of texts.

   Board of Studies (1998b: 295)

       Students should work with and construct extended recounts with well

developed orientation, record of events and reorientation stages. In factual

recounts the orientation may need to include background information, which is

essential to understanding the events.

       The content will be mainly factual. Students will need to undertake

extensive research using pro forma and charts for building up notes.

   Learning Experience

1. Have students write a recount in the form of a diary, after researching topic.

2. Provide a pro forma for students to use to collect information about a series of

   events with questions such as, when did it happen? What happened? Ask

   students to use this to write a factual recount.

3. Jointly construct a factual recount of a class excursion. Individual/small

   groups of students develop the recount by adding in word/phases to describe

   people, events, locations, time, in more detail.

4. Have student’s select key events in a recount and create a visual text to

   enhance these. Abbreviated from Board of Studies (1998b: 290-295)

         Research in functional linguistics has also informed many of the

materials developed to support the syllabus in classrooms by providing clear

procedure for implementing the approach (e.g. Derewianka, 1998; Knapp and

Warking, 1994). These materials are principally designed to help teacher and

learners explorer text though an explicit focus on genre features, providing

information that can be draw on in the context of purposeful language use. A

good example is a classroom practice suggested by Derewianka (1990) for

introducting recount to grade 2 children.

To top