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					                                            Paraphrasing & Quoting!

What is paraphrasing?
Paraphrasing means taking someone’s ideas and writing them in your own words. You can read someone else’s
information and rewrite it, but you still need to reference it!
Rewriting someone else’s ideas and information shows that you understand the idea. It does not mean you need to
use difficult or complex words, just that you can explain it the way you would normally write. (But you should still
write formally, not using slang!)

Changing a few words in the sentence

Paraphrasing can be hard because you have to do more than just change a few words in the sentence. If you just
change one or two words, you might be using too much of the author’s original idea. (You might still be copying
them!).
Look at the following:
“An Adelaide Zoo spokeswoman said the keeper was experienced and she did not think the zoo had experienced any
similar problems with sea lions in the past.”
“It was not thought that the zoo had experienced any similar problems with sea lions and an Adelaide Zoo
spokeswoman said the keeper was experienced.”
Too close!

How I do paraphrase correctly?

There are two things you need to do when you paraphrase:
1. Use a whole paragraph rather than a sentence
2. Try to copy the idea not the words.
When you paraphrase a paragraph you have more choices of how to write the information; you can use parts of
sentences, and change the order of information as long as you keep the same meaning. When you copy the idea, try
to ignore the words and think of what the author is actually trying to say. Then put it in your own words, so it makes
sense to you.
Sometimes information you are paraphrasing will be complicated and hard to understand. This means your
paraphrasing is especially important to show your understanding. It will also be more obvious if you just copy it and
don’t paraphrase properly!

What are the steps?
You might come up with your way to paraphrase in time, but for now, here is one example of the steps you can use…

1. Highlight any words you don’t understand and look up the meanings.
2. What is the basic meaning of the paragraph?
3. Break down the information.
4. Highlight the information you want to include in your paragraph.
5. Without looking at the original paragraph, write the information into a new paragraph in your words.
6. Check the original paragraph to make sure you haven’t written the same thing (or close to) and change it if you
have!

1. Look at your paragraph and highlight any words you don’t know or understand. Look up the meanings so you can
understand the paragraph.

Indonesia is an archipelago in Southeast Asia consisting of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited) and straddling the
equator. The largest islands are Sumatra, Java (the most populous), Bali, Kalimantan (Indonesia's part of Borneo),
Sulawesi (Celebes), the Nusa Tenggara islands, the Moluccas Islands, and Irian Jaya (also called West Papua), the
western part of New Guinea. Its neighbour to the north is Malaysia and to the east is Papua New Guinea.
Archipelago = a large group of islands
Straddling = to extend across both sides
The most populous = has the highest population

2. What is the meaning of the paragraph? What is it saying?
The paragraph is explaining about Indonesia and the islands that make up Indonesia.

3. Break down the information into basic bullet points
- Indonesia is an archipelago                                  Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, Moluccas and Irian Jaya
- Indonesia is in Southeast Asia                               - Java has the most people
- Indonesia has 17,000 Islands                                 - Irian Jaya is also called West Papua
- Indonesia extends across both sides of the equator           - Malaysia is north of Indonesia
- The islands are Sumatra, Java, Bali, Kalimantan,             - Papua New Guinea is east of Indonesia



4. Highlight the information you want to use
- Indonesia is an archipelago                                  Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, Moluccas and Irian Jaya
- Indonesia is in Southeast Asia                               - Java has the most people
- Indonesia has 17,000 Islands                                 - Irian Jaya is also called West Papua
- Indonesia extends across both sides of the equator           - Malaysia is north of Indonesia
- The islands are Sumatra, Java, Bali, Kalimantan,

- Papua New Guinea is east of Indonesia

5. Without looking at the original paragraph, write the information into a new paragraph or sentence in your words.

Indonesia is an archipelago in Asia made up of 17,000 Islands. The names of the main islands are Sumatra, Java, Bali,
Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya/West Papua. The island of Java has the most people.

