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AP World History Review

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									AP World Review
               Test Format
   Exam last 3 Hours and 5 Minutes
   55 Minutes for 70 Multiple Choice
   Break
   50 Minutes for Document Based
    Question (10 minutes for Reading and
    Evaluating Documents)
   40 Minutes for Change Over Time Essay
   40 Minutes for Comparative Essay
   70 Multiple Choice Questions =
    1/2 Score
   Document Based Question =
    16.66% of Score
   Change Over Time Essay = 16.66%
    of Score
   Comparative Essay = 16.66% of
   Essays Graded on Scale of 0 to 9
   What do the questions look like
 Thequestions fall into 6 basic
 categories, which are as follows:
 – Identification (35-40% of the test)
   - simply test whether you know a
   fact, or facts.
 – Analytical (20-25% of the test) -
   makes you think about
   relationships, see connections,
   place in order.
 – Quotation Based (10% or less of
   the test) - match the quote with the
   appropriate person.
– Image Interpretation (10% or less
  of the test) - determine images
  relevance, purpose, or meaning.
– Map Based Questions (10% or less
  of the test) - identify what a map
  shows, or interpret it's purpose.
– Graph & Chart Interpretation (10%
  or less of the test) - interpret
  answer from data given in chart
            Six Themes
1. The impact of interaction among
   major societies. Such as Trade,
   International Exchange, War, and
2. The Relationship of Change and
   Continuity across the periods of
   World History
3. Impact of Technology and
    Demography on People and the
    Environment; Including Population
    change, Manufacturing, Agriculture,
         Six Themes
4. Systems of Organization and
   Gender Structure
5. Cultural and Intellectual
   Development and Interactions
   among Societies
6. Change over time in functions
   and structures of Political
        Time Frames
– Prehistory to 600 C.E: 19-20% of
– 600 C.E-1450 C.E: 22 % of
– 1450 C.E- 1750 C.E: 19-20% of
– 1750 C.E- 1914 C.E: 19-20% of
– 1914-Present: 19-20% of
Bookends of Foundation Period
    8000 BCE – 600 CE
  8000 BCE marks the Neolithic
  civilization and the development of
  four river valley civilizations
 600 CE marks the time which
  classical empires fall
     Building Blocks of
 Whatis a Civilization?
 –Economic System
 –Political Organization
 –Moral Code (Religion)
 –Written Language and
  Intellectual Tradition
 –Division of labor
    PreHistory                        History
   Presence of a written language
   Writing is essential for record keeping,
    bureaucracy, commerce, and accumulating
   it makes possible more varied cultural forms.
   Writing also led to new social divisions based
    on selective literacy.
     – Scribes
     – Scholarly gentry
   Dark Age
     – Art of writing has developed and been lost
 Environmental determinism
 Relationship   between culture of a
  civilization, success and stability
 How does the culture react to the
  environment or environmental
 Technology

 Movement of peoples into and out
  of the area
 Crossroads vs. isolation
       River Valley Civilizations
   China
    – Yellow River valley
    – Shang China: first dynasty
    – Develop in isolation w/ minimal
      contact with India and Middle East
       River Valley Civilizations
   China
    – Became the subject of many
      legends in later Chinese history
    – Monarchy
    – Bronze work, silk making, pottery,
      jade, elaborate intellectual life,
      writing, interest in science and
 Political structure tied to social order
     and culture by Confucianism

 Confucianism emphasized order,
  hierarchy, and deference, including
  specific injunctions to obey the
 Bureaucracy aimed to alleviate
  political instability, difficulties of
  centrally controlling outlying
  provinces, and related competition
  among landed aristocrats for power
  and influence.
Classical Civilizations
  and great empires

    Change from River Valleys to
          Classical Civs
   ~1000 BCE
   Location—China, India, Mediterranean World
   New/renewed civs that were durable
   Left the most substantial impacts and
   Set in motion key values and institutions
    that extend well beyond the classical period
   All 3 built on achievements of the River
    valley civs.
   Classical civs not a continuation of ancient
    river valleys
    – Change political centers
    – Improve technology
    – Est. More elaborate philosophical and religious
    – Expand science and math
    – Set up methods for territorial expansion and
      embraced a diverse group of people
    – Integrated aspects of their institutions and
    – Each civ operated separately despite contacts
      with each other
        Greece/India—Alexander   the Great
        Rome/China—Silk   Road
 Thearea from north central Mexico
 to Nicaragua

 Beginningabout 5,000 BCE,
 domesticated certain plants – beans,
 peppers, avocados, and squash.

 Maizedominated the diet of these
 agricultural peoples

 Laterinnovations such as pottery
 took place around 2000 BCE.
 When  Shang dynasty ruled in China,
 permanent sedentary villages based
 on some agriculture appeared.
 There were small, modest
 settlements without much hierarchy
 or social differentiation and a lack of
 craft specialization.

 Numbers of villages rose proliferated
 and population densities rose.

 1400 BCE to 500 BCE
 Suddenly appeared

 They had irrigated agriculture,
  impressive drainage systems,
  monumental sculpture, urbanism and
  beginnings of calendar and writing
  systems (carved inscriptions).

 Giantstone heads were found in
 ruins. No one knows how the 40-ton
 sculptures were moved from the
 quarries without wheeled vehicles or
 draft animals. All of these attest
 to a high degree of social
 organization and artistic skill.
      the Mother Civilization of
 Called
   They provided the basis of a state ruled
    by a hereditary elite in which the
    ceremonialism of a complex religious
    dominated life.
    – Powerful class of priests and aristocrats stood
      at top of society
 Most important – tradition of priestly
  leadership and religious devotion that
  became a basic part of later Middle
  American civilization.
 Did not build true cities – built ceremonial
  centers made of pyramid shaped temples
  and other buildings
 People  came for nearby farming
  villages to work on the temples or
  attend religious ceremonies
 Through trade, Olmec influence
  spread over a wide area
 Great carvers of jade and traded or
  conquered to get it.
 Know one knows what happened to
 cause their decline – mystery.
 Some   scholars think they are
 ancestors to the great Maya
 civilizations that followed.
             Andean World

 Fromthe coast to the
 Andes Mountains

 Potatoesand maize grown;
 grazing for llamas and alpacas

   850 BCE built a huge temple complex –
    stone carving and pottery show the
    Chavin people worshipped a god that was
    a part jaguar and part human with
    grinning catlike features
 Artisans worked in ceramics, textiles, and
  gold characterized.
 Used animals as decorations, often along
  scenes of war and violence.

