Heros in EM wave history
0341173 Leem chang-sun
What is very briefly explained?
Mainly the history of Electromagnetics is treated. And we focus on the person that construct
magnificent generalized idea. I briefly explained that were made by them. I also briefly explained
why they are hero of electroamgnetism. In this process. I will acquire what is made today that product
made them. So I can see their achievement and achievement’s use modern technology.
Why you choose this topic?
Usually I interested the electromagnetism scientists like Maxwell. It is very interest that a unit of
magnitude of electric and magnetic quantity is named the scientists’s name like Ohm, Ampere. To
know about the electromagnetism, I choose this topic.
How you approach your research?
First of all I will search the history of electromagnetism. And I meet the person that hero of
Electromagnetism. In this time I get the products that they achieved. And I will show how product is
used today. For this process, I will use internet, some books etc. Finally I will can prove they are realy
heroes in electromagnetism.
The hero of electromagnetism
James Clerx Maxwell
Hermann von Helmholtz
The history of electromagnetism’s development
- Human had known that rubbed materials can have the magnetic in the fast. And the skill of making
compass leads to the development of magnetism. In Long time ago the Chinese people know this fact.
In this process, Chinese made a magneto. They float on the water what like pin, see the direction the
pin indicate by magnetism. This magnetism is made the earth magnetic field. So the inducted pin point
at south direction or north direction. Chinese know that the being of earth magnetic field before Christ.
Also the astronomer of the France in 1920’s , Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt , know this fact . His
book, named “ A letter to magneto “, was first reference about earth is huge magneto in Europe. He
constructed the fundamental magnetism’s basis. And this was the west magnetism’s basis. This
discussion of a Peregrinus which is the ship's fittings could not be connected continuously and came to
escape one mind in Europe but. A machine manufacture self-acknowledgment nomuneun as soon as is
the crew of England in 1581 to be after the 300 years have passed, began the manpower ] which the
[ new as began the discussion about the magnet this from the book. The Gilbuteu arranges the
knowledge about the magnet in the book Laneun [About a magnet ] stoped theoretical system
which treats at the sleep. A Gilbuteu magnet is alive intention which the globe is small burning to
death, named Terrella. In his book named [ About a magnet] the element of the terrestrial magnetism
were defined coition , direction , variation , declination , revolution . People are calling the element of
the terrestrial magnetism to such name in today. Electricity of the ancient constructed also. The ancient
Greeks when rubes at an amber , discovered the fact to pull light bodies like the feathers . The word of
English which is the electricity was originated 'The amber.' to Greek from the electron of the intention.
Full-scale research about the electricity began too by Gilbuteu. The gilbuteu is arguing except self in
the book laneun about the magnet about the electricity. The duipe enlarges the experiment of the
carpenter's plumb line in 1733 systematicly more. He rubes almost material except the metal
succeeded in creating the electricity. A Jojipeu Peuliseuteulli in 1767, with a gravity rule of Newton,
discovered the charge the fact which the manpower acts to be in inverse proportion at the distance, an
experiment of Henry Kebundisi in 1771, an experiment of Charles Augustin Coulomb, 1736-l806 ,
The rule about an electricity and magnetic’s phenomenon which is the fixed quantity came to get.
Finally in 18th century, various experimental fact about an electricity and own phenomenon is
discovered and various interpretings appeared and the electricity and the magneto fixed quantity which
treats at the sleep were processed together. A Lungigi Galba which was an anatomy professor of a
bollonya university in 1780 saw the frog umcheuli when we contacted the metal at a frog nerves. And
he discovered a lieutenant animal electricity phenomenon which the electricity happens in the animal.
The Volta to be the friend of the Galbani (1745-1827) was the people to have more concern at an
electricity oneself than a physiology phenomenon of the animal. The end which he have the metal
since 1794 and creats the electricity to experiment the frog found out in the experiment just to take the
role of the detector. When metals different each other put wet electric conductor in the interval and
contact, the electricity to flow happens, constructed many mettals and connected this by the pillar and
he saw the thing to get strong current. This was the Volta battery that first an artificial electricity
occurrence engine. Voltas show the cable in front of masses an electricity battery of the initial in 1800 .
And he maximized an evidence effectiveness which his battery had. He won finally a controversy of
an animal electricity supporter. A intention battery invention news was delivered soon at the many
country of Europe. This became many subjects which this was born. The electricity chemical of the
Volta to treat inter-activity of the electricity with a chemical material was the thing to get many
attention from scientists. The Oersted to discover the effectiveness because the former we are was
Denmark scientist.(Hans Christian Oersted, 1777-1851) . To flow of the electricity has an influence on
the movement of the magnet , the thing to discover an electromagnetism effectiveness was because he
was located in a nature philosophy tradition. When Oersted’s discovery news was delivered for the
first time at France, France scientists such as a Biot (Jean Baptiste Biot, 1774-1862) , Poisson
(Simon-Denis Poisson, 1781-1840) thought that it is difficult to believe this discovery and scientific
fact will not be this. But hostile France scientists which had the position was confirmed this
phenomenon to the experimental and paid attention again this phenomenon to the behavior to be the
mathematics and analysis. The time have passed and the Ampre (Andr Marie Ampre, 1775-1836)
discovered the power acted between two parallel the line which the current flows. And he arranged to
the mathematics the effect about the electromagnetisms. So the two line interval's which the current
flows activity succeeded in exploding a mathematics theory to generalize in 1825.
