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					                         Supplemental Handout:
                             The SPECS of
                          Normal Development




Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.1, April 2009   1
                                                   “SPECS” of Normal Development

                                                                 Birth to One Year

Age     Social                   Physical                 Physical                    Emotional                Cognitive                Sexual
        Development              Growth                   Development                 Development              Development              Development
Birth   Prefers female voice     Weight range             Sees well at 8 - 12         Consciousness of self    Alertness states:        The full range of
                                 for full-term:           inches                      begins with the early      active alert           sexual behaviors
        Can identify             5 ½ - 10 ½ lbs.                                      mental representation      quiet alert            includes penile
        mother figure            Average wt.:             Sense of taste, smell,      of a special person        drowsy                 erection, vaginal
        through                   Boys 7 ½ lbs.           touch, and hearing well-    created by the child.                             lubrication or orgasm
        auditory and              Girls 7 lbs             developed                                            Responds to bell
        olfactory senses                                                              Learns about love
        within 48 hours          Length range             Reflexes include:           and trust through        Undifferentiated cry
        of birth                 for full term:            sucking                    touching and holding     for needs
                                 18 - 22 inches            fencing posture
        Bonding process                                    grasping                                            Responses to
        initiated                Head is large (¼ of       startling                                           surroundings are very
                                 total body size)                                                              reflexive

                                 Rapid brain              Hands kept fisted
                                 development
                                                          Movement is active,
                                 Abdomen is large         random, flailing
                                 Arms and legs thin       and uncontrolled

                                 Fontanels open
                                                          Lifts head
                                 Small for
                                 Gestational Age
                                 (SGA) if full-term
                                 weight is less than 5
                                 lbs.

                                 Premature if less than
                                 37weeks, gestation




                           Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.1, April 2009                           2
                                                           “SPECS” of Normal Development
                                                         Birth to One Year, Continued

Age      Social                  Physical                 Physical                      Emotional               Cognitive                 Sexual
         Development             Growth                   Development                   Development             Development               Development
1-3      Spontaneous smile       Average weight gain      Will visually track objects   Continued               Will begin to vocalize    Parental roles of care-
Months   develops                is about 1 ounce per     to midline at one month       development of          in ways other than        giving are being
                                 day                                                    sense of trust in the   crying                    defined that will assist
         Begins to smile                                  Can lift head to 45° by       world through                                     the child in learning
         responsively            By three months, will    one month                     interactions with the   Differentiated types of   social rules, roles,
                                 grow about 2 inches                                    primary caretaker       crying develops           expectations and
         Alert to presence of    in length from birth     By two months:                                                                  gender identity later
         people                                                                         Temperament is          Gurgling, squealing
                                 Rapid brain               -   can visually track       present and clear to    and cooing occur
         Makes eye contact       development                   objects past midline     caregivers
                                 continues                 -   can lift head to 90°                             Interactive
         Vocalizes sounds                                                               Feelings of pleasure    vocalization begins,
                                                          By three months:              and unhappiness         and child initiates
         Bonding process                                                                present by 3 months     babbling
         continues as child is                             -   can visually track
         able to identify                                      objects 180°                                     Laughter
         caretaker                                         -   can put hands
                                                               together
                                                           -   muscle control in
                                                               upper body is good
                                                           -   can lift chest up
                                                               with arm support
                                                           -   can be held in
                                                               sitting position and
                                                               hold head steady
                                                           -   beginning to
                                                               develop hand-eye
                                                               coordination
                                                           -   rolls over




                           Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.1, April 2009                            3
                                                            “SPECS” of Normal Development
                                                           Birth to One Year, Continued

