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                      NORTH SEATTLE COMMUNITY COLLEGE
                                 Geology 101
                                Summer 2011
                                Linda Khandro

Lab 2 HW Minerals & Birthstones (25 points)            NAME____________________

Learning Outcomes: by the end of the exercise students will be able to:
    Identify their “birthstone” from tradition
    Identify the common mineral of which the birthstone is one variation
    Identify the chemistry and crystal form for that mineral
    discuss their birthstone, mineral, and crystal form with the class

Instructions:
1. Identify your birthstone from the Birthstone list (A) below.
2. Identify the common mineral of which your birthstone is one variation from the
Minerals list (B) below.
3. Identify the crystal form (list B) for that mineral.
4. Submit a 1-2 page, illustrated description of your mineral with as much physical,
chemical, geological, and geographical information as you can find. Also include any
special history, features or uses of your mineral. Submit this page in person or into
the Angel Website Dropbox for Lab 2 HW Minerals.
5. See your instructor for a copy of the crystal form cutout for your mineral.
6. Follow the instructions, and make yourself a paper model of your birthstone’s crystal
form. If you wish to color it, do so before assembling the model.
7. Bring your assembled mineral to class on the day announced (date to be
announced) and briefly describe your birthstone, mineral, and crystal form to the
class.

A. Birthstones
J      garnet
F      amethyst
M      aquamarine
A      diamond
M      emerald
J      pearl*
J      ruby
A      peridot
S      sapphire
O      opal*
N      citrine
D      turquoise or blue topaz

* These are not minerals; pearl is organic, and opal does not have a crystalline
structure. See the additional lists of birthstones (ancient and modern) below, for
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alternatives. If there is more than one choice, use the most common birthstone for this
assignment; only use an alternative if the most common one is NOT a mineral!

http://www.galleries.com/minerals/birthsto.htm
http://www.americangemsociety.org/birthstones

B. Minerals, Crystal Forms and Birthstones

Crystal Form               Typical Minerals                  Birthstones
Triclinic                  Turquoise:                        Turquoise
                           Kyanite
                           Na plagioclase (albite)

Monoclinic                 Gypsum
                           Pyroxenes
                           Amphiboles
                           Micas
                           K-spar (orthoclase)
                           Epidote
                           Azurite
                           Malachite

Orthorhombic               Olivine:                          Peridot
                           Topaz:                            Topaz (blue, yellow)
                           Chrysoberyl:                      Alexandrite
                           Sulfur
                           Aragonite
                           Anhydrite

Tetragonal                 Zircon
                           Rutile
                           Chalcopyrite

Trigonal                   Corundum:                         Ruby, Sapphire
                           Quartz:                           Amethyst, Citrine
                           Calcite
                           Hematite
                           Ilmenite
                           Dolomite

Hexagonal                  Beryl:                            Emerald, Aquamarine
                           Quartz:                           Amethyst, Citrine
                           Graphite
                           Tourmaline

Isometric (cubic)          Diamond:                          Diamond
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Spinel:          Ruby
Garnet:          Garnet
Copper
Silver
Galena
Fluorite
Halite
Pyrite
Sphalerite
Gold
Platinum

				
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