   Some similarities with Olmecs (possible
    Amazonian lowland origin for both)
   Warfare seems to indicate a general
    process – with the development of
    agriculture and a limited amount of arable
    land, it becomes necessary to organize
    irrigation and create political authority and
    eventually states that could mobilize to
    protect or expand the available land.
   Influenced later peoples of Peru

 By  300 BCE Chavin in decline
 Andean world became characterized
  by regional centers – without political
  unity but great art.
 Wide variety of crops, domestication
  of the llama and related animals,
  dense populations, and hierarchal
  societies could be found in many
 Weavers

 Great figures of various
  animals, which cover 100s of feet
  and can be seen only from the air
 Also great straight lines or paths that
  cut across plains and seem to go
  towards mountains or celestial points
  – no one know why they were drawn

 Skilled farmers developing terracing,
  irrigation, and fertilization of the soil
 Leaders built roads and organized
  networks of relay runners to carry
 To build one temple – had to produce 130
  million bricks
 Textile, goldworking, woodcarving
 Potters decorated with scenes of everyday
  life including battle, music, and textile
  produced on small looms.
Han Dynasty
              Han Dynasty
 Strongest and longest dynasty
 Expansionist Empire
    – Postal system
    – Roads
    – Defensive fortifications
   Weak Leadership caused collapse
    – Corruption and leadership issues
 Had to protect the expanding borders
  some that encouraged trade along the
  silk road
 Silk road brought ―bandits‖ that
  threatened the outer borders of the
  Han dynasty
Silk Road
          Han Decline
 100  CE
 Nomadic tribes topple Han China

 Central government control
  diminished and corrupt bureaucracy
 Local landlords took up the slack by
  ruling their own neighborhoods
 People heavily taxed

 Increased social unrest
           Han Decline
 Daoist  revolutionary effort 184 CE
  ―Yellow Turbans‖ promised a golden
  age that would come via divine
 30,000 students demonstrated
  against decline of government
 Failed BUT decline continued into
  civil war.
    Factors of the Han Decline
 Politicalineffectiveness
 Spread of devastating epidemic -
  killed ½ of population leading to
  three centuries of chaos
   Aryans
    – Nomadic Group ―invaded‖ India
    – Earliest Europeans
    – Conquered the Dravidians (Dark Skinned
    – Established Warrior Aristocracy
    – Established Sanskrit
    – Vedic Era and Early
      Hindu faith
   Don’t forget about
    the Caste System!!!
Mauryan Empire
                India Continued
 Based on regionalism
 Open to influences from the west
 600BCE 16 major regional states all
  with different types of gov’t.
 Mauryan empire 322BCE
    – Began by Chandragupta Maurya
         1stdynasty to unite most of the Indian
    –   Ashoka: famous Emperor
    –   Extended control to Southern tip of India
    –   Converted to Buddhism
    –   Collapsed from outside attacks
    –   Laws of Manu
    –   Empire falls due to lack of durable roots
Gupta Empire
            Gupta Empire
 320  CE
 Greatest period of political stability

 Negotiated with local princes,
  intermarry with their families and
  expand influence w/o constant
            Gupta Empire
 Created   a demanding taxation
 No bureaucracy and allowed regional
  leaders to maintain control
  – There was a Gupta rep. at each local
    princes court to ensure loyalty
 Promoted  Sanskrit
 Uniform law codes
 ―Golden Age‖
             Gupta Empire
            Political Culture
 Not elaborate
 Regional

 Buddhism provides ethnic code

 Tightly knit villages

 Caste system – provided a way for
  conquered and conquerors to live together
 Caste system limited political development
  b/c of strict social rules – loyalty to caste
  above all
    Decline of Gupta Empire
 Between    200 and 600 BCE suffered
  outside invasions
 Gupta overthrown by Huns – b/c
  hadn’t solved tendency to dissolve
  into political fragmentation
 Emperors having trouble controlling
  local princes since 5th century
           Gupta Decline
 N. India affected by constant
  nomadic invasions
 Eventually push further into central
  India destroying the empire
 Nomads became integrated into the
  warrior caste and regional control
        Societal comparison
 China's society featured less rigid
  structure, slightly more opportunity for
  mobility although there was some mobility
  within castes
 different rules and cultural enforcements

 Law of Manu vrs. Confucianism

 different regard for merchants and specific
  contrasts in the definition and function of
  "mean people" versus untouchables.
    – Dharma encouraged merchants in Gupta
    – Merchants brought outside cultures and were
      not socially accepted
   Environmental Determinism
 India was more open to contact and
  invasion and less internally coherent
  (interior mountains etc), which helps
  explain the differences in openness to
  influence, and political stability
 India absorbed other cultures while
  China remains ethnically
  homogeneous (90 % of all Chinese
  trace their ancestry back to the Han
Post Classical &
 Middle Ages
         East to West
             The Bookends
 600-   great classical empires have fallen.
 632-   Coming of Islam
 1000-trade increases both by land
 and sea.
 1450-  Fall of Constantinople and decline
 of Silk roads
 1450- Europe looks westward toward
 the Atlantic
 Peru

 1400s-1535
          Inca Government
 Government    – emperor is the Inca
  god-king owned all the land, herds,
  mines, and people
 Nobles ruled the provinces along
  with local chieftains whom the Inca
  had conquered
 Below them officials carried out taxes
  and laws
 Own  language and religion
 Great road system -12,000
  miles, bridges, steps (more
  impressive than Rome’s)
 It moved armies and news
  using relay runners to
  carry messages
 Kept soldiers at outposts to
  crush rebels
              Inca capital
 Cuzco  - Capital
 Temple of the Sun (no mortar,
  survived earthquakes) is there
                Inca Daily Life
 Farming - terraces;
  government took
  possession of harvests
  and divided it
 Metalworking
 Medical advances –
  antiseptics and anesthesia
 Religion
    – polytheistic linked to nature;
    – religion tied to daily life
    – Inti – Chief god - Sun god
 Influenced by the Olmec
 Yucatan in Mexico through much of
  Central America
 600- 900
 Farming   – cleared rainforest and
  built raised fields and channels to
  drain excess water; grew corn and
  other crops
 Temples and palaces - Very tall;
  used for sacrifices to gods; carvings
  recorded history
 Social classes – each city had own ruling
 Nobles – military and officials (collected
  taxes, enforced laws)
 Women occasionally governed on own or
  in name of son
 Priests – great power only they could
  conduct religious ceremonies
 Farmers – corn, beans, squash, fruit,
  cotton, flowers; paid taxes in food and
  helped build temples
 Hieroglyphic   writing style – scribes

 Expert mathematicians and
 365-day calendar

 Numbering  system and understood
 concept of zero
           Maya decline
 Around  900 CE, abandoned cities to
  be swallowed up by jungles
 Why??? Possibly warfare,
  overpopulation led to soil exhaustion,

   Toltecs 1000 – 1200
    In 1200s, band of nomadic people
    (the ancestors to the Aztecs) migrated
    into the Valley of Mexico from the north
    and destroyed Toltecs
   Settled at Lake Texcoco due to
    legend (eagle on a cactus with
    a snake in beak)
   Aztecs 1200s-1521
 Shifted from hunting to farming and
  built Tenochititlan (Mexico City)
 used military and ideological force to
  dominate a large part of ancient
 actually multiethnic
 The Aztecs had a highly centralized,
  tribute state based on the extraction
  of labor and goods from conquered
   Aztecs continue the culture of the classical
    Mesoamerican civilization and the Toltecs
     – Toltecs considered givers of civilization
     – shared same language
     – use of human sacrifice
     – establishment of empire centered on central
     – militarism of society
     – concept of nobility tied to Toltec lineage initially
     – use of city-state organization
     – temple complexes associated with state; many
       deities of pantheon of gods
     – tribute based on sedentary agricultural system
     – cyclical view of history and calendar system
 Farming –built chinampas – artificial
 islands that are anchored to the lake
 bed. Floating gardens - corn,
 squash, and beans