Age      Social                    Physical                 Physical                       Emotional               Cognitive               Sexual
         Development               Growth                   Development                    Development             Development             Development
4–6      Will begin to resist if   Will gain 5 – 6          Movements are                  Emotions present        Is aware of the         Exploration of body
months   a toy is pulled away      ounces per week          controlled and                 and visible to others   presence of objects     may now include
         from them                                          purposeful – no longer         include:                                        fingers and toes, arms
                                   Birth weight often       reflexive                       -   happy              Attention to objects    and legs
         Will actively engage      doubled by 5 months                                      -   sad                begins as a critical
         with adult in             of age                   Can grasp rattle                -   angry              component of            Parental roles of care-
         interaction                                        purposefully                    -   pain               cognitive               giving continue to be
                                   By six months of age,                                    -   fear               development             defined that will assist
         Ability to feed self      2-3 more inches in       Able to bear some               -   protest                                    the child in learning
         crackers or other         length will be added     weight on legs                                         Able to laugh as a      social rules, roles,
         items                     to length at 3 months                                                           response                expectations and
                                   of age                   If put in sitting position,                                                    gender identity later
         Vocalization used to                               there is no head lag                                   Vocalizes desires and
         interrupt others/gain     Rapid brain                                                                     eagerness through a
         attention                 development              Child uses hands to rake                               range of sounds
                                   continues                for objects s/he wants to
         Will begin to initiate                             pick up                                                Will look for objects
         social contact
                                                            By 5-6 months, may be                                  Initiates own noises,
         Imitates facial                                    able to sit and pull self to                           and imitates speech
         expressions                                        sitting                                                sounds

         Works to get a toy                                 Moves objects from hand                                Will turn toward
         that is visible, but                               to hand                                                voices
         out of reach
                                                            Stands if holding on to
         Wants to form an                                   something
         attachment to a
         specific person(s),
         often his/her
         caregiver




                            Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.1, April 2009                            4
                                                             “SPECS” of Normal Development
                                                            Birth to One Year, Continued

Age      Social                   Physical                   Physical                      Emotional               Cognitive                 Sexual
         Development              Growth                     Development                   Development             Development               Development
7 – 12   Development of           Gains 2 – 3 ounces         May pull to standing          Ability to explore      Can imitate sound         When unclothed, may
months   attachment to            per week                   position                      environment and play    sequences                 begin to explore body
         caregiver continues                                                               leads to continued                                and handle genitals
         to strengthen            Birth weight triples by    Can support weight on         understanding of and    May use “mama” or
                                  the age of one year        legs                          trust in environment    “dada”                    Becomes clear on
         Interactive play                                                                                          indiscriminately at 7     differentiating between
         begins                   Adds 3 – 4 inches          Cruising walk while           Attachment to           months, but will be       people, and begins to
                                  from 6-month height        holding on to something       caregiver strengthens   used properly by 10       make observations
         Can play peek-a-boo      by the age of one          for balance may begin                                 months of age             about these people,
                                  year                                                     Enjoys interactions                               laying a foundation for
         Will initiate                                       Thumb-finger grasp            with caregiver          By 10 months, may         gender roles and
         interactions             Rapid brain                develops                                              begin to label specific   identity development
                                  development                                              By the age of 1 year,   objects with sounds
         May shout or use         continues                  By the age of one year,       beginning to become
         other sounds for                                    will stand alone well and     curious about           By 12 months
         attention                                           begin to walk                 environment and         -   may use 3 or
                                                                                           willing to explore          more words
         Shyness or anxiety                                  By the age of one year,                                   other than
         around strangers                                    is starting to drink from a   Begins to move              mama and dada
         may occur                                           cup                           towards developing      -   object
                                                                                           autonomy                    permanence
         Separation anxiety                                                                                            beginning to
                                                                                                                       develop
         Stranger anxiety                                                                                          -   early problem
                                                                                                                       solving skills
         By 12 months, will                                                                                            arise
         play ball with other                                                                                      -   mastery of task
         people beside                                                                                                 is important
         caregiver                                                                                                 -   foundation for
                                                                                                                       attention span
         Demonstrates clear                                                                                            laid
         wants                                                                                                     -   shakes head
                                                                                                                       “no”




                            Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.1, April 2009                               5
                                                              “SPECS” of Normal Development
                                                                    One to Two Years

