NRCS Jobsheet for Vegetable IPM - Northeastern IPM Center by gegeshandong

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 171

									                              Farm Info
                                                                       Vegetable Working
                                                                             Group


Enter Farm Information below in the green boxes and then go to the IPM Practices Tab.

           Farm Name:
         Farm Manager:


                Address:


         Phone Number:




            Major Crops:
      Available Acreage:              acres

           Target Pests:

          Target Weeds:

        Target Diseases:




            Management
             Objectives:

                Planner:
                                                       IPM Practices
Select the plant family from the drop down list that appears when you click on the green cell to the right of "Plant Family" and t
drop down list that appears when clicking on the green block next to "Crop". This will give you specific guidance if any is availa
this crop. Check boxes below along the left hand side of the page in the green columns that correspond to practices currently b
farm (benchmark) or that the producer is willing to begin implementing (planned). Practices are divided into major areas of P
Monitoring, and Suppression. After all practices have been selected, go to the IPM Plan tab and click on "Import Data" on t
have the information below automatically pasted to the plan sheet for printing. Plant Families are also listed in the tabs followi
information. References are located on the last tab after the plant families.



  Currently         Plan on
 Practicing      Implementing     Principle                             Practices
(Benchmark)        (Planned)


                                                   Use certified pest-free seeds and pest-free
                                                   transplants where available. (Example: Purchase
                                                   certified seed and ensure plants are free of insects,
                                                   diseases, and weeds before transplanting.)

                                                   Prevent weeds from going to seed. (Example:
                                                   Cultivate, pull, mow, flame, etc.)


                                                   Reduce moisture on plant surfaces to prevent
                                                   disease incidence. (Example: Use drip irrigation or
                                                   avoid overhead irrigation between 6 p.m. and
                                                   midnight to minimize disease.)
                                      PREVENTION




                                                   Employ methods to avoid spreading pests
                                                   (pathogens, weeds, and insects). (Example: Work
                                                   crop when dry, work infested fields last, wash
                                                   equipment between fields, etc.)


                                                   Destroy and/or remove crop residues for field
                                                   sanitation procedures. Include fall tillage where
                                                   appropriate to control weeds and break pest cycles.
                                                   (Example: Plow under corn refuse in the fall to control
                                                   European corn borer.)
            Eliminate unmanaged plants that serve as pest
            reservoirs, such as abandoned crops, volunteers
            from previous crop, or weed hosts of viruses.

            Test soil or plant tissue annually to determine proper
            fertility and pH levels for crop and time application
            according to crop needs. Apply nutrients, fertilizers,
            and pH-adjusting agents according to
            recommendations.
            Rotate crops that break the pest cycle. Do not plant
            crops from the same family at less than
            recommended intervals for the identified pest(s).

            Match crops to appropriate sites to optimize plant
            health and avoid known pests. (Example: Avoid
            planting crops susceptible to fungal diseases in low
            wet fields.)


            Choose pest-resistant cultivars. (Example: Plant virus
            and powdery mildew resistant vine crops.)
AVOIDANCE




            Adjust planting dates and select cultivars with
            maturity dates that allow avoidance of early or late-
            season pests. (Example: Plant cucurbits after early
            season striped cucumber beetle activity, delay
            planting of brassica crops to avoid cabbage
            maggots.)


            Use and manage trap crops to protect main crop
            from insect pests and insect-vectored diseases.
                Monitor for pests as recommended for each crop. If
                no monitoring guidelines available, monitor weekly to
                determine presence, density, and locations of pests
                and to determine crop growth stage. **Record
                findings. Record keeping is required**. (Example:
                Scout crops and use other appropriate monitoring
                aids such as pheromone traps, disease diagnostic
                tests, etc. Map weeds in the fall to help plan where
                specific measures may be needed to target problem
                weeds the following spring. Utilize University of
                Maine Cooperative Extension pest monitoring data
                from newsletters and websites.)
   MONITORING




                Use on-farm weather monitoring devices to measure
                precipitation, humidity, temperature, and leaf wetness
                and/or use commercial weather prediction service for
                prevention and control of plant diseases. (Example:
                Install weather station with rain gauge, hygrometer,
                maximum and minimum temperature recording
                equipment, leaf wetness sensors.)




                Use pest-forecasting tools (e.g., computer modeling
                software) as additional guides for on-farm pest
                monitoring activities in conjunction with weather data
                to predict risk of pest infestation.



                Use cover crops, especially pest-suppressing crops
                (allelopathic), in the rotation cycle to reduce weeds
                and disease incidence and to improve soil quality.

                Plant using appropriate within- and between-row
                spacing optimal for crop, site, and row orientation.
                (Example: Use row spacing and plant densities that
                assure rapid canopy closure.)
AL CONTROLS
 N
                                 Use reduced tillage and other residue management
                                 practices to suppress weeds and maintain soil
                                 organic matter as appropriate for crop.




CULTURAL AND PHYSICAL CONTROLS
                                 Use mulches including plastic or reflective mulches
                                 for insect or weed control.

                                 Inter-seed cover crop within or between rows to


         SUPPRESSION
                                 suppress weeds.

                                 Use mechanical pest controls. (Examples: Cultivate,
                                 mow, hoe, and hand remove insects and weeds,
                                 prune diseased or insect-infested plants, remove
                                 diseased plants.)

                                 Use physical pest controls and deterrents. (Example:
                                 Use flame weeding or other heat methods for insect,
                                 disease, and weed control; noise-makers; reflectors;
                                 ribbons; and predator models.)