 Filledin parts of lake
 and made canals
 for transportation
 Urban commercial center
 Central zone of palaces and temples
  surrounded by residential districts, smaller
  palaces, and markets
 Heart of the empire and drew tribute and
  support from allies and dependants
 1400s, greatly expanded territory
  through war and alliances
 By 1500 – 30 million people
           Aztec Government
 Single  Ruler chosen by a council of
  nobles and priests
 Nobles served as officials, judges, and
 Warriors – rise to noble status by
  killing or capturing enemy soldiers
 Commoners who farmed

 Slaves – criminals or prisoners of war
              Aztec Religion
 Priests are a class apart
 Performed rituals for gods to keep away
 Chief God– sun god

 To give sun strength to rise –
  massive human sacrifices
 Warfare is used to get
  sacrificial victims
        Aztec Human Sacrifices
To give sun strength to rise – massive human sacrifices
   – greatly exaggerated by the Spanish as a means of
     validating European conquest and cultural
   – religious act essential to the grant of rain, sun, and
     other blessings of the gods
   – an intentional use of a widespread practice to
     terrorize their neighbors and to keep the lower
     classes subordinate
   – form of population control to lower population
   – response to a lack of protein and the absence of
     large mammals associated with animal sacrifice.
            Aztec Learning
 Priestskeepers of knowledge
 Ran schools for sons of nobles

 Accurate calendar

 Herbs and medicines
 1519   – Spanish reached Tenochtitlan
  with Cortes
 Allies from conquered people

 Defeated by Spanish
        Incas and Aztec Empires
           Political Structures
   Similarities:
    – each had emperor supported by nobility that served as
      personnel of state
    – both based on tribute system with imperial redistribution
      of goods
    – both were militaristic
    – each recognized indigenous rulers in return for
      recognition of imperial sovereignty
   Differences:
    – Inca empire more integrated
    – Aztec empire based more on concept of city-states
    – Aztec empire more open to trade
    – Inca empire almost entirely relied on state redistribution
      of goods
    – Aztec use of human sacrifice as weapon of political
                 East Asia
   Era of Division: (6 Dynasties Period)
     – dominated by political division among
       many small warring states often ruled
       by nomadic invaders
    – period of Buddhist dominance
    – growth of monastic movement
    – loss of imperial centralization
    – loss of dominance of scholar-gentry
      in favor of militarized
      aristocracy (dark age).
 returnto centralized administration,
 unified empire
  – reconstruction of bureaucracy
  – reconstruction of Confucian scholar-
    gentry at expense of both Buddhists and
  – restoration of Confucianism as central
    ideology of state
Tang and Song Dynasties
       Tang and Song China
            (China’s Golden Age)
 Restoration of imperial government
  implied strengthening of traditional
  schools of Confucianism and resuscitation
  of scholar-gentry
 Confucians attacked Buddhism as a
  foreign innovation in China
 convinced emperors that monastic control
  of land represented an economic threat
 persecution of Buddhists introduced in
     Elements of Tang-Song
       economic prosperity
– The full incorporation of southern China
  into the economy as a major food-
  producing region, center of trade
– commercial expansion with West, southern
  Asia, southeast Asia
– establishment of Chinese merchant marine
– development of new commercial
  organization and credit per acre
– expanded urbanization throughout China
  Satellite Cultures of China
 Why was China unable to assimilate
 the Vietnamese despite direct rule for
 almost a millennium?
 – Vietnamese culturally different from the
    different language
    tradition of local authority inherent in village
    emphasis on nuclear family rather than
     typically Chinese extended families
    higher status accorded to women
 Satellite Cultures of China
– Chinese able to exert some influence on:
               of central administration based on
   introduction
   Confucian exam system
   someintroduction of extended family and
   ancestor worship
   use   of Chinese military organization
   ultimate failure based on inability to impact
   Vietnamese peasantry who remained
   significant on local level
   only   Buddhism impacted peasantry
   Chinese culture in relation to its satellite
    – Chinese culture extended only within semi-
      closed East Asian cultural system
    – unlike Islam that spread from the Middle East
      to Africa and to South and Southeast Asia
    – unlike common cultural exchanges between
      Islam and post-classical West
    – East Asian cultural exchange occurred in semi-
      isolation from other global cultures.
The Mongolian Empire
     Mongol expansion
   Khanates
    – Ghengis
        brought all the nomadic tribes of
         Mongolia under the rule of himself
         and his family
        rigidly disciplined military state

        turned his attention toward the settled
         peoples beyond the borders of his nomadic
        began the series of campaigns of plunder and
         conquest that eventually led to the
         establishment of the great Mongol Empire.
  Mongol expansion
The four most significant
legacies of Chinggis Khan are:
 –tolerance of many religions
 –creation of the Mongols' first script
 –support for trade and crafts
 –creation of a legal code specific to
  the Mongols' pastoral-nomadic way
  of life
– Khubilai
   Conquest of China
    ―Yuan Dynasty‖
     –Grandson of Chinggis Khan
     –Khubilai Khan was an
      important transitional figure in
      Mongol history
     –sought to rule — and not merely
      conquer — the vast domains that
      the Mongols had subjugated
   Mongol Advances
    – Stirrup
       A   special wood-and-leather saddle
         allowed the horses to bear the weight
         of their riders for long periods
        permitted the riders to retain a firm seat
        a sturdy stirrup enabled horsemen to
         be sturdier and thus more accurate in
         shooting when mounted
    – Advance horse warfare
        the horses were fast and flexible
        Used hit-and-run raids
        The Mongols had developed a composite bow made
         out of sinew and horn and were skilled at shooting it
         while riding
        gave them the upper hand against ordinary foot
        range of more than 350 yards, the bow was superior
         to the contemporaneous English longbow, whose
         range was only 250 yards
   Inclusion of conquered peoples
    – Included Muslim scholars in their courts
    – Willingness to rely on advisers particularly
      those who had worked with the Chinese
   Fall of Mongols
    – Became too Chinese and sedentary—removed
      from nomadic traditions
    – Tried to invade Japan--failed
   Golden Horde and Il’ Khan (Persia)
    – Conflict over religion
         Islam the majority religion oppressed by
         the Buddhist leaders
        Eventually will convert to Islam
   Mongol dynasty of China (the Yuan)
    attempt to alter the traditional Chinese
    social structure
    – refused to reinstate the Confucian examination
      system-- attempt to destroy the social and
      political dominance of the scholar-gentry
    – seconded by dividing the Chinese social
      structure ethnically
        Mongols   and Islamic allies on top
        northern Chinese second