6. Check the original paragraph to make sure you haven’t written the same thing (or close to) and change it if you
have!

Quoting

Quoting is when you copy someone’s exact words but use speech marks and references to show that they belong to
someone else. You should either quote OR paraphrase, but don’t over-quote! Make sure you are writing your own
work and only using the occasional quote.

 What do I have to do to quote?
When you are quoting you have to be very careful to show that it is not your own work. You do this by:
- Using the author’s exact words. You can’t change their words at all!
- Using speech marks at the start and end of the quote.
- Referencing them (with their name, date and pages if applicable in brackets at the end of your quote and in the
reference list or bibliography)
- Leaving a blank line above and below the quote
- Indenting the quote and using a different font
           Example

           At the time of the European colonisation the Australian landscape was portrayed as
           untouched wilderness. In fact, Indigenous Australians were using various techniques,
           particularly fire, to manage the land:


                                                                                                            Leave a line
Indent      … the explorers were not pushing out into wilderness, they were trekking through country that   above and
from the
margin      had been in human occupation for hundreds of generations. It was land that had been skilfully   below the
                                                                                                            quote
            managed and shaped by continuous and creative use of fire. (Reynolds 2000, p.20)



      Use a different font than the             Identify author, year of
      rest of the text (eg, make                publication and page number
      smaller or italicise)                     at the end of the quote



  Questions:
  1. What does paraphrasing mean?
  2. Why can changing some words/part of the sentence be a problem?
  3. How should you paraphrase?
  4. What are the 6 steps you can use to paraphrase?
  5. What is quoting?
  6. What do you have to be careful of when quoting?
  7. When you are quoting, what must you do?
  8. What is the difference between paraphrasing and quoting?


  Bibliography                                        (Plagiarism, Referencing, Paraphrasing)


  Board of Studies, New South Wales Government 2006, HSC: All My Own Work, viewed on 20.6.10 at
  <http://amow.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/module3/module3s5.html>
  Choi, Charles Q. 2011 ‘Sharks are colour blind-national study suggests’ in National Geographic, viewed on 24.01.11 at <
  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/01/110119-sharks-color-blind-eyes-rods-cones-australia-animals-
  science/>
  http://www.cinemablend.com/new/Scoop-Pirates-Of-The-Caribbean-4-Details-5506.html
  Division of teaching and learning services, Central Queensland University 2007, Harvard (author-date) referencing guide,
  viewed 17.5.10. <http://www.intec.edu.do/biblioteca/pdf/HARVARD/harvardguide%5B2%5D.pdf>
  InfoPlease, Indonesia: History, Geography, Government and Culture, viewed on 23.1.11 at
  <http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107634.html>
  Littley, B 2011, ‘Silent achievers among nation’s best’ in Adelaide Now, viewed 23.01.11 at
  <http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/silent-achievers-among-nations-best/story-e6frea6u-1225992608601>
  Lonely Planet 2010, History of Indonesia, viewed on 20.6.10 at <http://www.lonelyplanet.com/indonesia/history>
  McKenzie, J 1998, “The New Plagiarism: Seven Antidotes to Prevent Highway Robbery in an Electronic Age” in From Now
  On the Education Technology Journal, viewed on 20.6.10 at <http://www.fno.org/may98/cov98may.html#>
  SACE Board of SA 2010, Guidelines for Referencing, viewed on 23.1.11 at
  <http://www.sace.sa.edu.au/home?p_p_id=20&p_p_lifecycle=1&p_p_state=exclusive&p_p_mode=view&_20_struts_acti
  on=%2Fdocument_library%2Fget_file&_20_folderId=15605&_20_name=DLFE-834.doc>
  Talk Android 2010, Darth Vader promotes Samsung Galaxy S for NTT Docomo, viewed on 23.01.11 at
  http://www.talkandroid.com/22260-darth-vader-promotes-samsung-galaxy-s-for-ntt-docomo/
  Tyler, Josh 2007 ‘Scoop: Pirates of the Caribbean four details’ in Cinema Blend, viewed on 24.01.11 at <
  http://www.cinemablend.com/new/Scoop-Pirates-Of-The-Caribbean-4-Details-5506.html>
  University of South Australia, Worksheet-Paraphrasing, viewed on 20.6.10 at
  <http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/Resources/la/QuickClicks%20Repository/LC_worksheet_paraphrasing.pdf>
Try it yourself:
Practise paraphrasing the information in these paragraphs or quoting sections of the text!