                                 Use exclusion devices for insects or wildlife.
                                 (Examples: Use synthetic row covers and/or fencing.)



                                 Maintain or improve soil aeration and drainage to
                                 avoid standing water and minimize plant disease.
                                 (Example: Use tile drainage, sub soiling, grassed
                                 waterways, raised beds, and organic matter
                                 additions. Avoid planting in low and wet spots in
                                 field.)


                                 Use insect mating disruption devices, if available.
                                 (Example: Use pheromone laminate clip-ons or rings
                                 for tomato pinworm.)

                                 Conserve naturally occurring biological controls.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS




                                 (Example: Select pesticides and time applications to
                                 minimize impact on beneficials, use floral perimeter
    SUPPRESSION




                                 crop to attract and support beneficial insects.)



                                 Release beneficial organisms where appropriate.
                                 (Example: release predatory mites for control of two-
                                 spotted mites and thrips.)
BIOLOGICAL
    SUPPR
                    Use compost as a soil amendment to increase
                    biological diversity in soil and plant health and
                    suppress plant disease.

                    Minimize chemical use. Use in conjunction with
                    accurate pest identification and monitoring, action
                    thresholds, alternative suppression tactics (biological,
                    cultural, etc), and judgments based on previous
                    year's weed map and/or pest scouting records.
                    (Example: Use pheromone traps to monitor for corn
                    earworm in sweet corn.)




                    Select pesticides, formulations, and adjuvants based
                    on least negative effects on environment, beneficials
                    (e.g., pollinators, predators, parasites), and human
                    health in addition to efficacy and economics.



                    Use lowest labeled rate that is effective based on
                    label, scouting results, and Extension-recommended
                    action thresholds for target pest.

                    Limit applications to partial fields or banding to
                    reduce quantity or impact of pesticide. (Example:
                    Spot treat where pests are found or use banding,
                    seed, edge or field perimeter/border treatments.)
CHEMICAL CONTROLS
   SUPPRESSION




                    Calibrate sprayers or applicators prior to use to verify
                    amount of material applied.

                    Use pesticide-resistance management strategies as
                    appropriate and where required on pesticide label.
                    Example: Alternate applications of chemicals with
                    different modes of action to avoid development of
                    pest resistance or leave part of crop unsprayed to
                    serve as a refuge for susceptible pests and natural
                    enemies.
   SU
CHEMI
        Use specialized pesticide application equipment to
        increase efficiency and reduce chemical drift.
        (Examples: Use wiper applicators, digitally controlled
        adjustable tool bars, direct injection sprayers, double-
        drop sprayers, laser guided precision sprayers, direct
        injection, low-drift nozzles, shielded applicators or air
        induction booms, built-in tank washers, etc.)




        Use spray-monitoring equipment. (Example: Use
        water-sensitive cards to measure spray pattern and
        drift.)
        Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter strips to
        minimize chemical movement to sensitive areas such
        as surface waters, schools, residences, and
        neighboring crops.
        Use mitigation practices as necessary in accordance
        with pest monitoring results, pest predictions, action
        thresholds, and WinPST output.

        NOTE: Additional pesticide use requirements
        from the 595 Practice Standard:
        > Always follow all pesticide label instructions and
        environmental cautions.
        > Store, handle, transport, mix, use, and dispose of
        pesticides and pesticide containers per Maine Board
        of Pesticides Control recommendations and
        regulations.
        > When drawing water for pesticide mixing from any
        surface waters of the state, use anti-siphoning
        devices and do not use hoses that have been in
        contact with pesticides.
        > Follow state and federal worker protection
        standards.
        > Do not mix or load pesticides within 50 ft from the
        high water mark of any surface waters of the state.
        >Pesticide applicator must be properly licensed and
        certified when using restricted use pesticides or when
        doing custom pesticide applications for hire. Contact
        Maine Board of Pesticides Control for license and
        certification requirements.
tices
                                                Vegetable Working
                                                      Group


 ell to the right of "Plant Family" and then select a crop from the
 e you specific guidance if any is available regarding practices for
 hat correspond to practices currently being implemented on the
 ices are divided into major areas of Prevention, Avoidance,
an tab and click on "Import Data" on the upper right hand corner to
milies are also listed in the tabs following the IPM Plan for further



                    Plant Family:                 Solanaceae


                        Crop:                        Potato


                Plant only disease-free certified or foundation seed.
                Do not keep potatoes for seed.



                Begin hilling and cultivating after plants begin to
                emerge and complete prior to plants filling half the of
                the row. Cultivate during hilling.
                Early blight (Alternaria): Avoid harvesting when soil
                is wet.




                Thoroughly clean and disinfect all storage and potato
                handling equipment surfaces prior to handling and
                placing the crop into storage.
                Early blight (Alternaria): Prevent mechanical injury
                during harvesting and handling.
                Disease: Destroy cull piles.
                Early & late blight/Verticillium & Fusarium wilt:
                Destroy diseased vines by tillage after harvest.
                Flea beetles/slugs: Use clean cultivation.
Flea beetles and slugs: Destroy or avoid spring
weeds in potato family such as nightshade and
jimson weed. Clean cultivate.
Disease: Destroy volunteer plants.
Apply lime and fertilizer according to soil test results
and the potato cultivar to be planted. Maintain soil
pH at 6.0 for common scab resistant varieties and
pH 5.0-5.2 for common scab susceptible varieties.
Apply P and K according to soil test results.
CPB: Rotate potatoes, eggplant, and tomato to a
field that is at least 200 yards from the previous
year's fields. Take advantage of barriers such roads,
rivers, woodlands, and fields with other crops.
Plant in warm seedbed with medium field capacity in
moisture content and of uniform texture.
Green peach aphid: Plant away from Prunus sp.
(peach, wild cherry, etc.).
Common scab: Avoid planting in fields with history
of scab. Avoid planting near beets, carrots, or radish
Disease: Plant disease resistant strains.