        ethnic Chinese and minorities at bottom

        in addition Mongols promoted social advance of
         artisans and merchants, who had been discriminated
         against in traditional Chinese society.
   political impact of the Mongol conquests of
    Russia and the Islamic heartland
    – traditional political structure was removed and
      the path was smoothed for new political
      organization to take place
    – In Russia, Kievan superiority was forever
      destroyed and Moscow was able to achieve
      political dominance among the petty kingdoms
      through its control of tribute and by becoming
      the seat of Russian Orthodoxy
    – In Islam, the Abbasid dynasty was ended and
      the Seljuk Turks who had ruled through its
      additions was devastated opening the way for
      the rise of the Mameluks in Egypt and the
      Ottoman Turks in Asia Minor.
            extent of the Mongol
 Territorial
 empire at its largest. How did this
 affect inter-cultural exchange?
  – permitted free exchange of goods and
    ideas between global cultures along
    traditional routes of trade.
Entrance into Modern World
        1300 - 1600
     Humanism vs. Enlightenment
    1280ish to late 1600s vs. 1650 to 1750ish
   Humanism (Age of Questioning)
    – Emphasis on individual
    – Classical works
    – Centered in N. Italian city-states and traveled
      throughout world
    – Elements include voluntary participation in
      civic affairs
    – Spurred questioning attitude – cultural
      advancements, scientific revolution, age of
      exploration, reformation
   Enlightenment (application of humanism)
    Age of Reason
     – Belief in human perfectibility,
     – application of scientific discoveries to
       improvement of human condition;
     – reason was key to truth, while religion was
       afflicted with superstition;
     – changes in economy reflected in mass
     – growth of reading clubs, coffee houses, and
       popular entertainment.
     – Voltaire father of Enlightenment
                 Islamic Empires
   Ottoman Empire
     – Major leader, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
     – Took over Constantinople
     – Long decline
   Safavid Empire
     – Persia
     – Shiite Muslim
   Mughal Empire
     – India
     – Hindu Majority ruled by Muslims
   All Three ―Gunpowder Empires‖ – came from
     From Gempei Wars to Tokugawa Shogunate
   Gempei Wars - culmination of a decades-
    long conflict between the two clans over
    dominance of the Imperial court
     – marked dominance of provincial military
       aristocracy over imperial court
     – Minamoto family established first
       dominance with military government (or
       Bakufu) at Kamakura
     – decline of central administration and
     – Hojo family dominated Bakufu
                From Gempei Wars to
                Tokugawa Shogunate
– finally Kamakura government
  overthrown by Ashikaga Shogunate
– all central authority dissipated
  during Onin War from 1467-1477
           a long, drawn-out struggle for
   initiated
   domination by individual daimyo, resulting in
   a mass power-struggle between the various
   houses to dominate the whole of Japan
– country divided up into 300 small
  kingdoms ruled by daimyos.
– Introduction of Portuguese in 1400s
           Japanese Shogunate
   Japanese feudalism
     – Shogun (leader)
     – Daimyo (powerful lords—shogun
       usually chosen from this group)
     – Samurai (warriors)
     – Bushido (feudal law)
   Shogunates
     – Most Famous is Tokugawa
         Dictatorship, Highly centralized
         Confucian Ideas

         Closed Ports to trade caused economic collapse
   Japanese Contact with
    – First step taken was
      persecution of Christians,
      then banning of Christianity
      in 1614
    – after 1616 foreign
      merchants limited to few
    – by 1640s, only Dutch and
      Chinese admitted at
      Deshima (Nagasaki Bay)
– in eighteenth century Neo-Confucian
  philosophy abandoned in favor of school
  of "National Learning" based on
  indigenous Japanese culture
– differed from Chinese in adopting
  European technological developments.
East Asian Exploration and Isolation (Xenophobic)
   Ming
    – returned to use of Neo-Confucian philosophy as
      basis of culture
    – restored position of scholar-gentry
    – reinstituted examination system as basis of civil
    – Early emperors attempted to curtail power of
    – potential rivals to succession exiled
      to provinces
    – greatest economic reform was
      Zhenghe voyages to distant markets
 Different   status for Elite and Working
 Think noble versus serf/peasant
 During  middle ages, new limits on
  the conditions of women
 In some respects, women in the west
  had higher status than their sisters
  in Islam
  – Less segregated in religious services
    (although could not lead them)
  – Less confined to the household
 Still women’s voices in the family may
  have declined in the Middle Ages
 Urban women played important roles in
  local commerce and even operated some
  craft guilds, but found themselves
  increasingly hemmed in by male-
  dominated organizations
 Patriarchal structures take deeper root.
           World Economy
 During the postclassical millennium,
  45-1450 CE, a few areas contributed
  raw materials (including labor power
  – slaves) to more advanced societies
  – China and the Islamic world.
 The supply areas included western
  Europe and parts of Africa and
  southeast Asia
         World Economy
 Although economic relationships
 were unequal, they did not affect the
 societies that produced raw material
 too much since international trade
 was not sufficient to do so.
 World Economy – Middle Ages
 Population growth encouraged
  further economic innovation – new
  people =new markets
 Towns expanded and agriculture
 Crusades exposed west to new
  cultural and economic influence from
  the Middle East. This included a thirst
  for trade.
           East meets west

– Three major manufacturing zones:
    Arab producing carpets, tapestry, glass;
    Indian producing cotton textiles;
    China producing porcelain, paper, silks.
– No central control of Indian Ocean trade
  system, no use of military force.
– Portuguese brought use of military force
  into system
– added new routes including route
  around Cape of Good Hope to Europe
– introduction of concept of sea power
  and military force
– introduction of Christianity, tribute
        Other Trade Routes
 Bantu peoples moved along Congo River
  and further south and east in Africa.
  (Evidence-Bantu languages)
 Vikings moved along rivers and oceans
  into Europe and even the new world.
  (Viking ships= horses of other nomads)
 Turks and Mongols moved southward and
  westward from the steps of Asia bringing
  bubonic plague to China and Europe.
        Global trade and core and
           peripheral nations
   Core areas were those areas of the world economy
    typified by production of manufactured goods,
    control of shipping, monopoly of banking and
    commercial services.
   Core areas were located primarily in northwestern
    Europe Britain, France, and Holland.
   Dependent zones (peripheral) were regions typified
    by production of raw materials, supply of bullion,
    plantation agriculture of cash crops produced by
    coercive labor systems.
   Dependent zones surrounded the European core
    including southern and eastern Europe, Asia, and the
    colonial discoveries of the European explorers.
            Global Network
 East Asia, particularly China and Japan
  remained outside of global trade network;
 Mughal India only minimally involved;
 Ottoman Empire restricted trade to European
  enclaves in cities;
 Russia also remained outside system; outside
  of slave regions, Africa not involved.
 After 1600, India increasingly dominated by
  France and England;
 Eastern Europe brought into system as
  supplier of grain to West.
        Changes and Continuities
   Change: Classic empires have fallen and new
    ones have been created.
   Change: Migrations of nomadic peoples cause
    major international changes and diffusion of
    ideas and diseases
   Continuity: Religion continues to be important
    and continues to spread.
   Continuity: Trade routes continue to grow in
   Continuity: Societies continue to be Patriarchal
European Atlantic Empires
 West becomes dominant
  African Contributions
 1450-  Beginning of European Atlantic
 1450-Beginning of Global trade
 1492- End of Islam in Europe
 1433- end of Chinese treasure ship
 1750- beginning of industrialization
 1750-western hemisphere
  colonization peaks
     Six things to Remember
 Americas are included in world trade
  for the first time.
 Improvements in shipping and
  gunpowder technology continues
 Populations are in transition
 New social structures emerge based on
  race and gender
 Traditional beliefs are threatened in
  Europe but reinforced in China
 Empires are both land-based and cross
        Changes in
   Changes
    – Calvary/mounted knights & infantry
    – Lance → arquebus (portable long barreled gun
      fired by a wheel and lock) and pike → musket
      with bayonet
    – Calvary charge → rows/columns of uniformed
    – Simple medieval wall with gates and towers →
      elaborate fortification systems designed to stop
      canon fire
    – Military leaders as battle chiefs →
      management experts
    – Performance learned on a drill field
         Knights and Guns
         had already proven to be
 Infantry
 more successful than cavalry
  – Ex. 1415 Agincourt—long bows—
    mow down knights of France
    on horseback
         Origin of the Gun
 Chinese and Arabs   used gunpowder
  since 8th century
 Mongols 13th century (1240) Poland
  and Hungary 1st experience gunfire
 Ironworks in Europe soon learned
  how to make a gun
  – Iron tube in which gunpowder is
    exploded to fire a missile
 1400 Ottomans construct cannons to
 forge through the Balkans
  – 1453 helped to take out Constantinople
 Gun  becomes premiere tool for
  explorers, conquerors and merchants
 Knights couldn’t withstand heavier
  armor to survive gun shot—death of
 New formations and mass, unison,
  precise gunfire could halt a charging
       Big Guns
 Smaller at first inaccurate
  and bad for long distance
 Big guns—cannons—
  better for breaking down walls
 Beasts of burden used to bring
  them to town/castle walls to fire
  cannon after cannon to break defenses
 Soldiers then raped and pillaged
    – 1st done by France –Charles VII in 1450
   Problem: siege tactics
    cost many innocent
    lives; therefore, new
    type of fortification
    – Bastions—thicker walls
      that protected people
      and town within
    – Very expensive to
      and da Vinci some of
      the first designers

