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									                                  CHAPTER 1


A. Background of the Study

          As every body knows, translation is an activity involving language.

   Language is a means of communication to build an interaction with others and

   to share information, express, feeling, ask question, request, promise, etc.

   According to Bell (1991: 1) translation can be defined as expression in other

   language (TL) of what has been in another source language, preserving

   semantics and stylistic equivalence. Besides, translation focuses the

   correspondences in language form and content, that is on the structural

   differences between source and target language. From the statement above

   means that, the translators should know both the source and the target

   language. They should be familiar with the subject matter, and should have

   some facilities of expressions in the target language.

          Translation involves reading the Source Language (SL) text, writing

   the Target Language (TL) text, and between two there is a process of shifting

   one code to the other code. Reading consists of processing text by reference to

   the existing knowledge and applying analytic skill which permit the readers to

   extract information contained in the text. There is a process of extracting the

   message of a text by reading using the readers background knowledge. While,

   writing consists of organizing the existing knowledge and applying synthetic


    skill to that knowledge, which permit the writer to release it as information in

    a text.

              From the statement above, reading in the translation has important

    function. It can be concerned in the text or utterance which is read. In this

    case, translator must understand about intention forms and reason from source

    language. Usually the intention and reason become a problem. Translator can

    solve this problem using two appropriate linguistics (syntactic and semantic)

    and social knowledge (pragmatic).

              In the phenomenon, the translators in literary translation used different

    way in translation. It is based on the background of the study and knowledge.

    While, in the process of translation needed equivalent message between writer

    (or speaker) and reader (or listener). Dealing with the translation complexities,

    there are many problems come up translating text one of them is to translate

    Directive Utterance which are translated into Indonesia. The case of the

    translation of directive utterances can be found in the Sidney Seldon‟s novel

    “The Naked Face” and Its translation. The case of example is follow:

          SL:” Courts always make me hungry “ Judd said. “ Why don’t I whip up
             a little birthday supper?” and he took her into the kitchen where she
             watched him skill fully put to gather a mexican omelete, French-
             fried potatoes, toasted English muffins, a saladd and wiffe.
          TL: “ Pengadilan selalu membuat saya lapar”, kata judd.” Mari kita
             makan untuk merayakaan ulang tahunmu.” Diajaknya Carol ke
             dapur. Disitu Caarol bisa melihat Dokter dengan pandainya
             maasaaak dadar telur meksiko, kentang goreng perancis, kue
             panggang inggris, salad, dan kopi


               Basically,   in   grammatical   form,   the   source language     is

   interrogative sentence, but in the target language (TL) is translated into

   declarative sentence. From the utterance, the message of the source language

   cannot be transferred by the target language. It caused by the intention of the

   SL and TL. In the source language, the speaker (Carol) inform to the Judd

   while in the target language is change into the command. Base on the accurate

   approach, the accurate of translation can be known from the accurate of

   meaning and message from the source language into the target language. The

   utterance “ Why don’t I whip up a little supper ?”, it has translated into “Mari

   kita makan untuk merayakan ulang tahunmu”. The translation above, it should

   be translated into “mengapa tidak merayakan perayaan kecil pada ulang


      Base on the phenomenon, the writer is interested in research concerning on

   the way of utterances translated into Indonesia language. Base on the above

   reasons, the writer intents to conduct a further research entitle:




B. The Review of the Study

          There are some researchers, who studies about Directive Utterances as

   the main object. One of the researcher is Suharno. “A Pragmatic Analysis on

   Directive Utterance in the English Translation of Al Q
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