Age       Social                    Physical                 Physical                    Emotional                Cognitive                Sexual
          Development               Growth                   Development                 Development              Development              Development
13 – 18   Interactions with         By 18 months,            Able to walk backwards      Attachment to the        May scribble             Continued exploration
months    others will expand                                                             caregiver lays the                                of body, grounded in
                                    Height:                  Enhancement of balance      foundation for           Vocabulary develops      curiosity
          Has good                  29 – 32 inches           and stability               conscience
          understanding of                                                               development              Increase in number of    Interactions with
          caregiver, and will       Weight                   Mastery and integration                              words in vocabulary      others lead to further
          begin to have             21 – 29 pounds           of body                     Internalization of       and reaches up to 20     understanding of
          expectations of how                                                            caregiver, who           words by 18 months       behaviors and social
          their caregiver                                    Feeds self, able to use     becomes part of                                   rules and roles for
          responds                                           utensils                    oneself                  Begins using double-     gender
                                                                                                                  syllable words by 15
          Reciprocal                                         Can take off clothing on    Belief that if I hurt    months
          connectedness                                      their own                   another, I hurt myself
          forms                                                                          begins to develop        Receptive and
                                                             Walks up steps                                       expressive language
          Has desires to                                                                                          abilities develop
          obtain objects or                                  Throws a ball
          toys to play with                                                                                       Pulls at a wet diaper

          Begins to imitate                                                                                       Can name objects
          behaviors of                                                                                            and body parts
          caregivers
                                                                                                                  Tries to sing
          Will grab others
          hand to get attention                                                                                   Able to follow simple
                                                                                                                  instructions
          Curiosity arises, may
          ask “what’s that?”

          Hand toy to adult if
          unable to operate it




                              Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.1, April 2009                            6
                                                         “SPECS” of Normal Development
                                                               One to Two Years

Age       Social                Physical                 Physical                   Emotional                 Cognitive                  Sexual
          Development           Growth                   Development                Development               Development                Development
19 - 24   Imitation of          By the age of 2 years:   Puts on clothing           Develops sense of         Can combine 2              Sense of curiosity
months    household behaviors                                                       autonomy, or              different words            leads to early
          in play becomes       Height:                  Able to wash hands         willingness and ability                              understanding of the
          helpful                32 – 36 inches                                     to move around and        Follows 2 – 3 step         body and bodily
                                                         Develops more complex      explore world             directions                 functions
                                Weight:                  motor skills such as:
                                 22 – 31 pounds          -   able to climb          Types of attachment       Can recognize
                                                         -   able to throw ball     visible                   pictures
                                                             overhand                -    secure
                                                         -   kicks ball forward      -    insecure            Understanding of
                                                         -   jumps in place                                   symbols allows for
                                                         -   can pedal tricycle                               child to use phrases
                                                                                                              and short sentences.
                                                         Gains muscle control for
                                                         toilet training                                      Will add “ing”, plurals,
                                                                                                              and possessives to
                                                                                                              words




                         Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.1, April 2009                             7
                                                         “SPECS” of Normal Development
                                                              Two to Three Years

