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					FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                   Energy Savings Initiatives

                                The Timken Company’s Steel Business
                                    Mike Seifert and Nathan Abboud




                                            March 24, 2010


                                                      1
                                Energy Savings Initiatives
                                The Timken Company’s Steel Business
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                                  Outline of Topics to be Discussed
                                •   Overview of Energy Savings at Timken over the Years
                                •   Heat Treat Furnace Energy Savings Projects
                                    1.   Reducing the number of burners
                                    2.   Installing high velocity burners
                                •   Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
                                    1.   Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system
                                    2.   Optimizing on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system
                                    3.   Replacing conventional burners in the high fired zones with
                                         regenerative ones
                                    4.   Redesigning recuperator by adding more surface area
                                    5.   Increasing oxygen enrichment


                                                                             2
                                Energy Savings Initiatives
                                The Timken Company’s Steel Business
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                                                                                     Alloy Steel - US
                                                 Faircrest Steel Plant                             MCF per Shipped Ton

                                                                                                            HSP Continuous Caster



                                                                                                                                                      HSP Continuous Mill




                                                                                                   CI
                                          1984

                                                  1985

                                                         1986

                                                                1987

                                                                       1988

                                                                              1989

                                                                                     1990

                                                                                            1991

                                                                                                   1992

                                                                                                          1993

                                                                                                                 1994

                                                                                                                        1995

                                                                                                                               1996

                                                                                                                                      1997

                                                                                                                                             1998

                                                                                                                                                    1999

                                                                                                                                                           2000

                                                                                                                                                                  2001

                                                                                                                                                                         2002

                                                                                                                                                                                2003

                                                                                                                                                                                       2004

                                                                                                                                                                                              2005

                                                                                                                                                                                                     2006

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2007

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2008

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2009
                                1980s ~ 40% improvement 1990s ~ 17% improvement 2000s ~ 45% improvement (excl. 2009)
                                                                                   3
                                Heat Treat Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                                                                Heat Treat
                                                                        Roller Hearth Furnaces




                                •   Historically the furnaces were designed for production & quality

                                •   Energy efficiency was not the primary driver

                                •   Team of Manufacturing, Process Improvement, Combustion, & Met
                                    QA was formed



                                                                            4
                                Heat Treat Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                                                            Heat Treat
                                                                    Roller Hearth Furnaces




                                 An idea was generated that we may be able to reduce the number
                                 of burners

                                 Numerous trials were run monitoring temperature profiles of the
                                 product and the furnace

                                 Product samples were cut and examined to assure no impact to
                                 the product properties


                                                                        5
                                Heat Treat Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                                                                 Heat Treat
                                                                          Roller Hearth Furnaces




                                Trials supported reducing burners in the soak zones

                                Results:
                                           No impact to product quality

                                           Significant fuel savings




                                                                             6
                                 Heat Treat Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Reducing the number of burners
                                     Control Char t
                                       Individual Measur ement of 7RMCF/ton
                                                      4. 50

                                                      4. 00
                                                                                                                                                                                                 UCL =3. 89 61
                                          7RMCF/ton




                                                      3. 50

                                                      3. 00                                                                                                                                      Avg=3. 092 7


                                                      2. 50
                                                                                                                                                                                                 LCL=2. 28 93
                                                      2. 00
                                                               02/01/2005
                                                                            04/01/2005
                                                                                         06/01/2005

                                                                                                      08/01/2005
                                                                                                                   10/01/2005
                                                                                                                                12/01/2005
                                                                                                                                             02/01/2006

                                                                                                                                                          04/01/2006
                                                                                                                                                                       06/01/2006
                                                                                                                                                                                    08/01/2006
                                                                                                                      Date




                                        This control chart shows the Results

                                                              Net reduction of 25%
                                                                                                                                                                       7
                                Heat Treat Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010



                                                                                        Heat Treat
                                                                                      Car Furnaces




                                One of our car furnaces had lower velocity 1950 vintage burners

                                Another car had a higher mix 1979 vintage burner




                                                                         8
                                Heat Treat Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010



                                                                                       Heat Treat
                                                                                     Car Furnaces




                                These two car furnaces at GSP were rebuilt with high velocity
                                burners to improve throughput in addition to energy




                                                                        9
                                 Heat Treat Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Installing high velocity burners
                                                                                                   Before
                                                                    4 Car MCF/ton                 changes

