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					                                   Laboratory Write-ups



Your Name: Stephanie Siltanen

Laboratory Title: This is Black Hole Jeopardy!

Lab Objectives:

      Students will learn what a black hole is.

      Students will learn how a black hole is formed.

      Students will learn types of black holes.

      Students will learn myths about black holes.

Benchmark(s) Addressed:

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Understand physical properties of the

Earth, how those properties change and the Earth’s relationship to other

celestial bodies.

The Earth in Space

Common curriculum goals: Understand the Earth’s place in the solar system and the universe.

Benchmark 2 (grade 5):

   1. Describe the Earth’s place in the solar system and the patterns of movement of objects

       within the solar system using pictorial models.

   2. Describe Earth’s position and movement in the solar system.

   3. Recognize that the rotation of the Earth on its axis every 24 hours produces the night-

       and-day cycle.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Understand structures and properties of matter and

changes that occur in the physical world.

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Force

Common curriculum goal: Understand fundamental forces, their forms, and their effects on

motion.

   1. Recognize and describe the motion of an object in terms of one or more forces acting on

        it.

   2. Identify examples of mannerism and gravity exerting force on an object.

   3. Recognize that things on or near Earth are pulled toward it by Earth’s gravity.



Materials and Costs:

        This lab is done on a power point presentation and will not cost anything accept time.

Time:

Initial prep time: Creating power point presentation of material 3 hours Creating Jeopardy!

Power point 4 hours

Preparation time: set up power point 2 minutes

Instruction time: 45 minutes

Clean-up time: 0 minutes

Assessment:

At the beginning of the presentation, I learn my students’ previous knowledge with the myth or

reality game. After my power point presentation, we play a group jeopardy game to assess what

they have learned. To assess my students more I may ask them questions that are similar to the

questions in the jeopardy game such as:

   1.) What is the difference between the four types of black holes?

   2.) Why would earth not be sucked in, if the sun became a black hole?




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    3.) Describe spaghettification.

    4.) How are black holes created?

    5.) Draw a diagram of the parts of a black hole.

Background Information:

Black holes are formed when a massive star dies, and the corpse becomes a black hole. As the

massive star dies, all of the mass is squeezed into a tiny point. Space and time stop in a black

hole. Time does not pass and mass has no volume. There are four types of black holes, micro,

stellar mass, intermediate, and supermassive. These are ordered from smallest to largest. Micro

black holes are hypothetical; they have not actually been discovered. If we were to discover one

scientist hypothesis that they would be the smallest black hole and that there mass would be

smaller than their star’s mass. Stellar mass black holes are formed when a massive star dies. An

intermediate black holes is significantly larger than a stellar black hole and significantly smaller

than a supermassive black hole. A supermassive black hole is the most massive black holes.

Scientist have evidence that there is a supermassive black hole at the center of every galaxy

including the milky way.

There are two parts to black holes, the singularity and the event horizon. The singularity is the

center of a black hole. The event horizon is within a certain distance of the black hole. The

event horizon has a gravitational force so strong that anything that passes through it will be

sucked in and cannot go back. The more massive the singularity the more massive the event

horizon. Nothing outside the event horizon can be sucked into it; an object must pass through it

to be caught in it.




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Albert Einstein was the first to discover gravity in 1916 with his theory of relativity.

Gravitational waves are created when two large masses spin, collide, or explode. The

gravitational force of a black hole is the same is it is when it was a star. For example, or sun is

an average sized star, if it were to die tomorrow and become a black hole, the earth would not be

sucked into it because the orbit of the earth would not change because the gravitational force of

the sun would not change. This is why objects such as planets are safe from black holes.

However, if a black hole were to grow, this may change the outcome of planets, but there has not

been evidence that this could happen.

When a gravitational force is so strong, it stretches objects into long, thin shapes like spaghetti.

No object can resist this strong gravitational force near black holes, including light. That is why

black holes are black.

Because black holes are black, we cannot see a black hole itself. What we can see is the light

surrounding a black hole and an empty space in the middle. When matter falls into a black hole

it can heat up so much that it emits x-rays.

There is evidence of a black hole in the center of the Milky Way. There is a star near the center

of the galaxy orbiting at 3000 miles per second. Only a black hole 3 times the size of our sun

could cause a star to move that fast.

Materials:



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      Power point presentation on black holes

      Jeopardy template for power point

      Red and green paper



Procedure

Before the students enter the class –

      Set up power point presentation and get sound effects ready.

Introduction

      Myth versus reality game

Part 1: Introduce black holes with a power point presentation

Part 2: Play Jeopardy!




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