Age     Social                   Physical               Physical                        Emotional                Cognitive                Sexual
        Development              Growth                 Development                     Development              Development              Development
2–3     Imitation becomes        By the age of 3:        Focuses on mastery of          Children strive for a    By the age of 3, has a   Behaviors continue to
Years   primary means of                                 more complex activities        sense of autonomy.       vocabulary of up to      reflect self-exploration
        play                     Height:                 -  standing on one                                      300 words                and masturbation
         -   early imitation     33 – 42 inches             foot                        Emotional reactions
             of parent/                                  -  running                     may be strong as         At age 3, can now        Easily re-directed by
             caregiver           Weight:                 -  jumping                     child struggles with     carry on a               parents based on
             behaviors           24 – 42 pounds          -  climbing                    need for                 conversation             culturally accepted
         -   later, as child                             -  more skillful use of        independence                                      standards
             approaches 3                                   one hand                                             May have a short
             years of age,                               -  balancing on toes           Has a desire to be       attention span           Begins understanding
             will begin to                                                              seen and accepted                                 of gender roles
             imitate other                               Shows a strong desire          as an individual         Displays curiosity
             children                                    to continue to attempt to                               and will ask             Interest in watching
                                                         accomplish tasks, even         Identifies preferences   questions such as        others when
        Play is often parallel                           if they aren’t realistically                            -   what                 undressing or using
        play, done near, but                             possible – this helps                                   -   where                the bathroom
        not with, other                                  develop the skills to                                   -   who
        children                                         achieve the tasks                                                                Will ask caregivers
                                                                                                                 Develops a basic         questions about sexual
        Behavior is easily                               Fine motor skills are                                   sense of time            body parts, especially
        guided                                           enhanced                                                                         breasts and penis
                                                         -   can draw specific                                   Uses past tense
        Strives to                                           shapes
        understand social                                -   controls movement
        and gender related                                   of pencil or crayon
        rules and roles
                                                        More control over
        Has difficulty                                  bladder and sphincter
        sharing                                         muscles

                                                        Can button clothers




                         Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.1, April 2009                                  8
                                                                “SPECS” of Normal Development
                                                                     Three to Five Years

Age         Social                   Physical                   Physical                    Emotional              Cognitive                Sexual
            Development              Growth                     Development                 Development            Development              Development
3-5 Years   Play moves from          At age 3, average is 3     Has good sense of           Development of         By the age of 4 ½,       Sexual behaviors
            parallel to more         feet tall and 33           balance and can easily      initiative occurs      knows approximately      include masturbation,
            interactive with other   pounds                     complete a variety of                              1500 words               and may include
            children                                            tasks including:            Child is often self-                            sexual play with other,
                                     Gains of about 4 – 5        -   running                directed and           Recognizes colors        same age children
            Toys are often the       pounds a year and 3         -   balancing on toes      confident
            focus of play            – 4 inches a year           -   jumping                                       Can name coins such      Vocabulary may
                                                                 -   catching and           Learning how to        as penny, nickel and     include sexual words,
            Play helps teach         Brain growth slows              throwing               control emotions and   dime                     or foul language
            social rules             considerably, with the                                 behavior
                                     brain having reached       Good hand-eye and                                  By the age of 5,         May have questions
            Cooperative play         4/5ths of its adult size   hand-finger control         Crying and temper      vocabulary is            about body parts or
            can occur                                                                       tantrums decrease      approximately 2,000      behaviors
                                                                Has control of bladder                             words
            By the age of 5,                                    and bowel                   Tears may turn on                               Behaviors and
            play becomes more                                                               and off at will        “WHY” is a common        questions are based in
            cooperative and is                                  May appear                                         question                 curiosity
            clearly governed by                                 uncoordinated at times      Better able to delay
            rules                                               of rapid growth             gratification          Thought is very          May pretend to be of
                                                                                                                   egocentric               opposite sex in play
            Improved ability to                                 Fine motor skills           Conscience
            share                                               improve including:          development occurs     Does not realize         May try to compare
                                                                -   cutting with scissors   as child begins to     other people have        body parts with other
                                                                -   drawing                 understand right and   their own                children
                                                                -   writing                 wrong                  perspectives
                                                                                                                                            Seeking to understand
                                                                                            Self esteem is         Thinking may be          gender roles and
                                                                                            dependent upon         illogical or magical     identity
                                                                                            other people’s
                                                                                            reactions to them      Draws figures with 6
                                                                                                                   parts

                                                                                                                   Short and long term
                                                                                                                   memory improve

                                                                                                                   Learning letters and
                                                                                                                   numbers



                               Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.1, April 2009                           9
                                                          “SPECS” of Normal Development
                                                           School Age Years (6-11)