1) “Darth Vader is seen in several ads for NTT DoComo, a mobile carrier based in Japan, promoting the launch of the
Samsung Galaxy S. These ads started back in April of his year, and the campaign had a lot of people wondering what Darth
Vader was doing in these advertisements, as it was not made public what NTT DoComo was launching during the
campaign. Essentially, it was an attention grabber. Well, It grabbed a lot of questionable attention.” (Talk Android, 2010)

2) “Our source says that Pirates of the Caribbean 4 is no longer just a possibility, it’s almost a certainty. More importantly,
Johnny Depp is all but assured to return, though our scooper claims he may end up making as much as $35 - $40 million to
do it. Also returning will be Geoffrey Rush and Gore Verbinski as director, but forget about the rest of the cast because
from now on the movies will only be about Captain Jack.” (Cinema Blend, 2010)

3) “Dr Monro was joined at yesterday's Australia Day Luncheon at the Town Hall, addressed by Prime Minister Julia Gillard,
by Senior Australian of the Year nominee Professor Don Bursill, Young Australian nominee Vincent "Jack" Buckskin and
Australia's Local Hero nominee Peter Goers. Professor Bursill is recognised as an international leader in the field of water
management and his volunteer work with the Onkaparinga Estuary Water Quality Group. Vincent Buckskin, 24, of
Salisbury Downs, teaches more than 100 indigenous and non-indigenous students the Kaurna language.” (Littley, B, 2011)

4) It makes sense that sharks might be colour-blind, the study team noted. Many aquatic predators—such as whales,
dolphins, and seals—also appear to be colour-blind, which may be because colour vision isn't much use in their mostly
blue-green environments. If the discovery holds true for more shark species, it could be used to help reduce the numbers
of endangered sharks accidentally caught by fisheries, as well as prevent shark attacks on humans

Try it yourself:
Practise paraphrasing the information in these paragraphs or quoting sections of the text!

1) “Darth Vader is seen in several ads for NTT DoComo, a mobile carrier based in Japan, promoting the launch of the
Samsung Galaxy S. These ads started back in April of his year, and the campaign had a lot of people wondering what Darth
Vader was doing in these advertisements, as it was not made public what NTT DoComo was launching during the
campaign. Essentially, it was an attention grabber. Well, It grabbed a lot of questionable attention.” (Talk Android, 2010)

2) “Our source says that Pirates of the Caribbean 4 is no longer just a possibility, it’s almost a certainty. More importantly,
Johnny Depp is all but assured to return, though our scooper claims he may end up making as much as $35 - $40 million to
do it. Also returning will be Geoffrey Rush and Gore Verbinski as director, but forget about the rest of the cast because
from now on the movies will only be about Captain Jack.” (Cinema Blend, 2010)

3) “Dr Monro was joined at yesterday's Australia Day Luncheon at the Town Hall, addressed by Prime Minister Julia Gillard,
by Senior Australian of the Year nominee Professor Don Bursill, Young Australian nominee Vincent "Jack" Buckskin and
Australia's Local Hero nominee Peter Goers. Professor Bursill is recognised as an international leader in the field of water
management and his volunteer work with the Onkaparinga Estuary Water Quality Group. Vincent Buckskin, 24, of
Salisbury Downs, teaches more than 100 indigenous and non-indigenous students the Kaurna language.” (Littley, B, 2011)

4) It makes sense that sharks might be colour-blind, the study team noted. Many aquatic predators—such as whales,
dolphins, and seals—also appear to be colour-blind, which may be because colour vision isn't much use in their mostly
blue-green environments. If the discovery holds true for more shark species, it could be used to help reduce the numbers
of endangered sharks accidentally caught by fisheries, as well as prevent shark attacks on humans

				
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