Impacts of the Industrial Revolution

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					Impacts of the Industrial
      Revolution
          I. Growth of cities
• Around factories
• Deaths outnumber births there
• Flux of people from countryside keep #’s
  high
• Tenements housing springs up
• Disease & pollution in streets
• No city planning - often no government or
  police (sprang up to fast – think internet
  problems!)
       II. Middle Class expands &
               changes in nature
• Owners of business / mines/ railroads / factories
• Professionals, clerks, bankers, secretaries, govt.
  officials, managers, teachers were added to former
  middle class of craftsmen, merchants, doctors & lawyers
• Gender / Work expectations:
   – Men begin to take on role of “breadwinner”
   – Women take on role of “homemaker” – these roles were
     previously shared
• Education of the Middle Class increases
• Blending of classes
   – Bourgeois (owners of business) buy estates as Nobility start
     businesses
   – Bourgeois buy country estates as nobility buy places in towns
     III. Working Class Conditions
                   Worsen
• Former farm workers
• Depend on wages for purchase of needs
• 10 – 18 hour work days /hazardous conditions / low light
  – low ventilation
• low wages – no benefits to allow for maximum profit
• if injured  fired
• No education for children / beat regularly in factories –
  worked to help support families
• Workers kept dependant on factories ex: Pullman (US)
• Tenement housing – dirty, crowded conditions - death
  traps - disease & fires – no windows
Reformers & Visionaries
           Factory Act of 1833
•   Passed by Parliament in England
•   8 hour work day ages 9 – 13
•   12 hrs ages 14 – 18
•   factories must create schools for children
    under 9
         Mines Act of 1842
•   underground work illegal for boys under
    10 & all women
 Socialism – Utopian Experiments
• Robert Owen – 1771 – 1858
• Charles Fourier – 1772 – 1838
   Robert Owen – 1771 - 1858
* self made cotton manufacturer
* 1815 – 1830’s experimented with socialist
   communities
        – New Lanark – Scotland – factory town transformed into a
          healthy community – redistribution of wealth & power sharing
        – New Harmony - Indiana

* Anti child labor – pro universal education, set up
  schools for workers children
* Grand National Consolidated Trades Union 1834
 Charles Fourier – 1772 – 1838
* “phalansteries” – small model communities
   – 1620 people
* rotation of work assignments
* communal living & housing
* no financial backing – it was never tested
         Utilitarianism
the utility or usefulness of an action or
practice depends on how much
happiness or improvement that action
or practice provides to society
  Jeremy Bentham – 1776 – 1832 - Advocated
    reconstruction of laws, courts, prisons, poor
    relief, city govt. & elimination of “rotten
    boroughs”, wanted universal male suffrage

   John Stuart Mill – 1860’s
• * “On Liberty” & “On the Subjugation of Women”
• * Expressed ideas that legal subordination of
  women to men is wrong
• * People could change the economy & tax
  business for the good of the people if they
  wanted (anti – laissez –faire)
Changes resulting from the
   Industrial Revolution
Labor Unions form – late 1800’s
           early 1900’s
– To improve wages & working conditions
– Use strikes, work stoppages & slow downs
– Members usually fired & blacklisted
– Unions banned by governments at 1st
– Trade Unions – 1st successful – they possess skills
  that employers need, unskilled laborers remain
  unsuccessful
– Collective bargaining – reps negotiate on behalf of
  labor & management to reach a compromise
– 1900’s growth in unskilled workers unions
Business Organizations Change
• Partnerships – 2 or more entrepreneurs share
  profits & risks
• Corporation – owned by stockholders – more
  shares owned = more voting power, profits of
  company determine share value
• Business Cycles – periods of expansion
  (BOOM) and decline in industry activity & profits
• Depression – the lowest point in the cycle
  (BUST) businesses loose money, bank failures,
  stock values plummet, unemployment
   Technology, Transportation &
           Communication
Railroads changes in business & markets
    • Liverpool - Manchester Railway
       – 1830 – George Stephenson’s “Rocket”
       – reduces cost of overland shipping
       – Building of tracks
    • Steamboats
       – Fulton’s Clermont (Hudson River)
       – Building of canals
    • small local markets  nationwide markets
    • larger markets  larger factories  more goods /
      cheaper goods & more work for unskilled labor
        Other inventions
• 1830’s – telegraph – Samuel Morse
• 1870’s – telephone – Alexander Graham
  Bell, Light bulb – Edison
• These create new industries, need for fuel
  etc.
• 1880’s – internal combustion engine –
  Rudolph Diesel (oil becomes important in
  the early 1900’s  more roads / gas
  stations etc)
• 1890’s – radio – Marconi
• 1903 – first flight – the Wright Brothers
 Atlantic Trade & New Imperialism

• European nations conquer lands for raw
  materials & markets for finished goods
             British Politics
• Early 1800’s – efforts to reapportion voting
  districts in Parliament (account for cities)
• Polit. Power shifts to cabinet chosen from
  majority in House
• Middle class cannot vote
         Reform act of 1832
• Middle class gains voting rights as
  property requirement is lowered

• Industrial workers and farm laborers still
  disenfranchised
               Chartists
• 1838 “People’s Charter”
• Demanded universal male suffrage
• Payment for members of parliament out of
  tax fund (hitherto unpaid)
• Annual meetings and frequent elections
• Rejected – dies out in 1840’s

				
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posted:12/30/2011
language:English
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