Age      Social                  Physical                Physical                      Emotional                Cognitive                Sexual
         Development             Growth                  Development                   Development              Development              Development
6 – 11   Relationships with      Growth during this      Fine and gross motor          Children seek to         Can consider two         Sex play with other
Years    people and peers        time is slow and        coordination increasingly     become industrious,      thoughts                 same age children
         outside the family      steady –                better, and children          or self-directive,       simultaneously           may occur and can
         become very             approximately 3 - 4     enjoy doing activities that   productive and goal                               include:
         important               inches per year         allow them to use these       oriented                 Improved concept of       -   self-exploration
                                                         skills, such as art, music                             time                      -   simulation
         Friends often of the    Height:                 or athletics                  Self-awareness                                     -   kissing
         same gender, based       42 - 52 inches                                       improves                 Problem solving skills    -   hugging
         on common interests                             Strength and                                           enhance and allow         -   peeking
         or proximity            Weight:                 coordination increase in      Introspection            for understanding of      -   touching
                                  40 - 79 pounds         activities such as            becomes possible         cause and effect          -   exposure of
         Sports become a                                  -    riding a bicycle                                                               genitals
         good way to relate to   Body proportions are     -    skating                 Children can             Become qualitative
         other children and      similar to adult         -    swimming                understand that other                             Behaviors are usually
         play                                                                          people have              Concrete thinking        limited in type and
                                 Girls may experience    May begin puberty             thoughts, opinions                                frequency
         Other interests also    a growth spurt                                        and feelings             A strong sense of
         of importance:                                                                                         fairness                 Behaviors are based
          -   school                                                                   Sensitive to criticism                            on curiosity
          -   clubs                                                                                             Can understand
          -   activities                                                                                        similarities and         Easily redirected to
                                                                                                                differences              stop
         Rules and roles
         become very                                                                                            Memory improves          Gender identity clear,
         important in guiding                                                                                                            often tied to social
         behavior                                                                                               Reading and math         rules and roles
                                                                                                                skills grow
         Needs affection and                                                                                                             Media and peers can
         affirmation from                                                                                       Able to take other’s     influence identity and
         adults                                                                                                 perspectives             roles

         Conflict may arise                                                                                     Language enhances
         when peer group                                                                                        relationships
         values differ from                                                                                      -    active listening
         parent values                                                                                           -    asking questions




                          Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.1, April 2009                             10
                                                            “SPECS” of Normal Development
                                                          Adolescents (12 – 21 Years)

Age       Social                  Physical                 Physical                    Emotional                Cognitive                Sexual
          Development             Growth                   Development                 Development              Development              Development
12 – 15   Social relationships    By the age of 15:        Puberty occurs              Primary focus is on      Formal operations        Often, the early
Years     important - centered                                                         identity formation       may be reached – but     adolescent is
(Early)   in peer group           Height:                  Rapid physical growth of                             not everyone             ambivalent about
                                  5’ 4 “                   bones and muscles           Attitudes and            achieves this level of   sexual relationships
          Strong identification                                                        behaviors becoming       cognitive
          with peer group         Weight:                  Menstruation begins for     individualized, no       development. It          Often are shy,
                                  65 + pounds              girls (11 – 14 years of     longer based on          includes:                embarrassed and self-
          Social status &                                  age)                        values and                                        conscious
          acceptance are          Growth spurts                                        expectations of the       -   Able to think
          important               common:                  Male sex organs grow in     family and culture            hypothetically      May develop one on
                                   -  Boys: 12-15          size, testicles begin to                              -   Logical thinking    one friendships with
          Move toward                 years of age         produce semen               Peer group strong         -   Ability to think    person of opposite sex
          independence from        -  Girls: 11-14                                     influence on identity         about thought
          parents                     years of age         Brain development           and esteem                -   Development of      Interest in sexual
                                                           increases                                                 insight             relationships increases
                                                                                       Emotionally labile in     -   Systematic
                                                           Sleep is important, and     early adolescence             problem solving     Masturbation may
                                                           may occur at different                                                        occur
                                                           times than adults           Emotional response
                                                                                       to puberty also                                   Attractions may arise
                                                                                       occurs                                            to people of same,
                                                                                                                                         opposite or both
                                                                                                                                         genders