    • Advent of professional
    armies—Italy, Sweden
    Switzerland, England,
    France, Prussia
             Changes in War
 ―Wars no longer a test of strength, to be
  decided by ―mere battles‖, ―rather they
  depend on losing or gaining friends and
  allies, and it is to this end that good states
  men turn all their attention and energy
 Rise of Diplomacy
    – Ambassadors develop out of medieval heralds
      and/or messengers
    – Enjoyed personal security from both parties
    – Authorized to conduct negotiations, i.e.
 Expense
  – Cost is huge—ruler provided equipment
    (ammunition, amour, weapons)
  – Wives and children, spare horses
  – Armies sometimes 1600 strong
 Warfare   on ships (river or sea)
  – Cannons prove to be very effective on
U   E
G   P
H   I
A   E
               Mughal Rulers
 all fabulously wealthy
 empire covered 2/3 of present-day India
 Babur 1526-1530
    – Charismatic leader
    – Related to Gengis Khan and
    – Took over Afghanistan
    – Builder of gardens
    – Brought the Persian culture
      to India
    – Brought first cannons to India-
      helped him to successfully invade
   Humayan 1530-1556
    –   Underachiever, son of Babur
    –   Superstitious
    –   Loved books
    –   Spent entire reign consolidating
        the empire
   Akbar 1556-1605
    – Statesman
    – Encouraged religious tolerance
    – Brought Muslim culture to India
    – Married a Hindu princess
    – Ran the country with a good
    – Came to power at 13 –
      general who was loyal kept the
      empire in tact for him until of age
   Jahangir 1605-1627
    – Drunkard
    – Loved precious jewels…it was
      an obsession
    – Hunter; boasted about hunting
      abilities and number of kills
   Shah Jehan 1627-1658
    – most famous to western world
    – built Taj Mahal, Red Fort,
      and Friday Mosque (largest in India)
    – ruthless—killed male heirs of
      extended family
    – imprisoned the last 9 years by his son
Taj Mahal
Friday Mosque
Red Fort
 Auranzeb   1658-1707
 – religious fanatic required all to be
 – enforced Muslim law which begins to
   break up the empire—Hindus upset with
   the law
 – Eleven more rulers to follow,
   yet the empire continues
   to decline
       Mughal Architecture
 formed   from the Persian and Indian
  style of art
 consisted of archs, domes, towers,
  indentures, and carvings
 To show the greatness of the Mughal
  architecture, the buildings tended to
  be tall and enormous.
The Ottoman Empire
    Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
   Founded by Osman Bey in 1289, who
    led Muslim religious warriors (ghazi)
   Ottoman expansion into Byzantine
    –   Seized city of Bursa, then into the Balkans
    –   Organized ghazi into formidable military
    –   Central role of the Janissaries (slave troops)
    –   Effective use of gunpowder in battles and
    Ottoman Empire (1289-1923)
   Mehmed the Conqueror (reigned
    – Captured Constantinople in 1453; it
      became Istanbul, the Ottoman capital
    – Absolute monarchy--
      centralized state
    – Expanded to Serbia, Greece,
                    attacked Italy

                   Tokapi Palace—main
                   residence in Istanbul
    Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
   Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566)
    – Sultan Selim the Grim (1512-1520)
      occupied Syria and Egypt
    – Suleyman the Magnificent expanded
      into southwest Asia and
      central Europe
    – Suleyman also built
      a navy powerful
      enough to challenge
      European fleets
    Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
   Dynasty endured for more than 600 years
   Too large to be maintained
   the empire's communication technology was not
    developed enough to reach all territories
   the circumstances surrounding the Ottoman
    Empire's fall closely paralleled those surrounding
    the fall of the Roman Empire
    – ongoing tensions between the empire's different ethnic
    – various governments' inability to deal with these
   Built on war and steady territorial expansion
   Possibilities for new lands ran out and lands
    began to be lost to enemies
   Means to maintain oversized bureaucracy and
    army shrank
    Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
 Decline in effectiveness of the
  administrative system = corruption
  among officials
 Poor regulated central gov’t allowed local
  officials to be corrupt which sparked
  rebellions = further drain on resources
 Other issue →successors were not
  prepared to ruled instead basically
  imprisoned = weak rulers = pawns
 Civil strife increased and the discipline and
  leadership of the armies deteriorated
    Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
 Began to lose on the battle field (change
  to light field artillery by European powers)
 Not dominate on the sea (defeated by
  Spanish and Italian navies at Battle of
 Goods not going to Europe through
  Muslim trading centers lost revenue for
  Ottoman Empire
 Inflation caused by Spanish silver into
  Ottoman Empire
 Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
 Long standing belief that little of
  what happened in Europe was
  important –not take seriously the
  changes that transformed Europe
 Ends up being ―Sick Man‖

 Independence movements in Balkans

 Defeated in 1918 and divided
  between Britain and France
 the revival of the various strands of
  Confucian philosophy and political culture
  that began in the middle of the 9th
  Century and reached new levels of
  intellectual and social creativity in the
  11th Century in the Northern Song
 movement included speculative
  philosophers, painters, poets, doctors,
  social ethicists, political theorists,
  historians, local reformers and
  government civil servants.
   14th C.--the teaching of the way or the
    teaching of principle, became the standard
    curriculum for the imperial civil service
    examination system
    – dominance of the civil service continued until
      the whole system was abolished in 1905.
    – In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) there
      was a further reaction against the speculative
      philosophy of the learning of Han arose
      to combat what were taken to be the
      grave mistakes
    – also know as the school of evidential research
      because of its commitment to historical and
      philological research in contradistinction to
      the Song and Ming fascination with
      speculative metaphysics and personal moral
 Neo-Confucian  masters where also
 teachers of various forms of personal
 moral self-cultivation
  – sought to promote a unified vision of
    humane flourishing that would end with
    a person becoming a sage or worthy by
    means of various forms of self-
 became an international movement
 and spread to Korea, Japan, and
   African Contributions to the
       Cultures of America
 Slavery

 Music  – Jazz; gospel
 Religion - While the dominant
  religions on the Caribbean islands
  are all variants of Christianity, a few
  religions are the result of African
  slaves combining their spiritual
  practices with the beliefs of their
  captors. Most common are voodoo
  and Santería.
       Changes and Continuities
 Change: The Americas are added to world
  trade network
 Change: Europe becomes a Maritime area

 Continuity: Trade is really important

 Continuity: Religions continue to adapt to
  new times, but very important
 Continuity: Diffusion of ideas and diseases
  as people come into contact with each
Age of Revolution

  Mexican, Haitian,
    and Chinese
      Three Things to Remember
 Industrializationcaused true world-
  wide interdependence. Intensification
  of core-periphery concept
 Populations grew and people moved
  from the country into the cities to
  work in factories.
 Women gained some economic
  opportunities with the rise of factory
  work, but they did not gain political or
  economic parity.
          Three more things to
 Western   culture influenced Asia
  and Africa, especially because of
 Rise of the Proletariat as a social force

 Revolutions were inspired because of
  the Enlightenment ideals of the social
  contract and natural rights.
           The Bookends
 1750-  beginning of industrialization
  with the water frame in Manchester
 1776-First enlightenment revolution.