Michael Faraday – Father of electromagnetism
Michael Faraday(figure 1), an experiment natural laws scholar of 19th century, named the father of
electromagnetism. And he is the chemist and physicist of England. He was borne in September 22, 1791
to a son of Poor blacksmith. He could not take the regularity education properly. Because ardent wish to
treat his we learning is ardent in spite of poor environment, he read books hard as we got a job at the
factory to the apprentice and learned making book technique. He heard Englishman chemist Humphry
Davy respect talk in Royal Institution and he made his vision of science. He was adopted and to a Royal
Institution research institute experiment assistant instructor. He studied the electricity and chemical and
became the chemical professor as were there to the assitant of Humphry. The Faraday established the
some branch basic fact to the experiment that induced in a crown cable or concept of the power of the
1) A Coulomb square inverse proportion rule calculated about the electric force.
: He assumed that the number from the charge of the line of the power which flows out is proportional
to the size of the charge. He proof that the power of the field of an one point is proportional a size of
the charge dividing to the square of the charge in the point of the distance.
2) The certification to be made of the pair which the sign is the contrast and the size to deliver same
: Let take up plus charge on a metal case which puts the ice and put, the plus charge of same quantity
comes into being at a barrel outside. Careful the plus charges of a barrel inside is not to reach the
inside of the barrel we shift here and there, are not changed the plus charge of the outside though.
He was convinced that the current was just half the origin about the discovery which electric field
and magnetic field relation make magnetic field. He thought that If electricity makes magneto, the
magnet will make the electric field as any method. He did not know being the chance, when move the
magnet of a circuit side quite we being the little, he discovered the current comes into being at the
circuit. This hints the circuit and a magnet interval's inter-moving influences. Also he knew that the
direction of the relative exercise is changed, the direction of the current to flow is reversed. 1845 year
Faraday discovered the rotation effectiveness which the plane of polarization revolves by the
magnetic field because we are the photon. He introduced Magnetic Field concept in this course to the
beginning. He is the thing to believe that magnetic force line exist really. Faraday’s concepts about
field and line plays definite role at electric and magnetic existence of the Maxwell. The Faraday
studied the vacuum electric discharge, discovered a anti magnetic material. The inducting of
electromagnetism was discovered him, was great to actual and brought epochal result to all industry
technique field and pure science field. And he contributed greatly even though we set up a
electromagnetism theory in discovering rule of an electricity parse and concept of electromagnetic
Maxwell, James Clerk - The man to prepare a unity about basis
James Clerk Maxwell was borne in a family territory of Dumfriesheire of England to the son of the
lawyer. A school grade was not looked better, but he was the talent in the mathematics. He entered
Edinburgh in 1847 year, after he graduated the school that give A was English and mathematics . He
was selected at a twenty years old to a special researcher of Trinity university. He began the lecture
and superviing the electricity and experiment which treats at the sleep. He became the professor of a
Cambridge in 1865. He began formal mission from the laboratory which 1871 was called Cavendish.
He died relatively of the stomach cancer in November 5, 1879 by cancer. Most big work of the
Maxwelll stays at the consolidation of the electromagnetism. He used a fluid dynamics analogy and
completed a mathematics theory by the consideration of Faraday of the electromagnetism. He induce
the "A basis equation of the Maxwell." and accomplished a electromagnetism’s theory and established
the electromagnetism theory of the light (The EM wave has the speed like the speed of the light.) He
integrated the light with the electricity and magnetic as well as to one theory. One of works's worthy
of paying attention most in 19th century science is the fact which one confirmes the light is the EM
wave. And The Maxwell foretold the fact with the magnetic field and electric field theory about
their mutual relation. The Maxwell in 1873 published [Treatise on electricity and magnetism] to the
book. A electricity and magnetism system of the Maxwell is the thing to appear in the world to this
Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf- The discovery of EM wave. (figure 3)
He was borne in Germany. He wished the technician at the beginning and worked for the high grade
industry school. But he majored in the physics to the natural science in a conversion Berlin university.
He took the map of H.L Helmholtz [1821.8.31~1894.9.8] and G.R Kirchhoff [1824.3.12 ~
1887.10.17] . He became the experiment assitant of the Kirchhoff in 1880. He became the theory
physics at the Kaleulseulu of the river in 1885 a high grade industry school experiment physics
professor in 1883 years the Kil university. The health died are young the change for worse 37 years old
to the chronicity septicemia in 1892. He was interested in the electromagnetism theory and EM-wave
when he is 22 years old. But the observation experiment is impossible to the device of that time. The
time to start at the Kaleulseulu at the high grade industry school, he got the hint in the device named
“The whirlpool line of the Keunohenhangungel ” (figure 4 ). So he began a EM wave’s experiment. He
discovered that the flame electric discharge to make with the coil induct the thing to connect to induce
another gap of the circuit. This implies that there is the limit in the electric wave speed of the
electricity vibration. So he measured that’s speed. He confirmed in the change of king's residence the
resonance effect changes the original oscillation frequency into raw fish and is there. The stationary
wave is used at the verification of the EM-wave to transmit the space. And he made the stationary
wave in an one side wall of big room by the EM-wave to reflect. He measured the alternation of the
power and measured the wave length. He confirm the existence of the EM-wave by this. And He
proved by this to be equal to the speed of a EM-wave as light. And he used a mirror has a curve
surface, observed EM-wave’s straighess , refraction , reflection etc. He proved the EM-wave shows the
nature such as the light or heat radiation in 1888. This is important work because of the thing to prove
the precision of the Maxwell’s equation. Maxwell’s equation and that’s experiment of the Hertz,
formed one turning point at the history of a nature recognition.
2. Book : [Scientist 100] Joan Simons , p77~ 85
figure 1: Michael Faraday figure 2: James Clerk Maxwell
figure 3: Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf whirlpool line of the
figure 4: Hertz’s The