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Personality

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					Psy 202




 Personality –an
 individual’s
 characteristic pattern of
 thinking, feeling, and
 acting.
Personality –an
individual’s
characteristic
pattern of thinking,
                       Theorists
feeling, and acting.

        Theorists
Personality –an
individual’s
characteristic
pattern of thinking,   Famous personality theorists:
feeling, and acting.
                           Freud- Father of Psychoanalysis
        Theorists
                           Karl Jung –three components of personality:
                           collective unconscious (a common reservoir of
                           images derived from our species’ universal
                           experiences), personal unconscious, & ego.

                           Alfred Adler –the drive to overcome feelings of
                           inferiority acquired in childhood drives most of our
                           behavior.
Personality –an
individual’s
characteristic
pattern of thinking,   Famous personality theorists cont’d:
feeling, and acting.
                        Maslow (humanistic psychology) –motives are related to
        Theorists       physiological needs. Developed the hierarchy of needs
                        with self actualization at the apex. Focused on healthy
                        people not sick people.

                        Rogers –believed that people are generally good and
                        are endowed with self-actualizing tendencies. Unless
                        thwarted by an environment that inhibits growth, each of
                        us is primed for growth and fulfillment. Therapy
                        Requires:
                        Genuiness –being open with their own feelings, dropping their
                        facades, and being transparent and self-disclosing.
                        Acceptance - people nurture growth through unconditional
                        positive regard –an attitude of total acceptance towards
                        another person.
                        Empathic concern–by sharing an mirroring our feelings and
                        reflecting our meanings.
Personality –an
individual’s
characteristic
pattern of thinking,          Famous personality theorists cont’d:
feeling, and acting.
                                   Bandura reciprocal determinism: the interacting
        Theorists                  influences between personality and environmental
                                   factors.
                                   - different people choose different environments.
                                   - our personalities shape how we interpret and react
                                   to events. PERCEPTION
                                   - our personalities help create situations to which we
                                   react. SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY
                       *** the best predictor of future behavior is past behavior.***
Personality –an
individual’s
characteristic
pattern of thinking,   Famous personality theorists cont’d:
feeling, and acting.
                          Allport –described personality in terms of
        Theorists         fundamental traits
                              Trait –a characteristic pattern of behavior or a
                              disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-
                              report inventories and peer reports.
Personality –an
individual’s
characteristic
pattern of thinking,
                       Psychoanalytic Theory
feeling, and acting.



   Psychoanalysis
Personality –an
individual’s                   Freud- Father of Psychoanalysis
characteristic
pattern of thinking,
feeling, and acting.



   Psychoanalysis




   ■ The Id contains the innate       ■ The Superego develops at
                                          around the age of 5yrs and is   ■ The Ego is the conscious,
       sexual (libido) and                                                    rational part of the mind
       aggressive instincts and is        the conscience of the child
       located in the unconscious         as it realises what is right        which develops during
       mind. It demands                   and wrong. It is formed             the first 2yrs of life. It
       immediate satisfaction and         when the child adopts many          is the mediator between
       exists at birth.                   of the values of the same sex       the id and superego.
                                          parent (identification)
Personality –an
individual’s           Freud- Father of Psychoanalysis
characteristic
                                   Fixation in an earlier stage would result in
pattern of thinking,
                                   personality flaws.
feeling, and acting.                   Ex. A person who had been either orally
                                       overindulged or deprived might fixate at the
                                       oral stage showing itself excessive smoking
    Psychoanalysis                     and eating.
Personality –an
individual’s           Freud- Father of Psychoanalysis
characteristic
pattern of thinking,               According to Freud → Civilizations breeds
feeling, and acting.               anxiety: sometimes the ego fears losing
                                   control of this inner war between the
                                   demands of the id and the superego, and
                                   the result is a dark cloud of unfocused
    Psychoanalysis                 anxiety, which leaves us feeling unsettled
                                   but unsure why.


                       Defense mechanisms –tactics that reduce
                       or redirect anxiety by distorting reality.
 Personality –an
 individual’s           Freud- Father of Psychoanalysis
 characteristic
 pattern of thinking,
 feeling, and acting.



    Psychoanalysis      Defense Mechanisms
                                        Research has proven this
                            Repression –the banishment of thoughts, feelings,
                                        doesn’t happen.
                            and memories from consciousness

  Is supported              Denial –a conscious effort to suppress unpleasant
  by research               reality.

                                       Research indicates more infantile stage
                            Regression –retreating into a that this doesn’t
                                       happen.
                            Reaction formation –making unacceptable
                            impulses their opposites (“I love him” becomes “I
                                         Not testable
                            hate him”)

Has some                    Projection –people disguise their own threatening
support                     impulses by attributing them to others
Personality –an
individual’s           Freud- Father of Psychoanalysis
characteristic
pattern of thinking,
feeling, and acting.



    Psychoanalysis     Defense Mechanisms cont’d

                           Rationalizations –offers self-justifying explanations
 Is supported
                           in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious
 by research
                           reasons for one’s actions.

