VIEWS: 26 PAGES: 29 POSTED ON: 12/29/2011
Deviance What we want to know How is deviance defined and who defines it • Is it the person or the action? How is deviance distributed in society and how do we know? What causes deviance? How is deviance controlled? The Nature of Deviance Most people internalize societal norms Individuals do not internalize every norm Remember from chapter 3… Sanctions- rewards and punishments use to enforce conformity… Social control- techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society Defining Deviance Deviance is the violation of norms, especially widely held norms Crime is an action declared illegal by some government or agency Is all deviance criminal ? • Pushing children into fashion shows, sports ? • Subcultures (gangs) and deviance 4 Deviance What is deviance? What are the nature and social function of deviance? How do the theories that have been proposed to explain deviance compare? Deviant? -tattoos/branding -speeding -gambling -white collar crime -talking to yourself in public -smoking in public places -speeding -bullying -graffiti -”hackers” Defining Deviance Non Criminal Deviance • Music preferences • Body piercing • Marrying someone Your parents disapprove of Your parents want you to • Being a Geek or a Nerd Defining Defiance Not all norm violations are deviant: a. within the same society (killing) b. varies from society to society (divorce) c. time period (business on Sundays) How does one become labeled deviant? 1. Repeating an offense (unless serious single act) 2. Behavior must be known to others- detected 3. Stigmatized by society… Stigma…mark of disgrace used as a form of social control I.E. uniforms, signs, marks, etc Deviant label Negative Social Reaction Goffman’s “spoiled social identity”-no longer normal or whole Ex. Obesity, victims of AIDs , mentally ill, homeless Emile Durkheim Social Functions of Deviance: -clarify norms -unify the group -diffuse tension -promote social change -(provides law enforcement jobs) Clarifying Norms Deviance defines boundaries of acceptable behavior Punishment of norm violators reminds others that certain behaviors will not be tolerated Acts as preventative measure or deterrent Ex. Harsh prison sentences Unifying Norms Conforming members vs nonconforming members Reinforces the belief in shared values Important to maintain the group Diffusing Tension Minor acts of deviance serve as a safety valve Individuals can relieve tension without disrupting the basic fabric of society Participating in demonstrations, Promoting Social Change Large numbers of people violating a particular norm, indicative of something society needs to change Providing Jobs Judges, lawyers, police officers, prison personnel, parole officers= crime Crime reporters and criminologists.. Can you think of any other jobs created??? How do we Explain Deviance? Functionalist Perspective: natural part of society Conflict Perspective: power and inequality Interactionist Perspective: interaction among individuals influence deviance The Functionalist Perspective Parts of a social system work together to maintain a balance stable social system-all parts of a society serve a functional purpose People agree on what is best for society and work together Examples: family, education, school Functionalist Perspective • Functions are actions that have positive consequences • Dysfunctions are actions that have negative consequences i.e. crime • Manifest functions are intended • Latent functions are unintended What are the latent and manifest functions of internet, fast-food, super stores i.e. Wal-Mart Problems with Functionalist Approach • The influence has declined in recent decades. • It ignores inequalities of social class, race, and gender Functionalist Merton’s “strain theory” Natural outgrowth of values, norms, structure of society Anomie- when norms of society are unclear or no longer applicable The 5 Modes of adaption Modes of Adaption Conformity-accept cultural goals/accept culture norms (legitimate) Innovation-accept cultural goals/reject cultural norms (drug dealers) Ritualism-reject cultural goals/accept cultural norms Retreatism-reject cultural goals/reject culture norms (drug addicts, beggars) Rebellion-reject/replace cultural goals (revolutionaries) Conflict Theory The social-conflict paradigm is a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change. Most sociologists who favor the conflict paradigm attempt not only to understand society but also to reduce social inequality Weakness of Conflict It ignores social unity based on mutual interdependence and shared values. Conflict Perspective Quinney states that …”the ruling classes label any behavior that threatens their power base as deviant.” Competition and social inequality lead to deviance People w/out power commit deviant acts to obtain economic rewards, low self esteem, powerlessness Symbolic Interactionism- Weaknesses Ignores the influence of larger social structures. By emphasizing what is unique, it risks overlooking the effects of culture, class, gender, and race. Interactionist Control Theory: Deviance is a natural occurrence Social ties determine comformity individuals Interactionist Cultural Transmission Deviance is learned through interaction with others engaging in deviant acts All individuals conform Interactionist Labeling Theory All people commit deviant acts Not all are labeled as deviants Label becomes self fulfilling prophecy
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