CPB/Flea Beetles: Delay planting.
PVS/PVA/PVX/PVY: Plant early.
Early Blight: allow tubers to fully mature before
harvest




CPB: Plant trap crop of 3-5 rows of potatoes earlier
than main crop or between the main crop and
overwintering sites. Treat trap crop with flame,
vacuum or insecticide (such as a systemic applied at
planting) to keep beetles from invading main crop.
Weeds: Create and use weed maps for each field to
plan and implement weed control. Compare maps
among successive years to evaluate and change
weed control strategies as necessary.
Insects: Scout field regularly. Aphids: Begin
scouting late June. Examine 50 fully grown
compound leaves (5 leaves at 10 locations in the
field) from top, middle, and bottom of the canopy.
CPB: Scout weekly mid-season. Walk field in V-
shape pattern, stopping every 10-20 paces to
examine a potato plant. Count numbers of large and
small larvae, adult beeltles, and eggs on each of 50
potato stalks selected this way. If the number of
CPB is between high and low, recheck in 3-5 days.
When using products that control only larvae, scout
for eggs, note egg hatch, and apply controls before
larvae reach 3rd instar. If using materials that
control all stages, may wait and scout for adults and
larvae to determine need for control.
Cutworm caterpillars: Scout fields 1-2 times per
Use on-farm weather-station to monitor rain,
humidity and temperature to forecast late blight
susceptibility and plan fungicide application schedule
to protect against fungal diseases.




Early blight (Alternaria): Use disease forecasting
system.
Late blight: Use disease forecast and fungicide
application recommendations provided by
Cooperative Extension
(http://www.umaine.edu/umext/potatoprogram/ or call
hotline at: 207.760.9ipm)
Use cover crops, especially pest-suppressing crops
(allelopathic), in the rotation cycle to reduce weeds
and disease incidence and to improve soil quality.

Plant seed pieces 6-8" apart within rows. Plant 2-4"
below soil level to prevent sunburn, but only 2" below
soil level to promote rapid emergence and reduce
risk of soil-borne diseases such as Rhizoctonia.
Strip or zone tillage may be suitable for mid- to late-
season varieties. Contact Cooperative Extension for
information.



CPB: Apply straw mulch around plants.


0


Weeds: Cultivate and hill using discs, rolling
cultivators, or other equipment.
Flea beetles: Use clean cultivation.
Diseases: Rogue plants with virus symptoms.

CPB: Install plastic-lined trench next to overwintering
sites to prevent (see NEVMG for more information)




Flea beetles: Use row covers.




0




0




CPB: Conserve natural enemies such as twelve-
spotted ladybeetle, spined soldier bug, Lebia grandis
(a ground beetle), and a parasitic tachinid fly by
using pesticides judiciously.



0
Incorporate well-conditioned compost before
planting.


Weeds: Use herbicides based on weed map results.
Aphids: Treat when aphids are found on 50% of the
plants or one winged aphid is found within the field.
CPB: Refer to action threshold table in NEVMG.
Cutworms: Spot spray damaged areas or edges of
the field if 1-2% of the plants have been cut down.
Flea beetles: Spot treat young plants along field
edges if 50 beetles found in sweep net.
Potato leafhopper: Spot treat if more than 15
nymphs are found per 50 leaves.
Wireworms:rinse (with clean water)insecticide and
Thoroughly If present, broadcast bins or
equipment treated with quaternary compounds
before coming into contact with potatoes to be used
for human consumption.
Aphids: Use selective or systemic insecticides for
CPB to conserve pollinators and natural enemies of
aphids.
Weeds: Apply herbicides based on weed map
results, susceptibility of weed species to herbicide,
and label and Extension recommendations.

Weeds: May use stale seedbed technique utilizing
Roundup, Gramoxone, or Scythe.
CPB: Plant 3-5 rows of potatoes treated with a
systemic insecticide in a perimeter around the fields.
Cutworms: Spot spray heavily damaged sections of
the field if 1-2% of the plants have been cut down.
For best results, apply pesticides between midnight
Calibrate sprayer at beginning of season and check
regularly during season. Recalibrate after any nozzle
change. (See reference # 8.)
Rotate classes of insecticides. Do not use same
chemistry more than once per year, preferably every
other year. Use newer chemistries first. Do not use
same chemical class on successive generations in
the same year.
Use a nicotinoid group (group 4) on only 1
generation every other year. Do not use multiple
Fusarium tuber rot: Apply pre-storage fungicide
treatment uniformly in a fine mist or fog as tubers
pass over a roller table or bin loader.
Weeds: Use a directed/shielded spray when using
any non-selective herbicide, such as Scythe. For
hand-held equipment spray to completely wet all
weed foliage, but not to the point of runoff.




May use water-sensitive cards to monitor spray
pattern and drift during calibration.

Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter strips to
minimize chemical movement to sensitive areas
such as surface waters, schools, residences, and
neighboring crops.
Use mitigation practices as necessary in accordance
with pest monitoring results, pest predictions, action
thresholds, and WinPST output.
                               Intensive Vegetable IPM Plan
                                                                                           Vegetable Working
                                                                                                 Group



                           Farm Name:
                         Farm Manager:
                       Contact Address:



                         Contact Phone:

       Planning Assistance Provided by:



    Farm IPM Management Objectives:


                           Major Crops:
                     Available Acreage:                 acres

                           Target Pests:

                         Target Weeds:

                       Target Diseases:

                                             Practice Results
                                                   Practice Principle Area
                                                                         Suppression
                                                              Cultural &
                              Prevention Avoidance Monitoring Physical Biological Chemical
                  Benchmark:            1        1          0          0          0      0
                    Planned:            0        0          0          0          1      1
                       Total
                   Potential:           7        5          3          9          4     12

                            Payment Level: Base

               This is the lowest level available for intensive IPM. Consider adding more practices in
Payment               new areas. See the table above to compare number of practices you are
Explanation:                         implementing to areas of potential practices.
                                        Benchmark Practices
               These are practices you are currently implementing on farm and agree to continue as
               a part of your management strategies.
  Principle                          Practice                                           Potato
               Destroy and/or remove crop residues for field        Disk old ferns lightly in the fall. Remove
               sanitation procedures. Include fall tillage where    debris around plants.
               appropriate to control weeds and break pest
               cycles. (Example: Plow under corn refuse in the fall
Prevention
               to control European corn borer.)




               Rotate crops that break the pest cycle. Do not plant Use new land or land where asparagus has
               crops from the same family at less than              not been grown for 10 years.
Avoidance      recommended intervals for the identified pest(s).

              > Always follow all pesticide label instructions and   > Follow state and federal worker protection
              environmental cautions.                                standards.
NOTE:         > Store, handle, transport, mix, use, and dispose of   > Do not mix or load pesticides within 50 ft
Additional    pesticides and pesticide containers per Maine          from the high water mark of any surface
pesticide use Board of Pesticides Control recommendations and        waters of the state.
requirements regulations.                                            >Pesticide applicator must be properly
from the 595 > When drawing water for pesticide mixing from          licensed and certified when using restricted
Practice      any surface waters of the state, use anti-siphoning    use pesticides or when doing custom
Standard:     devices and do not use hoses that have been in         pesticide applications for hire. Contact
              contact with pesticides.                               Maine Board of Pesticides Control for
                                                                     license and certification requirements.
                                          Planned Practices
               These are new practices you are willing to implement on farm and agree to include as
               a part of your management strategies.

  Principle                         Practice                                            Potato
                                                                     Select pesticides and time applications to
                                                                     minimize impact on pollinators and natural
                                                                     enemies of aphids: lady beetles, lacewings,
Suppression Conserve naturally occurring biological controls.        predatory midges, flower fly larvae, the
Biological  (Example: Select pesticides and time applications        Braconid wasp, Diaeretiella rapea, and
Controls    to minimize impact on beneficials, use floral            parasitic fungi.
            perimeter crop to attract and support beneficial         Use floral perimeter crop to attract and
            insects.)                                                support these insects.


Suppression
Chemical
Controls    Use spray-monitoring equipment. (Example: Use
            water-sensitive cards to measure spray pattern and May use water-sensitive cards to monitor
            drift.)                                            spray pattern and drift during calibration.
                                                                     > Follow state and federal worker protection
              > Always follow all pesticide label instructions and   standards.
NOTE:         environmental cautions.                                > Do not mix or load pesticides within 50 ft
Additional    > Store, handle, transport, mix, use, and dispose of   from the high water mark of any surface
pesticide use pesticides and pesticide containers per Maine          waters of the state.
requirements Board of Pesticides Control recommendations and         >Pesticide applicator must be properly
from the 595 regulations.                                            licensed and certified when using restricted
Practice      > When drawing water for pesticide mixing from         use pesticides or when doing custom
Standard:     any surface waters of the state, use anti-siphoning    pesticide applications for hire. Contact
              devices and do not use hoses that have been in         Maine Board of Pesticides Control for
              contact with pesticides.                               license and certification requirements.
Use the print button after
clicking the import Data
button above
Cucurbits
                                          Common Roots and Bulbs
                                                     Major Pests




                                                       Major Diseases




                                                             Disorders




Principle                            Practices

                Use certified pest-free seeds and pest-free transplants
                where available. (Example: Purchase certified seed
                and ensure plants are free of insects, diseases, and
                weeds before transplanting.)
                Prevent weeds from going to seed. (Example:
                Cultivate, pull, mow, flame, etc.)

                Reduce moisture on plant surfaces to prevent disease
                incidence. (Example: Use drip irrigation or avoid
                overhead irrigation between 6 p.m. and midnight to
                minimize disease.)
                Employ methods to avoid spreading pests (pathogens,
                weeds, and insects). (Example: Work crop when dry,
                work infested fields last, wash equipment between
                fields, etc.)
   PREVENTION
             Destroy and/or remove crop residues for field
             sanitation procedures. Include fall tillage where
PREVENTION

             appropriate to control weeds and break pest cycles.
             (Example: Plow under corn refuse in the fall to control
             European corn borer.)
             Eliminate unmanaged plants that serve as pest
             reservoirs, such as abandoned crops, volunteers from
             previous crop, or weed hosts of viruses.
             Test soil or plant tissue annually to determine proper
             fertility and pH levels for crop and time application
             according to crop needs. Apply nutrients, fertilizers,
             and pH-adjusting agents according to
             recommendations.




             Rotate crops that break the pest cycle. Do not plant
             crops from the same family at less than recommended
             intervals for the identified pest(s).

             Match crops to appropriate sites to optimize plant
             health and avoid known pests. (Example: Avoid
             planting crops susceptible to fungal diseases in low
             wet fields.)