                           Displacement –shifting sexual or aggressive
 Is supported
                           impulse toward a more acceptable or less
 by research
                           threatening target.

                           Compensation –masking perceived weaknesses or
                           developing certain positive traits to make up for
                                        Not testable
                           limitations.
Personality –an
individual’s           Freud- Father of Psychoanalysis
characteristic
pattern of thinking,
feeling, and acting.



    Psychoanalysis     Defense Mechanisms cont’d

Has some                   Fantasy –gratifying frustrated desires by imaginary
support                    achievements.

                           Sublimation -redirecting 'wrong' urges into socially
                                           Not
                           acceptable actions. testable
Personality –an
individual’s           Freud- Father of Psychoanalysis
characteristic
pattern of thinking,                    According to Freud, the way to cure
feeling, and acting.                    mental illness is to bring up the
                                        unconscious issues (usually
                                        molestation to the conscious) and that
                                        issue would “magically” disappear
    Psychoanalysis
Personality –an
individual’s           Freud- Father of Psychoanalysis
characteristic
pattern of thinking,
feeling, and acting.



    Psychoanalysis     Projective tests –aim provide such a view by
                       presenting an ambiguous stimulus and then
                       asking test-takers to describe it or tell a story
                       about it.
                            Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) in which
                            people view ambiguous pictures and then make
                            up stories about them.

                            Rorschach inkblot test –the most widely used
                            projective test, a set of 10 inkblots seeks to
                            identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their
                            interpretations of the blots.

                             Check out the Project Tests PowerPoint
                             on this website
Personality –an
individual’s
characteristic
pattern of thinking,
                       Trait Theorists
feeling, and acting.
                                            UNSTABLE
                                    Moody             Touchy
                                Anxious                 Restless
                              Rigid                     Aggressive
                            Sober                           Excitable
                          Pessimistic                      Changeable
    Trait Theorists      Reserved                              Impulsive
                        Unsociable                              Optimistic
                        Quiet                                       Active
                                   melancholic   choleric
                        INTROVERTED                     EXTRAVERTED
                        Passive       phlegmatic sanguine
                                                                  Sociable
                        Careful                                 Outgoing
                         Thoughtful                            Talkative
                          Peaceful                         Responsive
                           Controlled                     Easygoing
                               Reliable                      Lively
                                Even-tempered           Carefree
                                    Calm           Leadership
                                             STABLE
Personality –an
individual’s           Freud- Father of Psychoanalysis
characteristic
pattern of thinking,              Freud’s Techniques to Uncover the
feeling, and acting.              Unconscious:
                                      Free association (patient relaxes and says
                                      whatever comes to mind)
                                      Projective tests
    Psychoanalysis
                                      Dream analysis
                                      Hypnosis
Personality –an
individual’s           Freud- Father of Psychoanalysis
characteristic
pattern of thinking,                    These techniques led to people
feeling, and acting.                    being implanted with false
                                        memories of rape and innocents
                                        going to jail in the 80s and 90s.
    Psychoanalysis
Personality –an
individual’s           Trait Theorists –measuring rather than explaining
characteristic         personality
pattern of thinking,
feeling, and acting.
                           Personality inventory –a questionnaire on
                           which people respond to items designed to gauge a
                           wide range of feelings and behaviors.


    Trait Theorists


                              Myer-Briggs
                              Eyseneck
                              Cattel
                              Big Five
                              Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
                              Inventory (MMPI)

                        Take the Big Five Personality Test on the
                        Website and View the Big Five Powerpoint
                        to understand what your score means
Personality –an
individual’s           Trait Theorists –measuring rather than explaining
characteristic         personality
pattern of thinking,
feeling, and acting.
                           Commonly Measured Personality Traits
                       Personal control –our sense of controlling our
                       environment rather than feeling helpless.
                           Internal locus of control –the perception that one
    Trait Theorists        controls one’s own fate.
                           External locus of control –the perception that change
                           or outside forces beyond one’s personal control
                           determine one’s fate.
                                Learned helplessness –the hopelessness and
                                passive resignation an animal or human learns
                                when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
                                -people given little control over their word
                                experience lower morale and increase stress
Personality –an
individual’s           Trait Theorists –measuring rather than explaining
characteristic         personality
pattern of thinking,
feeling, and acting.
                           Commonly Measured Personality Traits

                           Spotlight effect –overestimating others’ noticing
                           and evaluating our appearance, performance, and
                           blunders.
    Trait Theorists
                           Self-esteem –one’s feelings of high or low self
                           worth.
                               - low self esteem is correlated with depression
                               and anxiety.
                               -- high self esteem is correlated with choosing
                               the easy route over challenges, giving up
                               quicker, lying about one’s performance and
                               greater aggression when rejected

                        Download and view the Self Esteem
                        Powerpoint online. You are responsible for
                        knowing the vocab in it.

				
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posted:12/29/2011
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