 1800’s nationalism

 1800’s Imperialism

 1860 Emancipation of serfs and slaves

 1914 Eve of World War I
           Classic Revolutions
   Haitian Revolution-August 22, 1791 - 1804
   Mexican Revolution -September 16, 1810 – 1821
     – 2nd Revolution 1908
   Greek Revolution - 1821 - 1829
   French Revolution -1789-1799
   American Revolution 1775-1781 (how was this
    revolution different)
   Russian Revolution 1917-1921
   Chinese Revolution 1911 – 1921
     – 2nd Revolution and civil war 1949
 Latin American Independence
        Sources of Discontent
1. Discontent among social hierarchy
  – Peninsulars
  – Creoles
  – Mestizos
  – Mulattoes
  – Native Americans
  – Enslaved Africans
 Latin American Independence
          Sources of Discontent
2. Enlightenment ideas

  - read workers
  - North America & creoles read Dec.
    of Independence and Constitution
  - Women hosted salon (tertulias)
    where independence and revolution
    were discussed
 Latin American Independence
3. Napoleon’s invasion of Spain
  -   Joseph on throne
  -   Latin American leaders saw Spain’s
      weakness as an opportunity to get rid
      of them.
      Mexican Independence
 Mexican Revolution -September 16, 1810
  – 1821
 Creole Priest, Father Miguel Hidalgo raised
  cry for freedom (Sept. 15, 1810)
 Speech –
  ―el Grito e Delores‖ –
   the cry of Dolores
 It called Mexican to fight
  independence and liberty
     Mexican Independence
 Ragged   army of mestizos and Native
  Americans marched to outskirts of
  Mexico City
 1st creoles supported but soon
  rejected his call to end slavery and
  reforms for NA
 Less than a year, Hidalgo was
  captured and executed.
      Mexican Independence
 Father  Jose Morelos – mestizo –
  called for wide ranging social and
  political reform- improve conditions,
  abolish slavery, give vote to all men
 For 4 years, led forces then
  captured and shot. (1815)
     Mexican Independence
 Agustin de Iturbide – conservative Creole
  who fought revolutionaries – worried
  about new Spanish government in 1820
 In 1821, backed by creoles, mestizos, and
  Native Americans, he overthrow the
  Spanish viceroy
 Mexico independent
 Iturbide took title –
  Emperor Agustin I
 Toppled and set up Republic
  of Mexico
     Mexican Independence
 New   government but for most little
 Military leaders dominated
 Next 100 years contains struggles to
  improve conditions for Mexicans
 Mexican Revolution #2
 Dictator Porfiro Diaz ruled
  for almost 35 years winning
  as president again and again
 Prosperity for wealthy landowners,
  businessmen, and foreign investors
  but most Mexicans were peasants
  who lived in poverty
 Factory workers, miners, and
  middle class liberals opposed him.
 Francisco  Madero demanded
  free elections in 1910.
 He was imprisoned and by
  Diaz and then began encouraging revolt
 Diaz resigned in 1911

 Madero became president but
  was murdered within 2 years.
 Several leaders emerged including
 North -Francisco ―Pancho‖ Villa –
  personal power
 South - Emiliano Zapata – peasant revolt
 Decade of fighting
 Women soldiers called
  soldaderas cooked, tended
  wounded and even fought.
   1917 Venustiano elected and approved a
    constitution (today's)
    – Land – broke up large estates, restricted
      foreigners owning land and allowed
      nationalization of natural resources
    – Religion – Church land made ―the property of
      the nation‖
    – Labor – min. wage and protected right of
      workers to strike
    – Suffrage only to men but gave women some
      protection (equal pay, married women to draw
      up contracts, take part in legal suits, equal
      authority with men in spending family funds)
    Mexican Independence 2
 1920s – after government restored
 order finally
  – Helped some Indian communities regain
  – Supported labor unions
  – Schools and libraries set up
  – Teachers spread ideas of nationalism
 Mexico   became first LA to pursue
       Revolutions in Haiti

• Slave Revolt
    Toussaint L’Ouverture

The Louisiana Territory and
Napoleon’s Empire Balanced
Precariously on an ex-slave
 Slave  revolt because of brutal slave
 St. Dominique (Haiti) whites decided
  to fight for freedom from France b/c
  of a law passed that gave all those of
  color with 2 free parents their
 1793 Toussaint joined fight
 National Convention abolished
  slavery in St. Dominique
 1794 France’s National Assembly
  abolished slavery in colonies
   After war with Britain and Spain, Toussaint
    supported French gov’t
   Toussaint was made lieutenant governor of
    St. Dominique
   He distrusted all foreigners, believing only
    black leadership could assure autonomous
    St. Dominique
   Toussaint made commander-in-chief of island by
    French Convention
   Resolved to quickly establish autonomous
    black state
   After defeat of Spanish & British began moving
    toward independence from France
   Wanted to be on equal footing with France and
    other major powers
 Toussaint was inspired by French & US
   – Some of his officers had fought with
     French army in US War for
 1799 Napoleon’s coup d’etat in France

 Wanted Toussaint out

 Wanted to reestablish slavery

 1800 Toussaint became military dictator

 Re-imposed plantation system
   Constitution gave Napoleon a reason for
    sending French troops to take over
    – Technically a French colony, acting as an
      independent state
 Toussaint “liberated” St. Dominique
  from French
 Toussaint never formally severed its bond
  with France
 Toussaint defeated and sent to prison
  in France
 1804 Toussaint’s successor (one of his
  lieutenants) declared St. Dominique the
  independent country of Haiti
       1911 Revolution in China
   Last emperor Pi Yu abdicates the throne
    – Mutiny by imperial soldiers
    – Scattered secret society upheavals
    – Organized plots, etc.
   Republic 1912-1949
    – January 1, 1912 is the first official day of
      the Republic of China
    – Provisional president is Sun Yat-sen
    – He is soon pushed aside which begins a 15
      year period of military strongmen designated
      as President—warlord period
    – Politically it resembled the last few years of the
      Qing rule
             Meji Restoration
 Japanese    Modernization
  – New Constitution based on US
  – Parliament formed (Diet)
  – Mostly an Oligarchy
 Zaibatsu
  – State Sponsored businesses
  – Industry and Private Enterprise
  – Poor Working Conditions for Poor
 Increased Urbanization
 Beginnings of Japanese expansionism
         Japanese expansionism
   Sino-Japanese War
    – Japan wants part of Chinese Trade
    – Takes over Korea and trading port
    – Used U.S Open Door Policy to justify actions
   Russo-Japanese War
    – Caused by competition over Manchuria
    – Surprise Attack by Japanese on Russian
    – Japan Wins
 Begins to warn World of Japan’s Imperial
 Asia for the Asians
          Details-Cultural and
        Intellectual expressions
 African and Asian influences of
  European art.
 Western intellectual thought- especially
  science and the enlightenment - were
  highly influential to Asian and African
 Traditional religious teachings continue to
  be influential and often form the backbone
  to anti-imperial activities.
    Art Sample
Picasso’s encounter with
African masks (1907)
 IR – cut into women’s traditional
 Expanded educational opportunities