                                            3.50
                                            3.25
                                            3.00
                                            2.75
                                            2.50
                                            2.25
                                            2.00
                                            1.75                                                      4 car
                                            1.50
                                            1.25
                                            1.00
                                            0.75      After
                                            0.50    changes
                                            0.25
                                            0.00




                                                                                        09
                                                       l




                                                                               l
                                               07




                                                               08
                                                     Ju




                                                                             Ju




                                                                                      n-
                                             Ja




                                                              Ja




                                                                                    Ja




                                       As high as 33% savings for some heat treat cycles


                                                                                             10
                                Heat Treat Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                                      MCF /Ton




                                        Other projects:
                                        Reduced Cycle Times
                                        Improved Furnace Pressure
                                        Control
                                        Shut down Zones
                                        Added Insulation
                                        Better Control of Air/Fuel
                                        …
                                                                 11
                                Energy Savings Initiatives
                                The Timken Company’s Steel Business
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                                   Outline of Topics to be Discussed
                                •   Overview of Energy Savings at Timken over the Years
                                •   Heat Treat Furnace Energy Savings Projects
                                    1.   Reducing the number of burners
                                    2.   Installing high velocity burners
                                •   Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
                                    1.   Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system
                                    2.   Optimizing on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system
                                    3.   Replace conventional burners in the high fired zones with regenerative ones
                                    4.   Redesign recuperator by adding more surface area
                                    5.   Increase oxygen enrichment




                                                                                 12
                                    Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010



                                Key factors for success:

                                •    Projects needed dedicated resources

                                •    Finite element analysis knowledge was essential

                                •    DOE (Design of Experiment) expertise was required

                                •    Commitment from operations for the trials was needed

                                •    Trials were designed to run within standard operating ranges




                                                                           13
                                Energy Savings Initiatives
                                The Timken Company’s Steel Business
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                                   Outline of Topics to be Discussed
                                •   Overview of Energy Savings at Timken over the Years
                                •   Heat Treat Furnace Energy Savings Projects
                                    1.   Reducing the number of burners
                                    2.   Installing high velocity burners
                                •   Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
                                    1.   Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system
                                    2.   Optimizing on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system
                                    3.   Replace conventional burners in the high fired zones with regenerative ones
                                    4.   Redesign recuperator by adding more surface area
                                    5.   Increase oxygen enrichment




                                                                                 14
                                 Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system

                                • True knowledge of billet temperatures allows optimum pre-heat conditions
                                to be set

                                • Scale layer minimized so mill yields increase

                                • Areas of non-uniform heating that cause eccentricity of tubing identified

                                • Vital information for verification of mathematical furnace models




                                                                            15
                                 Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system

                                Making Thermod billet temperature calculation closer to actual temperature.
                                Attaching a logger to the billet with thermocouples recording temperatures
                                every 5 seconds.




                                                                         16
                                Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010



                                Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system




                                                                       17
                                Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system




                                                                       18
                                Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system




                                                                     19
                                  Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system




                                                                      20
                                  Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system




                                                                       21
                                 Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system




                                                                       22
                                 Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system


                                • Design of experiment goal was to run a minimum number of trials to
                                identify the variables causing the most amount of error between
                                calculated and actual billet temperature.

                                • These trials were later analyzed and used to refine the model and
                                reduce the error.




                                                                         23
                                Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system

                                •   Assuming:
                                     – The error from factor interactions is negligible
                                     – Only diameter spacing and time are the main factors
                                •   DOE half factorial predicts the main effects of 3 control factors with
                                    a total of 6 runs


                                               RUN     DIA     SPACING TIME (MPI)
                                                1      10.5      1.25     15
                                                2       6        1.25     15
                                                3       6        0.25     15
                                                4      10.5      0.25     15
                                                5       6        1.25     25
                                                6       6        0.25     25

                                                                             24
                                Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system

                                  • Zone temperature range is 1700°F to 2350°F. It varies
                                    within the same run. Thus, its effect was captured.
                                  • Time usually varies from 15 MPI TO 25 MPI. Only 6” billet
                                    was tested at 15 MPI and 25 MPI. The 10.5” billet can not
                                    be tested at 25 MPI due to Datapaq limitations
                                  • View factor is a function of spacing. Only spacing was
                                    tested.
                                  • Emissivity varies with scale thickness and scale thickness
                                    varies with time. Only time was tested.
                                  • According to DEFORM model already developed, material
                                    type has negligible effect.
                                                                      25
                                 Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system
                                   Material type effect is negligible