                            Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.1, April 2009                          11
                                                              “SPECS” of Normal Development
                                                         Adolescents (12 – 21 years cont’d)

Age         Social                  Physical                  Physical                   Emotional                 Cognitive               Sexual
            Development             Growth                    Development                Development               Development             Development
16 - 21     Peer group’s            Girl’s adult stature is   Puberty and physical       Sense of self, apart      Emergence of formal     Pubertal changes
years       importance declines,    achieved                  maturation continue        from peers and family     operations continues    continue
(Middle &   and individual                                                               stabilizes
Late)       friendships             Boys continue to          Bone and muscle growth                                                       Greater interest in
            strengthen              grow                      continue                   Self esteem based on                              sexuality
                                                                                         youth’s ability to live
            Dating and one-on-                                                           up to their own                                   Attraction to others of
            one relationships                                                            standards of behavior                             same, opposite, or
            become more                                                                                                                    both genders
            significant                                                                  Individual identity
                                                                                         forms                                             Sexual intimacy,
            Relationships often                                                                                                            intercourse
            based on mutual                                                              Perspective taking
            understanding,                                                               abilities improve                                 Decisions about
            loyalty and intimacy                                                                                                           sexual orientation,
                                                                                         Examination of other                              birth control, parenting
            Youth allowed to                                                             people’s values and                               and partners arise
            have their own                                                               beliefs may occur
            feelings and
            experiences that can                                                         Identity confusion
            differ from others                                                           may occur

            Self-revelation                                                              Morality issues occur
            occurs

            Intimacy is important

            Begin to develop
            expectations about
            their relationships
            with adults

            Conflicts with
            parents grow




                              Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.1, April 2009                         12
                                                            “SPECS” of Normal Development
                                                             Adulthood (21 and on…)

Age        Social                  Physical                Physical                    Emotional                  Cognitive                 Sexual
           Development             Growth                  Development                 Development                Development               Development
1-30       Commitment to                                   Peak of physical ability    In early adulthood,        Formalization of          Strong need for sexual
(early)    relationships may                               about age 25                Intimacy is a key          education or training     experimentation and
           occur                                                                       developmental issue.                                 intimacy
                                                                                                                  Work becomes an
           Decisions about                                                             Seek an open,              essential outlet for      Physical responses
           parenting and family                                                        supportive relationship    cognitive development     peak, and may then
           arise                                                                                                                            slow as pregnancy and
                                                                                                                  Exploration of interest   family roles appear
           Family stages of
           development impact
           personal
           relationships with
           others outside of
           home

30-65      Aging of one’s own                              Vision changes may occur    In middle adulthood,       Maximum involvement       In middle adulthood,
(middle)   parents becomes an                                                          generativity, or what      in career occurs during   relationships out side of
           issue                                           Hand-eye coordination       one does to make           middle adulthood          commitments may be
                                                           may slow                    things better for future                             explored
           Changing roles may                                                          generations is             Work impacts financial
           occur as parents                                Decrease in muscle mass     important.                 and social aspects of     Renegotiation of sexual
           allow for adolescent                                                                                   one’s identity            relationships occurs
           child’s independence                                                                                                             later in adulthood as a
                                                                                                                  Later adulthood:          result of physical
           As children age,                                                                                       Looking to have less      changes and emotional
           refocus on personal                                                                                    critical role in work     needs
           relationship may
           occur

65+        Roles may change as                             Chronic or degenerative     In later adulthood, a      Concerns about            Sexualized behaviors
(later)    enter grand parenting                           illnesses                   sense of integrity is      leaving the workforce     may cease
           roles                                                                       sought                     and how that impacts
                                                           Senses become less                                     relationships
           May develop adult                               acute                       Seeking an
           relationships with                                                          understanding of one’s
           children                                                                    life

           Deal with concepts                                                          Ability to face death
           and issues around                                                           without fear
           death and dying


                            Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.1, April 2009                             13

				
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