1. The Notion of Translation
There are many experts who defined the meaning of translation. The
definition of translation has been suitably with development of science and
technology. The definitions from some experts will be present. According
to Catford (1974: 20) translation is the replacement of textual material in
one language (source language) by equivalent textual material in one
language Besides, Newmark (1991: 5) translation is rendering the meaning
of a text into another language in the way that the author intended in the
text. While, Bell (1991: 5) adds in the definition of translation more
He states that “Translation is the expression in another language or
(Target language) of what has been expressed in another source
language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences.
From the statement above means that, the translation is expression in one
language (source language) which do not change the meaning and force of
a text into another language (target language).
2. The Principle of Translation
In a practice of translation, a translator has to take into consideration some
principle matters relate to translation. According to Nida and Taber (1974:
12) “a result of translation represent to closest equivalence between the
message of the source language and the target language, firstly in terms of
meaning and secondly in terms of style.”
In Wiratno (2002: 134) the principle of translation as follows:
a. Reading comprehension of the whole texts which will be translated
and getting the general content of the text.
b. Analyzing terminology and the difficult word which used on the text.
c. Transferring the message of sentence in to the translation form in the
d. Restructuring the product of translation become the fittingness of
3. Process of Translation
According to Suryawinata in Nababan (1999: 52) process of translation are
Analysis Transferring Restructuring
Source Content the meaning Content Target language
language text of message message text
From this diagram, the writer will describe the process of translation. The
processes of translation are follows:
Firstly, analyzing a text, the translation faces a text in the source language,
than the translation tries to understand the message and the thought of the
source language. In understanding the message, the translation should
analyze it grammatically and semantically.
Secondly, transferring, the translator transfers the message of the source
language into the target language. The message of the target language
should be equivalence to the message of the source language.
The third is restructuring, when the translator has transferred the message
in the target language, he should make the restructuring in order to get a
good translation and the final message is fully acceptable in the receptor
4. Accuracy of Translation
In Machali (2000: 112) translation can be view from accuracy
aspect which involved linguistic aspect, semantic aspect, and pragmatic
According to Machali (2000: 116) there are many criterion of the
A. Accuracy of the meaning
1. Linguistic aspect Fittingness, clear
2. Semantic Aspect
a) Referential meaning (Local/total)
b) Interpersonal Does it change?
(for example: connotative –denotative) Local/total
3. Pragmatic aspect
a. The equivalence of text (the intention
of the writer)
b. The regulation of meaning on the Does not it regulation?
sentence and text (local/total)
B. The fittingness of expression Fittingness, naturally
C. Terminology Right
D. The right of spelling Right
5. Equivalence of Translation
According to Ivir (1996: 155) equivalence is thus never to be
concerned of situation as defined by the interplay of many different factors
and has no existence outside that context.
Equivalence can be divided into four categories (Baker, 1992: 46-
1. Equivalence that can appear at word level and above word level
In this case, the translator should pay attention to a number of factors
when considering a single word, such as number, gender, and tense.
2. Grammatical Equivalence
The differences of grammatical structures in the SL and TL may
course remarkable changes in the way the information or message is
3. Textual Equivalence
Textual equivalence is referring the equivalence between a SL text and
a TL text in terms of information and cohesion.
4. Pragmatic Equivalence
Pragmatic equivalence is referring to implicate and strategies of
avoidance during the translation process. Here, the role of the
translator is to recreate the author’s intention in another culture in such
a way that enables the reader to understand it clearly.
According to Vinay and Darbelnet (in Leonardi, 2000: 14), they
view equivalence oriented translation as a procedure which replicates
the same situation as in the original, while to using completely
B. Directive Utterance
1. The Notion of the Directive Utterances
According to Kreidler (1998: 190) directive utterances are those in which
the speaker tries to get the addressee to perform some act or refrain from
perform an act. They express what the speaker wants. They are commands
orders, requests, suggestions, warnings etc.
2. Kind of Directive Utterances
Kreidler (1998: 190) argues that commands are the act getting
someone to do something. A command is effective only if the speaker
has some degree of control over the actions of the addressee. The
forms of sentences is usually imperative sentences. For example:
“Don’t waste your time on that”
Kreidler (1998: 191) request is an expression of what the speaker want
the addressee to do or return from doing. A request does not assume
the speaker’s control over the person addressed. For example: “take
Kreidler (1998: 191) suggestion are the utterance we make other
person to give our opinions as to what they should or should not do.
For example: “I advise you to be prompt, I warm you not to be late.”
Warning are the speakers utterances to tell or to inform the addressee
about danger (Leech, 1975: 147). Warnings may use predicate “warn”
such in the following utterance, “I warm our touch this chemical”.
1. The Notion of Sentence
According to Wariner (1958: 58) a sentence is a group of words
containing a verb and its subject and expressing a complete though.
Besides, Frank (1972: 12) defines a sentence as a full predication
containing a subject plus a predicate with a finite verb. Furthermore,
House and Harman (1950: 12) state that a sentence is a group of related
words containing a subject and predicate and expressing a complete and
independent unit of thought. So, a sentence is a group of words that