             Choose pest-resistant cultivars. (Example: Plant virus
             and powdery mildew resistant vine crops.)
AVOIDANCE
AVOIDANCE    Adjust planting dates and select cultivars with maturity
             dates that allow avoidance of early or late-season
             pests. (Example: Plant cucurbits after early season
             striped cucumber beetle activity, delay planting of
             brassica crops to avoid cabbage maggots.)

             Use and manage trap crops to protect main crop from
             insect pests and insect-vectored diseases.




             Monitor for pests as recommended for each crop. If no
             monitoring guidelines available, monitor weekly to
             determine presence, density, and locations of pests
             and to determine crop growth stage. **Record findings.
             Record keeping is required**. (Example: Scout crops
             and use other appropriate monitoring aids such as
             pheromone traps, disease diagnostic tests, etc. Map
             weeds in the fall to help plan where specific measures
             may be needed to target problem weeds the following
             spring. Utilize University of Maine Cooperative
             Extension pest monitoring data from newsletters and
             websites.)
MONITORING
        MONITORI                 Use on-farm weather monitoring devices to measure
                                 precipitation, humidity, temperature, and leaf wetness
                                 and/or use commercial weather prediction service for
                                 prevention and control of plant diseases. (Example:
                                 Install weather station with rain gauge, hygrometer,
                                 maximum and minimum temperature recording
                                 equipment, leaf wetness sensors.)


                                 Use pest-forecasting tools (e.g., computer modeling
                                 software) as additional guides for on-farm pest
                                 monitoring activities in conjunction with weather data to
                                 predict risk of pest infestation.


                                 Use cover crops, especially pest-suppressing crops
                                 (allelopathic), in the rotation cycle to reduce weeds and
                                 disease incidence and to improve soil quality.

                                 Plant using appropriate within- and between-row
                                 spacing optimal for crop, site, and row orientation.
                                 (Example: Use row spacing and plant densities that
                                 assure rapid canopy closure.)
CULTURAL AND PHYSICAL CONTROLS




                                 Use reduced tillage and other residue management
                                 practices to suppress weeds and maintain soil organic
                                 matter as appropriate for crop.
                                 Use mulches including plastic or reflective mulches for
                                 insect or weed control.
         SUPPRESSION




                                 Inter-seed cover crop within or between rows to
                                 suppress weeds.

                                 Use mechanical pest controls. (Examples: Cultivate,
                                 mow, hoe, and hand remove insects and weeds, prune
                                 diseased or insect-infested plants, remove diseased
                                 plants.)

                                 Use physical pest controls and deterrents. (Example:
                                 Use flame weeding or other heat methods for insect,
                                 disease, and weed control; noise-makers; reflectors;
                                 ribbons; and predator models.)
                      Use exclusion devices for insects or wildlife.
                      (Examples: Use synthetic row covers and/or fencing.)

                      Maintain or improve soil aeration and drainage to avoid
                      standing water and minimize plant disease. (Example:
                      Use tile drainage, sub soiling, grassed waterways,
                      raised beds, and organic matter additions. Avoid
                      planting in low and wet spots in field.)

                      Use insect mating disruption devices, if available.
                      (Example: Use pheromone laminate clip-ons or rings
                      for tomato pinworm.)
                      Conserve naturally occurring biological controls.
                      (Example: Select pesticides and time applications to
BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS




                      minimize impact on beneficials, use floral perimeter
                      crop to attract and support beneficial insects.)
    SUPPRESSION




                      Release beneficial organisms where appropriate.
                      (Example: release predatory mites for control of two-
                      spotted mites and thrips.)




                      Use compost as a soil amendment to increase
                      biological diversity in soil and plant health and
                      suppress plant disease.
                    Minimize chemical use. Use in conjunction with
                    accurate pest identification and monitoring, action
                    thresholds, alternative suppression tactics (biological,
                    cultural, etc), and judgments based on previous year's
                    weed map and/or pest scouting records. (Example:
                    Use pheromone traps to monitor for corn earworm in
                    sweet corn.)




                    Select pesticides, formulations, and adjuvants based
                    on least negative effects on environment, beneficials
                    (e.g., pollinators, predators, parasites), and human
                    health in addition to efficacy and economics.




                    Use lowest labeled rate that is effective based on label,
                    scouting results, and Extension-recommended action
                    thresholds for target pest.

                    Limit applications to partial fields or banding to reduce
CHEMICAL CONTROLS




                    quantity or impact of pesticide. (Example: Spot treat
   SUPPRESSION




                    where pests are found or use banding, seed, edge or
                    field perimeter/border treatments.)




                    Calibrate sprayers or applicators prior to use to verify
                    amount of material applied.
Use pesticide-resistance management strategies as
appropriate and where required on pesticide label.
(Example: Alternate applications of chemicals with
different modes of action to avoid development of pest
resistance or leave part of crop unsprayed to serve as
a refuge for susceptible pests and natural enemies.)




Use specialized pesticide application equipment to
increase efficiency and reduce chemical drift.
(Examples: Use wiper applicators, digitally controlled
adjustable tool bars, direct injection sprayers, double-
drop sprayers, laser guided precision sprayers, direct
injection, low-drift nozzles, shielded applicators or air
Use spray-monitoring equipment. (Example: Use
water-sensitive cards to measure spray pattern and
drift.)
Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter strips to
minimize chemical movement to sensitive areas such
as surface waters, schools, residences, and
neighboring crops.
Use mitigation practices as necessary in accordance
with pest monitoring results, pest predictions, action
thresholds, and WinPST output.