                                                                    Material Type Effect, 10.5" Billet, 15 mpi

                                                2500
                                                2400
                                                2300
                                                2200
                                                2100
                                                2000
                                                1900
                                                1800
                                                1700
                                                1600
                                                1500                                                                                                               zone
                                                1400
                                        T (F)




                                                1300                                                                                                               top_1026
                                                1200
                                                1100                                                                                                               bot_1026
                                                1000
                                                 900                                                                                                               top_52100
                                                 800
                                                 700                                                                                                               bot_52100
                                                 600
                                                 500                                                                                                               top_1090
                                                 400
                                                 300                                                                                                               bot_1090
                                                 200
                                                 100
                                                   0
                                                                 1000
                                                                        1500
                                                                               2000
                                                                                      2500
                                                                                             3000
                                                                                                    3500
                                                                                                           4000
                                                                                                                  4500
                                                                                                                         5000
                                                                                                                                5500
                                                                                                                                       6000
                                                                                                                                              6500
                                                                                                                                                     7000
                                                                                                                                                            7500
                                                                                                                                                                   8000
                                                                                                                                                                          8500
                                                                                                                                                                                 9000
                                                           500
                                                       0




                                                                                                                   t (s)



                                                                                                                                  26
                                 Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system
                                 Predicted temperature was off by over 400°F at times
                                                                                    BILLET OD: 6", BILLET SPACING: 1.5", TIME IN FURNACE: 15 MPI


                                 2300
                                 2200
                                 2100
                                 2000
                                 1900
                                 1800
                                 1700
                                 1600
                                 1500
                                 1400
                                                                                                                                                              Thermod_zone
                                 1300
                                                                                                                                                              Datapaq_zone
                                 1200
                                                                                                                                                              Thermod_top
                                 1100
                                                                                                                                                              Datapaq_top1
                                 1000
                                                                                                                                                              Datapaq_top2
                                 900
                                                                                                                                                              Thermod_center
                                 800
                                                                                                                                                              Datapaq_center1
                                 700
                                                                                                                                                              Datapaq_center2
                                 600
                                                                                                                                                              Thermod_bottom
                                 500
                                                                                                                                                              Datapaq_bottom1
                                 400
                                                                                                                                                              Datapaq_bottom2
                                 300
                                 200
                                 100
                                   0
                                        0

                                            180

                                                  360

                                                        540

                                                              720
                                                                    900

                                                                          1080

                                                                                 1260

                                                                                        1440
                                                                                               1620

                                                                                                      1800

                                                                                                             1980

                                                                                                                    2160

                                                                                                                           2340
                                                                                                                                  2520

                                                                                                                                         2700

                                                                                                                                                2880

                                                                                                                                                       3060
                                                                                                                                                              3240

                                                                                                                                                                     3420

                                                                                                                                                                            3600

                                                                                                                                                                                   3780
                                                                                                                                                                                          3960

                                                                                                                                                                                                 4140

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4320

                                                                                                                                                                                                               4500

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4680
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             4860

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5040

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           5220

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5400
                                                                                                                                                              27
                                Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system


                                New view factors were calculated to account for furnace geometry and
                                billet spacing variations

                                Furnace thermocouples were relocated to reflect true zone temperature

                                Difference between actual billet temperature and calculated billet
                                temperature was significantly reduced




                                                                        28
                                Energy Savings Initiatives
                                The Timken Company’s Steel Business
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                                   Outline of Topics to be Discussed
                                •   Overview of Energy Savings at Timken over the Years
                                •   Heat Treat Furnace Energy Savings Projects
                                    1.   Reducing the number of burners
                                    2.   Installing high velocity burners
                                •   Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
                                    1.   Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system
                                    2.   Optimizing on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system
                                    3.   Replace conventional burners in the high fired zones with regenerative ones
                                    4.   Redesign recuperator by adding more surface area
                                    5.   Increase oxygen enrichment




                                                                                 29
                                Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                        Quality


                                                                 Production




                                           Energy Savings
                                                            30
                                 Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Optimizing on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system


                                  If the billet temperature is non-uniform, the tube is eccentric.
                                  Eccentric tubes often result in an out-of-tolerance wall size.




