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War for Independence

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					The War For Independence
              Causes of the Revolution
• What was it? How did it lead to
  Revolution?
   – Visible Causes…
      • Sugar Act
      • Stamp Act
      • Townshend Acts
      • Boston Massacre
      • Boston Tea Party
      • Intolerable Acts
   – Below the surface…
      • Navigation Acts
      • Salutary Neglect
      • Great Awakening
      • French and Indian War
      • The Enlightenment
Style of War
      • Smoothbore Muskets
          – Inaccurate, short-ranged
              • Requires massed fire in lines
      • Use of militia
          – Poorly trained; ineffective
      • British are military juggernaut
      • Objectives…
          – British objective is to restore British
            rule
              • Win back loyalty with force?
              • If no loyalty, need a large army to
                control population
                   – 50,000 est. – cannot commit to that
          – Colonists objective is to stay in
            British empire but have local self-
            rule
              • Loyal, but still shooting?
                      Lexington & Concord
• April 1775 – Thomas Gage gets
  report about store of militia
  weapons at Concorde
   – Plan to confiscate weapons
       • Move out is supposed to be secret;
         everyone knows
• Lexington
   – British run into colonial militia
       • British tell militia to disperse; they
         do…
• Concord
   – Search for weapons turns up
     nothing; word has gotten out that
     British have fired at Lexington
     and Concorde and tried to burn
     down Concorde
   – Militia fire from cover of trees as
     British try to get back to Boston
Fallout and the Second Continental Congress
• Following Lexington & Concord,
  Boston is placed under siege
• May 1775 - 2nd Continental Congress
  convened
   – Draft Olive Branch Petition
   – Organize Continental Army
       • Gen. George Washington in
         command.
   – Authorize invasion of Canada.
   – Open negotiations with France.
   – Authorize a Navy.
• June 1775 - British troops in Boston
  look to secure high ground around
  Boston
   – Bunker Hill
      • Howe’s frontal assaults are put down by
        entrenched militia
• Summer 1775 - Fort Ticonderoga
   – Benedict Arnold takes fort; moves
     artillery to Boston to break siege
                         End of Year One?
• By end of first year, Colonists think
  they have done a lot
   – Not many British in America
• What are the objectives?
   – Britain has declared that “all
     inhabitants in all colonies are seen in a
     state of rebellion.”
   – 2nd Continental Congress wants to use
     violence to get Britain to respect their
     rights.
       • Majority of colonists are not on either
         side.
       • Little talk of independence.
• A nation divided…
   – 1/3 Patriots
   – 1/3 Loyalists (Tories)
   – 1/3 neutral
1776 – A Pivotal Year
          • Jan 1776 – Thomas Paine’s
            “Common Sense”
             – Goal of war should be independence.
             – Attacks King George III; attacks
               monarchy in general.
             – Unnatural that an island should
               govern a continent.
          • “Common Sense” is very popular in
            the colonies.
             – May have abolished hesitation and
               confusion in the colonies.
             – Brought more people to the patriot
               cause.
          • By Spring1776, Congress begins to
            talk independence.
             – First vote for independence fails!
                  • Radicals will wait for the idea to
                    build…
                      Declaring Independence
• June 1776 – Motion for independence made by
  Richard Henry Lee.
   – Debated through June; passes on July 2nd.
• Declaration of Independence
   – Thomas Jefferson is primary author.
        • Committee consists of John Adams,
          Benjamin Franklin, Sherman,
          Livingston.
   – Borrows ideas from a variety of sources.
        • Heavily influenced by the ideals of the
          Enlightenment.
             – “Life, liberty, and the pursuit of
                happiness.”
             – Revolution is a right if
                oppressed.
             – People have right to come
                together and form government.
   – Addresses some specific grievances
        • British interference with colonial
          legislatures.
        • Taxing without consent.
        • Lays blame on George III
                  Combat Throughout1776
• British focus on three campaigns
  to “crush” Revolution…
   – Canada (Sir Guy Carleton)
       • Resisted by Benedict Arnold
   – Charleston (Sir Henry Clinton)
       • Does not even hit shore
   – New York (Sir William Howe)
       • Continental Army told to defend
         New York
            – Washington's actions show he
              does not what to do on battlefield
            – British push Washington from
              Brooklyn, Long Island
                 » Then set up winter camp
       • Trenton and Princeton
            – Two small victories
                                        1777
• British focus on two
  campaigns…
• Philadelphia (Howe)
   – Knows that he must destroy
     Washington to win Revolution
   – Will take capital to cut off
     Washington’s supplies
• Canada (Burgoyne)
   – Saratoga
      • Arnold’s defiance of Gates’
        orders rallies troops; forces
        British surrender
      • Brings French into war
          – Treaty of Alliance
Valley Forge
1778 - 1781
    • War in north is practically on hold;
      focus moves to South
    • In the south…
       – Cornwallis takes Savannah,
          Charleston
       – Gates, then Greene put in
          command of Southern Continental
          forces
            • Reliance on militia
               – Battle of Cowpens
       – Cornwallis ultimately forced to
         withdraw from North Carolina
         following Guilford Courthouse
           • Goes to Yorktown
   Yorktown
• Cornwallis’ forced trapped
  between French fleet and
  Washington’s forces
   – Southern Army must surrender
• Why is it all over?
   – British have made no progress
     since 1775
   – Cannot keep paying for war
   – Do not have enough troops
       • Use of Hessian mercenaries
   – Charleston also under siege
• British had won most of the
  battles, but could not destroy
  Washington’s army
  Treaty of Paris, 1783
• When?
   – September 1783


• Who?
   –   Britain
   –   USA
   –   France
   –   Spain

• Outcome?
   – Ends the war
   – Boundaries of USA = Canada
     (North), Mississippi River (West)
   – Florida returns to Spain

				
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