NOTE: Additional pesticide use requirements from
the 595 Practice Standard:
> Always follow all pesticide label instructions and
environmental cautions.
 > Store, handle, transport, mix, use, and dispose of
pesticides and pesticide containers per Maine Board of
Pesticides Control recommendations and regulations.

> Follow state and federal worker protection standards.
> When drawing water for pesticide mixing from any
surface waters of the state, use anti-siphoning devices
and do not use hoses that have been in contact with
pesticides.
> Do not mix or load pesticides within 50 ft from the
high water mark of any surface waters of the state.
>Pesticide applicator must be properly licensed and
certified when using restricted use pesticides or when
doing custom pesticide applications for hire. Contact
Maine Board of Pesticides Control for license and
certification requirements.
  Cucumber, Muskmelon, and Watermelon                         Pumpkin, Squash, Gourds
Aphids, striped and spotted cucumber beetles,       Aphids, striped and spotted cucumber beetles,
flea beetle, two-spotted spider mite, seedcorn      cutworms, seedcorn maggot, two-spotted spider
maggot, squash bug, squash vine borer (SVB),        mite, squash bug, squash vine borer (SVB),
whiteflies                                          slugs, whiteflies
Angular leaf spot, anthracnose, Alternaria leaf     Powdery mildew, Plectosporium blight, downey
spot, black rot, bacterial wilt, cucumber mosaic    mildew, anthracnose, scab, black rot, angular
virus (CMV), downey mildew                          leaf spot, bacterial wilt, Phytophthora blight, fruit
(Pseudoperonospora cubensis ), Phytophthora         rot, post-harvest fruit rot (various fungi)
blight, fruit rot, powdery mildew, watermelon
mosaic virus (WMV), papaya ringspot virsu
(PRSV-W), zucchini yellow mosaic virus
(ZYMV), seed decay




 Cucumber, Muskmelon, and Watermelon                         Pumpkin, Squash, Gourds

Plant only certified disease-free seed and          Plant only certified disease-free seed.
transplants.
Seed decay: Buy treated seed.

Cultivate, pull, mow, flame, etc. as necessary to   Cultivate, pull, mow, flame, etc. as necessary to
prevent weeds from going to seed.                   prevent weeds from going to seed.

Use drip irrigation and raised beds . Avoid         Use drip irrigation and raised beds . Avoid
overhead irrigation.                                overhead irrigation.


Avoid working in fields when foliage is wet.        Summer squash: Remove infected plants. If
Anthracnose, Alternaria leaf spot, black rot:       virus is detected in the field, do not harvest with
Plow down deeply all infected crop debris after     a knife. Harvest fruit by twisting from the plant.
harvest. Avoid wounding fruit during harvesting.    Winter squash, pumpkins, gourds: Discard any
Immerse fruit in clean water containing 120 ppm     fruit which is bruised, cut, or showing symptoms
chlorine.                                           of disease. Cure fruit 7-10 days at least 80F
Diseases: Work crop when foliage is dry, work       with good movement of dry air prior to storage.
infested fields last, wash equipment between        Anthracnose, Alternaria , black rot: Plow under
fields to remove soil residue.                      plant debris after harvest.
                                                    Diseases: Work crop when foliage is dry, work
                                                    infested fields last, wash equipment between
                                                    fields to remove soil residue.
Remove and destroy virus-infected plants.               Remove and destroy virus-infected plants.
Plow crop residue under promptly after harvest.         Plow crop residue under promptly after harvest.



Control all weeds, especially volunteer                 Control all weeds, especially volunteer
cucurbits, chickweed, pokeweed, and milkweed.           cucurbits, chickweed, pokeweed, and milkweed.

Apply lime according to soil test to maintain soil      Apply lime according to soil test to maintain soil
pH at 6.0-6.8. Watermelon can tolerate pH               pH at 6.5-6.8.
down to 5.5.                                            If growing plants on plastic mulch, the amount
If fertilizer cannot be banded at planting, add the     of nitrogen fertilizer to be sidedressed can be
band fertilizer amount to preplant broadcast            reduced. nitrogen can be applied through trickle
application. Use drip irrigation and raised beds.       or overhead irrigation or sidedressed along the
Avoid overhead irrigation.Control all weeds,            edge of the plastic mulch. Foliar feeding rate is
especially volunteer cucurbits, chickweed,              4-5 lb urea/A. Apply less nitrogen fertilizer if
pokeweed, and milkweed.                                 manure or legume sod was plowed down.
If growing plants on plastic mulch, nitrogen can        Refer to soil test recommendations and NEVMG
be applied through trickle or overhead irrigation       for plant nutrient recommendations.
or sidedressed along the edge of the plastic            Two-spotted spider mite: Do not over-fertilize.
mulch. Foliar feeding rate is 4-5 lb urea/A.
If using transplants, use of a liquid starter
fertilizer at planting time is beneficial, especially
with cool soil conditions. Use a high
phosphorus starter fertilizer mixed at a rate 2
lb/50 gal water. Apply 8 fl oz (1 cup) per
transplant. Apply less nitrogen fertilizer if
manure or legume sod was plowed down.
Refer to soil test recommendations and NEVMG
for plant nutrient recommendations.
Two-spotted spider mite: Do not over-fertilize.