                                                                            31
                                  Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Optimizing on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system

                                Furnaces are slightly pressurized in order to reduce cold air infiltration

                                Cold air infiltration negatively affects billet temperature uniformity




                                                                              32
                                        Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                    Optimizing on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system

                                •     Billet spacing
                                •     Zone #4 excess air
                                •     Zone #5 excess air
                                •     Enthalpy Profile
                                •     Furnace pressure


                                       Responses were:
                                       Eccentricity (P)
                                       Fuel Consumption (S)
                                       Productivity (S)


                                                                             33
                                     Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Optimizing on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system


                                 •    A resolution 5 fractional factorial design of experiment with center
                                      points was conducted using JMP

                                 •    Ran a four month trial

                                 •    Towards the end of the trial, results started to show that lower
                                      eccentricity can be achieved with , increased spacing, increased
                                      excess air, and higher furnace pressure




                                                                              34
                                    Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                    Optimizing on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system
                                •    The trial was augmented with additional settings in order to determine the
                                     optimal settings for this process.

                                •    The trial was continued to completion with these additional runs.

                                •    Optimal spacing was determined (Greater than normal practice)

                                •    We optimized excess air (which was a higher setting)

                                •    Furnace pressure was not changed




                                                                              35
                                  Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Optimizing on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system




                                                                       36
                                      Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                    Optimizing on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system
                                •    In Summary:

                                •    A design of experiment using JMP (statistical software) was conducted to
                                     optimize furnace settings and achieve uniformly heated billets.

                                •    Since then, eccentricity has been at a record low. Tubes concentricity
                                     significantly improved allowing us to process new orders with a tighter wall
                                     size tolerance.

                                •    Monitoring fuel, we did see a reduction in fuel.

                                •    Productivity was maintained


                                                                               37
                                Energy Savings Initiatives
                                The Timken Company’s Steel Business
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                                   Outline of Topics to be Discussed
                                •   Overview of Energy Savings at Timken over the Years
                                •   Heat Treat Furnace Energy Savings Projects
                                    1.   Reducing the number of burners
                                    2.   Installing high velocity burners
                                •   Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
                                    1.   Tuning on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system
                                    2.   Optimizing on-line billet temperature model and level 2 control system
                                    3.   Replace conventional burners in the high fired zones with regenerative ones
                                    4.   Redesign recuperator by adding more surface area
                                    5.   Increase oxygen enrichment




                                                                                 38
                                       Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Replace conventional burners in the high fired zones with regenerative ones


                                      Regeneration uses a pair of burners which cycle to alternately
                                       heat the combustion air or recover and store the heat from the
                                       furnace exhaust gases.
                                      Replaced 21 burners with 9 burners at #4 Rotary in 2006

                                      Air preheat temperatures within 300°F - 500°F of the furnace are
                                       achieved resulting in exceptionally high thermal efficiency.

                                      Result was 32% in natural gas saving




                                                                              39
                                   Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Replace conventional burners in the high fired zones with regenerative ones


                                                                         Regenerative Burners Cycle A
                                  Gas

                                            Hot air

                                                                                                        Hot POC




                                                                               Courtesy of Bloom Eng.




                                                      Warm POC            40
                                    Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Replace conventional burners in the high fired zones with regenerative ones


                                                                       Regenerative Burners Cycle B




                                                                               Courtesy of Bloom Eng.




                                                                          41
                                Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Redesign recuperator by adding more surface area

                                A recuperator is a special purpose counter-flow heat exchanger used
                                to recover waste heat from exhaust gases. Optimization of heat
                                recuperator size for heat recovery applications is extremely significant in
                                order to get maximum savings from these systems.




                                           Courtesy US Department of Energy Efficiency
                                                                                         42
                                Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                Increase oxygen enrichment

                                Substitution of commercial oxygen for combustion air, which contains
                                only 20.9% O2, reduces the volume of heat-absorbing nitrogen flowing
                                through the combustion process and therefore reduces the flue gas loss.

                                2005: 3% enrichment
                                2006: 7% enrichment

                                Result was 10% in natural gas saving




                                                                        43
                                Rotary Furnace Energy Savings Projects
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




                                 Other projects:
                                 Shut down Zones
                                 Added Insulation
                                 Better Control of Air/Fuel
                                 …….



                                                              44
FIA|TECH ENERGY WORKSHOP 2010




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