 Some new work roles and feminism
  developed by 1914
 Elevated women’s position in home
  and set up more demanding tasks
 New attitudes of middle and lower-
  class women
 By  1900 feminist movements had
  arisen – sought legal and economic
  gains for women
 Won support from middle-class
 Several American states and
  Scandinavian countries extended
  vote by 1914 and the pattern spread
 Emmile Pankhurst – English – fought
 for women’s rights and became
 Asian and African -European
  imperialism set up missionary
  schools that became respectable
 Women became more prominent in
  nationalist movements
      Changes and Continuities
 Change:   Industrialization changed
  almost everything- the way people
  worked, lived, traveled, related to
  their families and communicated.
 Change: rise of the middle class and
  new governmental structures
 Continuity: Religion continues to be
  a force for conservatism
 Continuity: Patriarchal gender
  structure remains
20th   Century
   World Wars
    Conflict of
  Trends in 20th
              World War I
   Causes (NIMS)
     – Competition between Empires
     – Secret Alliances
     – Tensions in the Balkans
     – Assassination of Arch Duke Francis Ferdinand
   Central Powers and Allies
   Warfare
     – Trench warfare on Western Front
     – Naval Warfare and Submarines
   Treaty of Versailles: Wilson’s 14 Points
     – Great Britain and France wanted Revenge
         War Guilt Clause

         Loss of Territory

         Disarmament

         Reparations
 War  of attrition
 Ultimatum

 Atrocity

 Stalemate

 Reparations

 Armistice
        Russian Revolution and
   Russian Revolution 1917
     – 1st Control was by Kenensky and social
     – Lenin and group of Bolsheviks overthrow
       Tsar Nicholas II
     – After Lenin’s Death Josef Stalin gains
   Economic Reforms
     – Year Plans
         Five year Plan: heavy Industry
         Collectivization
         Kulaks – problems with land distribution
   Political Oppression
     – Little Political freedoms
     – Siberian Labor Camps
        Rise Of Fascism
 German fascism
   – Began as lack of confidence in
     Weimar Republic
   – Against Communist Party which was
     also strong in Germany
   – Anti-Semitic as well as other races
 Italian fascism
   – Appealed to veterans of WWI
   – Extreme Nationalist/ Racial Prejudice
   – Led by Benito Mussolini
      March on Rome leads to control of
      Eventually allied with German
   Led by Adolf Hitler
     – Specific type of fascism
     – Charismatic Leader
     – Wrote Mein Kampf
     – Last Chancellor of Weimar Republic
         Head of German Parliament, Reichstag

         Passed Enabling Act, Suspended
          Constitution gave Hitler power to Rule
          be decree
     – Outlawed all political opposition
     – Limited personal freedoms
     – Began persecuting Jews and others
     Chinese Communism
 After Qing, China governed by
  Nationalist Party
  – Led by Sun Yat-Sen
  – After Sun Yat-Sen dies Chang Kai-
    Shek takes over
 Chinese Communist Party

  – Led by Mao Zedong
  – Leads Revolution against nationalists
  – Early Defeats lead to Long March
  – Helped by distraction of Japanese
  – Eventually Communists succeed and
           World War II
 Axis and Allies
  – Axis = Germany, Italy, Japan
  – Allies = U.S., France, Great Britain,
 Appeasement Policy (RASP)
  – After number of aggressive moves
    Allies continue to back down
  – Japan Continues Expansion into
    Chinese Territory
 New Technology
  – Aircraft Carriers/ Bombers
  – Radar
  – Atomic weapons
          WWII Continued
     – Lightning War, used by German forces
   Germans took over all but Great Britain
     – Battle of Britain
         Blitz

   Japanese Aggression in Pacific
     – Pearl Harbor Attack
   Turning Point 1942
     – Lost by Axis
         Midway

         El Alamein

         Stalingrad

   D-Day (June 6th 1944)
   Atomic Bombs on Japan
Holocaust and War Crimes
Rape of Nanking
     – Japanese troops storm city of Nanking, raping and
       Killing civilians
   Comfort Women
     – Women forced to serve as prostitutes for Japanese
   Holocaust
     – Systematic genocide of Jewish people and other
     – Called Final Solution
     – Concentration Camps: Auschwitz
          Extermination Camps
          Gas Chambers: Zyclon B
          Cremation Chambers
   Total of 12 Million Deaths: 6 Mil Jews, 6 Mil
          Korean War
 First  Test of Containment
    – 1950-1953 South Korea (Non-
      Communist) V. North Korea
    – U.S supports South Korea
    – China and USSR support North
    – McArthur
        Brilliantgeneral but arrogant
        Fired for not following orders

   War Ended at Original Line of Division
                 Cold War
   Non Military aggression between Communist
    and Capitalist Countries
   Spread of Soviet influence and Control
     – Eastern Europe falls to Soviet Control
     – Violates Soviet promises at Yalta
     – Berlin Blockade and division of Berlin
   U.S containment Policy
     – Marshal Plan
     – Formation of NATO/SEATO
   Arms Race
     – Began after 1949 when Soviets
       demonstrated Nuclear Weapons
     – Nuclear Aggression and build up between
       US and USSR
        Cold War 1950-1960’s
    Nikita Khrushchev gains power in USSR
   Space Race
     – Soviets launch Sputnik in 1957
         Frightened US because USSR had first space
   Cuban revolution
     – Fidel Castro makes Cuba a Communist country
     – Communist Country 90 miles of coast of US
   U-2 spy plane shot down over USSR
   JFK
     – Bay of Pigs invasion: attempt to overthrow Castro
     – As Result Nuclear weapons stationed in Cuba
          To try to destroy missiles could start nuclear war with
          Kennedy blockades Cuba and Soviets back down
         Cold War 1960-1970
    US lands on the Moon
     – Wins the Space race
   Split between Chinese Communist and Soviet
    – Mao disagrees with Soviet view of Socialism as well as
      the role of Comintern
    – Border between two nations became more hostile
   Vietnam War
    – French Indo-China
          Vietnam was controlled by French, but they were too weak
           to enforce it
    – Ho Chi Minh
          Leader of Communist Party in N. Vietnam
    – U.S Supports French Claim and enters the War to help S.
    – Domino Theory
    – U.S/ French Defeat
               End of Cold War
   D’etente - General Relaxation of Tensions
    between Super Powers
   1980’s
     – Soviets invade Afghanistan
         Threatened Oil Supply
         Damaged relations
     – Olympic Games Boycotted
         US in Moscow in 1980
         USSR in Los Angeles in 1984
   USSR begins to collapse internally
     – Mikhail Gorbachev leads USSR in 1985
        Attempts reforms ―Perestroika‖ (restructuring)=
         economic reforms
        Glasnost = ―Openness‖ cultural liberation