Rotate out of cucurbits for at least 2 years,           Rotate out of cucurbits for at least 2 years,
preferably 4 years. If possible, rotate cucurbit        preferably 4 years. If possible, rotate cucurbit
crops between fields separated by at least 1/2          crops between fields separated by at least 1/2
mile.                                                   mile.
Green peach aphid: Plant away from Prunus               Select sunny, well-drained sites.
sp. (peach, wild cherry, etc.).                         Green peach aphid: Plant away from Prunus
Two-spotted spider mite: Do not plant adjacent          sp. (peach, wild cherry, etc.).
to legume forage crops.                                 Two-spotted spider mite: Do not plant adjacent
Phytophthora blight/fruit rot: Plant in fields          to legume forage crops.
without history of this disease. Plant on raised        Phytophthora blight/fruit rot: Plant in fields
beds. Avoid planting in low areas where water           without history of this disease. Plant on raised
puddles and improve drainage by sub-soiling..           beds. Avoid planting in low areas where water
WMV-II: Avoid planting near alfalfa, vetch,             puddles and improve drainage by sub-soiling.
crimson clover, sour clover, snow-on-the-
mountain, and Malva parviflora .

Plant resistant varieties suitable for the              Plant resistant varieties of squash and
Northeast.                                              pumpkins suitable for the Northeast.
Cucumber beetle: Use transplants to allow             Cucumber beetle: Use tranplants to allow
plants to reach a later growth stage before           plants to reach a later growth stage before
beetles arrive.                                       beetles arrive.
Seed corn maggot: Delay planting until soil is
warm (check on this)

Cucumber beetle: Use a perimeter trap crop of         Cucumber beetle: Use a perimeter trap crop of
Blue Hubbard, buttercup squash, or Cucurbita          Blue Hubbard, buttercup squash, or Cucurbita
maxima variety in 1-2 rows (always use 2 rows         maxima variety in 1-2 rows (always use 2 rows
near woods or last year's fields. Treat borders       near woods or last year's fields. Treat borders
with a systemic at planting or with a foliar          with a systemic at planting or with a foliar
insecticide as soon as the first beetles arrive.      insecticide as soon as the first beetles arrive.
Do not use a crop that is highly susceptible to       Do not use a crop that is highly susceptible to
bacterial wilt in the border.                         bacterial wilt in the border.
Squash bug: Plant a perimeter of squash               Squash bug: Plant a perimeter of squash
(summer, Hubbard, marrow) 1-2 weeks before            (summer, Hubbard) 1-2 weeks before planting
planting or transplanting melons. Spray adult         or transplanting. Spray adult bugs at base of
bugs at base of trap crop with an effective           trap crop with an effective insecticide just before
insecticide just before melons emerge or before       seedlings emerge or before transplanting, and 5-
transplanting, and 5-10 days later.                   10 days later.


Aphids: Scout beginning in mid-June by                Aphids: Scout by inspecting the underside of 50
searching undersides of leaves on runners.            fully grown leves at 10 sites per field.
Cucumber beetles: Beetles spread bacterial            Cucumber beetle: Beetles spread bacterial wilt.
wilt. To prevent wilt in cucumber and                 To prevent wilt, scout for beetles twice weekly at
muskmelon crops (watermelon is not                    the seedling stage. Monitor weekly for
susceptible) scout for beetles twice weekly at        diseases. Scout at least 25 plants to monitor
the seedling stage.                                   number of beetles and damage.
Squash bug: Scout undersides of leaves for            Squash bug: Scout undersides of leaves for
adults and eggs.                                      adults and eggs.
Squash vine borer: Monitor for moths with a           Squash vine borer: Monitor for moths with a
Scentry Heliothis pheromone trap from early           Scentry Heliothis pheromone trap from early
June through early August. Scout for larvae           June through early August. Scout for larvae
starting in late June by inspecting stems for         starting in late June by inspecting stems for
frass.                                                frass.
Slugs: Look for slivery slime trails on leaves or     Slugs: Look for slivery slime trails on leaves or
turn over soil clods or debris to find slugs during   turn over soil clods or debris to find slugs during
daylight hours. May use shallow pans of beer or       daylight hours. May use shallow pans of beer or
unbaited pitfall traps for monitoring populations.    unbaited pitfall traps for monitoring populations.
Disease: Monitor weekly.                              Powdery mildew: Begin scouting in July.
Powdery mildew: Begin scouting in July.               Black rot: Carefully scout transplant
                                                      greenhouse for diseased plants and remove
                                                      them.
Install weather station with rain gauge,          Install weather station with rain gauge,
hygrometer, maximum and minimum                   hygrometer, maximum and minimum
temperature recording equipment, and/or leaf      temperature recording equipment, and/or leaf
wetness sensors. Utilize commercial satellite     wetness sensors. Utilize commercial satellite
weather prediction and recording service, such    weather prediction and recording service, such
as 'Skybit' or University of Maine Cooperative    as 'Skybit' or University of Maine Cooperative
Extension weather forecast at                     Extension weather forecast at
pmo.umext.maine.edu/apple/forecast.html.          pmo.umext.maine.edu/apple/forecast.html.

Use Cucurbit Downey Mildew Weather                Use Cucurbit Downey Mildew Weather
Forecaster                                        Forecaster




Plow down immediately after final harvest and     Plow down immediately after final harvest and
seed cover crop.                                  seed cover crop.


Slicing cucumbers: Transplant or direct seed to   Plant bush varieties 18-24" apart within rows
2' between plants and 6' between rows.            and 4-5' between rows. Plant vining varieities 2-
Pickling cucumbers: Direct seed to 6-8"           6' between hills (1-3 plants/hill) and 6-12'
between plants and 3-6' between rows,             between rows. Sow enough seed to ensure a
depending on cultivars.                           stand that may be thinned later (wintersquash
Muskmelons/watermelons: Transplant at the         and pumpkins at 2-4 lb/A and summer squash
second leaf stage to 2' between plants and 4-6'   at 4-6 lb/A).
between rows.



