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									                                    CHAPTER II

                             UNDERLYING THEORY

A. Translation

   1. The Notion of Translation

      There are many experts who defined the meaning of translation. The

      definition of translation has been suitably with development of science and

      technology. The definitions from some experts will be present. According

      to Catford (1974: 20) translation is the replacement of textual material in

      one language (source language) by equivalent textual material in one

      language Besides, Newmark (1991: 5) translation is rendering the meaning

      of a text into another language in the way that the author intended in the

      text. While, Bell (1991: 5) adds in the definition of translation more


                 He states that “Translation is the expression in another language or
                 (Target language) of what has been expressed in another source
                 language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences.

      From the statement above means that, the translation is expression in one

      language (source language) which do not change the meaning and force of

      a text into another language (target language).

   2. The Principle of Translation

      In a practice of translation, a translator has to take into consideration some

      principle matters relate to translation. According to Nida and Taber (1974:

      12) “a result of translation represent to closest equivalence between the


   message of the source language and the target language, firstly in terms of

   meaning and secondly in terms of style.”

   In Wiratno (2002: 134) the principle of translation as follows:

   a. Reading comprehension of the whole texts which will be translated

       and getting the general content of the text.

   b. Analyzing terminology and the difficult word which used on the text.

   c. Transferring the message of sentence in to the translation form in the

       target language.

   d. Restructuring the product of translation become the fittingness of


3. Process of Translation

   According to Suryawinata in Nababan (1999: 52) process of translation are

      Analysis                        Transferring                   Restructuring

       Source             Content the meaning         Content        Target language
    language text             of message              message              text


   From this diagram, the writer will describe the process of translation. The

   processes of translation are follows:

   Firstly, analyzing a text, the translation faces a text in the source language,

   than the translation tries to understand the message and the thought of the

   source language. In understanding the message, the translation should

   analyze it grammatically and semantically.

   Secondly, transferring, the translator transfers the message of the source

   language into the target language. The message of the target language

   should be equivalence to the message of the source language.

   The third is restructuring, when the translator has transferred the message

   in the target language, he should make the restructuring in order to get a

   good translation and the final message is fully acceptable in the receptor


4. Accuracy of Translation

             In Machali (2000: 112) translation can be view from accuracy

   aspect which involved linguistic aspect, semantic aspect, and pragmatic


             According to Machali (2000: 116) there are many criterion of the

   translation evaluation:

           Aspect                                       Criterion
    A. Accuracy of the meaning
       1. Linguistic aspect                             Fittingness, clear
          a) Transposition
          b) Modulation
          c) Lexicon
          d) Idiom
       2. Semantic Aspect
          a) Referential meaning                        (Local/total)
          b) Interpersonal                              Does it change?
             (for example: connotative –denotative)     Local/total
       3. Pragmatic aspect
          a. The equivalence of text (the intention
              of the writer)
          b. The regulation of meaning on the           Does not it regulation?
              sentence and text                         (local/total)
    B. The fittingness of expression                    Fittingness, naturally
    C. Terminology                                      Right
    D. The right of spelling                            Right

5. Equivalence of Translation

           According to Ivir (1996: 155) equivalence is thus never to be

   concerned of situation as defined by the interplay of many different factors

   and has no existence outside that context.

           Equivalence can be divided into four categories (Baker, 1992: 46-


   1. Equivalence that can appear at word level and above word level

       In this case, the translator should pay attention to a number of factors

       when considering a single word, such as number, gender, and tense.

   2. Grammatical Equivalence

       The differences of grammatical structures in the SL and TL may

       course remarkable changes in the way the information or message is

       carried across.

   3. Textual Equivalence

       Textual equivalence is referring the equivalence between a SL text and

       a TL text in terms of information and cohesion.

   4. Pragmatic Equivalence

       Pragmatic equivalence is referring to implicate and strategies of

       avoidance during the translation process. Here, the role of the

       translator is to recreate the author’s intention in another culture in such

       a way that enables the reader to understand it clearly.

           According to Vinay and Darbelnet (in Leonardi, 2000: 14), they

       view equivalence oriented translation as a procedure which replicates

          the same situation as in the original, while to using completely

          different wording.

B. Directive Utterance

   1. The Notion of the Directive Utterances

      According to Kreidler (1998: 190) directive utterances are those in which

      the speaker tries to get the addressee to perform some act or refrain from

      perform an act. They express what the speaker wants. They are commands

      orders, requests, suggestions, warnings etc.

   2. Kind of Directive Utterances

      a. Command

          Kreidler (1998: 190) argues that commands are the act getting

          someone to do something. A command is effective only if the speaker

          has some degree of control over the actions of the addressee. The

          forms of sentences is usually imperative sentences. For example:

          “Don’t waste your time on that”

      b. Request

          Kreidler (1998: 191) request is an expression of what the speaker want

          the addressee to do or return from doing. A request does not assume

          the speaker’s control over the person addressed. For example: “take

          your bag!”

      c. Suggestion

          Kreidler (1998: 191) suggestion are the utterance we make other

          person to give our opinions as to what they should or should not do.

          For example: “I advise you to be prompt, I warm you not to be late.”

      d. Warning

          Warning are the speakers utterances to tell or to inform the addressee

          about danger (Leech, 1975: 147). Warnings may use predicate “warn”

          such in the following utterance, “I warm our touch this chemical”.

C. Sentences

   1. The Notion of Sentence

               According to Wariner (1958: 58) a sentence is a group of words

      containing a verb and its subject and expressing a complete though.

      Besides, Frank (1972: 12) defines a sentence as a full predication

      containing a subject plus a predicate with a finite verb. Furthermore,

      House and Harman (1950: 12) state that a sentence is a group of related

      words containing a subject and predicate and expressing a complete and

      independent unit of thought. So, a sentence is a group of words that
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