    – Berlin Wall is taken down
    – 1991 Soviet Union Collapses
Patterns of Decolonization
 Wars  fought to gain
 Education of Native peoples led
  to easier decolonization
 Ethnic and religious differences
  cause major issues for new
 Exploitation of Natural
 Sides taken in Cold War
   Post War Middle East
 The regions importance as a
  supply of Petroleum
 Contradiction between desire for
  Modernization and Islamic
 Destabilizing effect of the
  Arab/Israel Conflict
     Establishment Of Israel
   Balfour Declaration in 1914
     – Expressed the need for a Jewish state
   Established as a state for displaced
    Jews from the Holocaust
   Britain controlled Region of Palestine
   Gave region over to be State of Israel
   Displaced Millions of Palestinian Arabs
    to neighboring Nations
   The Little Tigers: Hong Kong,
    Singapore, South Korea, and
    – Followed Japanese model of export-
      driven industry; rapid growth in 1980s
   By 1990s highly competitive; joined
    by Indonesia, Thailand, and
   Nafta (Mexico, US, Canada)
    – North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement
  Economic issues vs. cultural
 1944   – Bretton Woods
  – International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  – International Bank for Reconstruction
    and Development
  – General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    (GATT) 1947
 Foundations  for United Nations 1944
  and established in 1945
 World Trade Organization formed in
               Trading blocs
     The European Union
    – Begun in 1957 with six nations, now includes fifteen
    – A common market, free trade, free travel within the
    – Eleven members adopted a common currency, the
        Euro, in 1999
    – Expectations of a European Political Union eventually
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
    – Cartel established in 1960 to raise global oil prices
    – After Arab-Israeli war of 1973, OPEC placed embargo
        on oil to United States, Israel's ally
    – Price of oil quadrupled from 1973 to 1975, triggered
        global recession
    – Overproduction and dissension among members
        diminished influence, 1990s
    Regional trade associations formed to establish free-trade
     zones for member states
    – Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in
        1967, five members
    – North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in
        1993: United States, Canada, Mexico
             Age of Access
   Who has access to technology
    –   Weapons
    –   Medical
    –   Communication
    –   Luxury
 North South Divide
 Totalitarian regimes want to limit access

 Economic inequalities lead to conflict in
  areas such as the World Trade
  Organization (loans money to countries
  who cannot afford to pay back loans)
Does it benefit those who have
  to help those who do not?
 Developed   countries
 Lesser Developed countries

 Unable to Develop countries

 East West divide of Europe (Elbe-
  Triest Line)
 North – South divide of world
       Industrialized vs. non
               nations conduct the
 Industrialized
 most trading activity, the LDCs
 conduct the least:
  – LDCs make up ¾ of the world’s nations
    but only accounts for 25% of world
  – DCs including North America, Europe
    and Japan accounts for 75% of trade.
  – New Trend: blocs versus international
   Mexican manufacturing or export
    assembly plants
    –   1 million people today
    –   Grew from about ½ million in early 90s
    –   Low wages
    –   Low standards
    –   High cost of living in border towns
 Maquiladoras are owned by U.S.,
  Japanese, and European countries
 Decreasing with trade barriers lowered in
  east Asian countries in particular - China
 Creates  English speakers
 Instead of moving to this country
  and bringing their culture they stay
  in their own country and begin to
  adopt other cultures
    Influence of International
 Microsoft

 MacDonald’s

 Walmart

 Problems
  – monopolies, cartels, oligopolies,
      Humanitarian Efforts
 Non-governmental   Organizations
 – Red Cross/Crescent
 – Green peace
 – Amnesty International and Human
   Rights Watch
 – Doctors without Borders
Connection between Economics
      and demography
   Economic inequities and labor servitude
    –   Causes of poverty
           Inequities in resources and income separate rich and
            poor societies
           Attendant problems: malnutrition, environmental
           Legacy of colonialism: economic dependence
    –   Labor servitude increasing
           Slavery abolished worldwide by 1960s
           Millions still forced into bonded labor
           Child-labor servitude common in south and southeast
    –   Trafficking of persons across international boundaries
           Victims, mostly girls and women, lured with promises of
           Often in sex industry; hugely profitable though criminal
    Population pressures and
    environmental degradation
   Dramatic population increases in
    twentieth century
        Population increased from 500 million in
         1650 to 2.5 billion in 1950
        Asia and Africa experienced population
         explosion after WWII
        5.5 billion people in 1994; perhaps 11.6
         billion people in 2200
        So far, food production has kept pace with
         population growth
        Fertility rates have been falling for past
         twenty years
Population: Carryingabout physical limits of
 Scientists and citizens concerned
        the earth
       Dire predictions not borne by facts: prices have fallen,
        food has increased
             Malthus – fallacy of his theories is that he did not include the
              impact of technology (increase food production, build up etc…)
       Environmental impact
    –      Urbanization and agricultural expansion threaten biodiversity
    –      Gas emissions, coal burning contribute to global warming
    –      In 1997 at Kyoto, 159 states met to cut carbon dioxide
       Population control: a highly politicized issue
    –      Some developing nations charge racism when urged to limit
    –      UN agencies have aided many countries with family-planning
    –      China's one-child policy has significantly reduced growth rate
    –      Other cultures still favor larger families, for example, India
         Population issues
 Migration   from rural areas to urban
  – Urban sprawl
  – 75% of population is urban
  – Strain on services (mass transportation,
    garbage disposal)
 Mass  tourism
 Spread of disease

 Migrant workers and issues of
      Demographic transition
 Issues of standard of living change with
  the technological advancements and level
  of industrialization of a country
 Most industrialized have 0 or negative
  population growth, low birth rates
 Populations are older
 Problems occur because labor shortages
  begin to appear
 LDCs have high mortality rates, less
  access to medical care, large numbers of
  population under age of 20, high birth
 Population growth in areas least able to
  adapt to the growth
    Major Trends of the 20th
                Century
    Major Population Growth
   Rise of Consumer Society
   Social Activism
     – 1960’s war Protests
   Terrorism
     – Arab/ Israeli conflict
   Changes in Gender relations
   Rise of Mass Media
     – Television, film and Radio as a source of
       Information and Entertainment
Impact of break up of Soviet
 Political instability in Eastern Europe
  and Russia
 Nationalism causing ethnic groups
  that were mostly Islamic to try to
  break away
 Coalitions formed with other Islamic
 Void of superpower to hold political
  structures together
 No checks for China and USA
Recent Conflicts and Issues
Gulf War
    – Iraq invades Kuwait
        War breaks out between Iraq and US lead collation

   Yugoslavian War
    – Serbian aggression against Albanian and Bosnian
      minorities in Kosovo
   Weapons of Mass Destruction
    – Limiting production and testing of Nuclear Weapons
   Number of Small Arms increase
    – Guns, semi-automatic and automatic
   911 attack of al-Queda on the New York
    Trade Center
   2002 attack on Afghanistan and dissolution
    of the Taliban
   2003 attack on Iraq and the destruction of
    the Baathist Sunni rule of Iraq
          Which is best
 Convergence   and diversity and
  tolerance and interdependence
 Isolationism, self-sufficiency and
Good Luck

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