.                                                 Use strip-till, zone-till, or no-till for pumpkins.


Aphids: Use reflective plastic mulch to prevent   Aphids: Use reflective plastic mulch to prevent
early infestation and virus transmission. (For    early infestation and virus transmission. (For
maximum effectiveness direct seed in reflective   maximum effectiveness direct seed in reflective
mulch.)                                           mulch.)
Plant living mulch between rows. Irrigate crop    Non-vining crops: Plant living mulch between
and mow cover crop.                               rows. Irrigate crop and mow cover crop.

Squash bug: Keep headlands mowed and              Squash bug: Keep headlands mowed and
clean to reduce overwintering sites.              clean to reduce overwintering sites.
Bacterial wilt: Remove infected plants.           Slugs: Hand pick/crush.
Slugs: Hand pick/crush.                           Bacterial wilt: Remove infected plants.

.                                                 .
Use spunbonded row covers; remove at                   Use spunbonded row covers; remove at
flowering.                                             flowering.

Use tile drainage, sub soiling, grassed                Use tile drainage, sub soiling, grassed
waterways, raised beds, and organic matter             waterways, raised beds, and organic matter
additions. Avoid planting in low and wet spots in      additions. Avoid planting in low and wet spots in
field.                                                 field.


.                                                      .


Use selective insecticides for other pests to          Use selective products to conserve beneficials.
conserve natural enemies. Do not apply                 Do not apply insecticides when pollinators are
insecticides when pollinators are active in the        active in the field. If application of an insecticide
field. If application of an insecticide is             is necessary during blossom, apply it in the
necessary during blossom, apply it in the              evening after the pollinators have left the field or
evening after the pollinators have left the field or   avoid products that are toxic to pollinators.
avoid products that are toxic to pollinators.

Two-spotted spider mite: May use preventive            Two-spotted spider mite: May use preventive
releases of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus            releases of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus
persimilis to suppress populations.                    persimilis to suppress populations.




Incorporate compost prior to planting.                 Incorporate compost prior to planting.
Weeds: Use only herbicides registered for            Weeds: Use only herbicides registered for
specific crops.                                      specific crops.
Aphids: If 20% of runners or more have live          Aphids: Treat only if 20% of leaves have 5 or
aphids, treatment may be needed.                     more aphids per leaf. Spot treat to susceptible
Cucumber beetle: Treat when beetle numbers           varieties if appropriate.
reach 1 beetle/2 plants. If using transplants,       Cucumber beetle: For crops with low
applying recommended repellents or systemics         susceptibility to wilt and rapid early growth,
to transplants outside the greenhouse before         including butternut and pumpkin, use an action
setting in the field will allow lower rates of       threshold of 1 per plant. At later growth stages,
application.                                         treat if there is extensive damage to fruit.
Squash bug: Treat if egg masses exceed 1 per         Squash bug: Treat if egg masses exceed 1 per
plant.                                               100' of row.
Squash vine borer: Treat if more than 5 moths        Squash vine borer: Make 2-4 weekly
per week are caught. Control newly hatched           applications if more than 5 moths per week are
larvae by making 2-4 applications at 1 week          caught. Control newly hatched larvae by
intervals beginning in late June or early July.      making 2-4 applications at 1 week intervals
Thoroughly treat stems.                              beginning in late June or early July. Thoroughly
Fungal diseases: Apply fungicides when               treat stems.
diseases first occur. Follow a regular spray         Fungal diseases: Apply fungicides when
program of eradicant or protective fungicides.       diseases first occur. Follow a regular spray
Cover leaf undersides and fruit. Refer to            program of eradicant or protective fungicides.
NEVMG for additional guidelines.                     Cover leaf undersides and fruit. Refer to
                                                     NEVMG for additional guidelines.

Apply insecticides late in the day to avoid injury   Do not apply insecticides when pollinators are
to pollinators. Note that squash bees (the most      active in the field. Note that squash bees (the
important pollinators of cucurbits) are highly       most important pollinators of cucurbits) are
active at dawn. Use selective materials.             highly active at dawn. If application of an
                                                     insecticide is necessary during blossom, apply it
                                                     in the evening after pollinators have left the field
                                                     and avoid products that are toxic to pollinators.

Use lowest labeled rate that is effective based      Use lowest labeled rate that is effective based
on label, scouting results, and Extension-           on label, scouting results, and Extension-
recommended action thresholds for target pest.       recommended action thresholds for target pest.

Weeds: See NEVMG for recommendations.                Weeds: See NEVMG or recommendations.
Use stale seedbed technique if utilizing             Use stale seedbed technique if utilizing
Gramoxone or Roundup 4S. For weed control            Roundup or scythe. Refer to NEVMG.
between black plastic rows, see NEVMG in             Cutworms: Spot spray heavily damaged
Weed Management section.                             sections of the field. For best results, apply
Cucumber beetle: Treat perimeter trap crops          pesticides between midnight and dawn while
with a systemic at planting or with a foliar         cutworms are feeding above ground.
insecticide as soon as the first beetles arrive.
Flea beetles: Apply spot treatment targeting
young plants along the field edge.

Calibrate sprayer at beginning of season and         Calibrate sprayer at beginning of season and
check regularly during season. Recalibrate           check regularly during season. Recalibrate
after any nozzle change. (See reference # 8.)        after any nozzle change. (See reference # 8.)
Disease: Alternate fungicides. Do not rotate          Disease: Alternate fungicides. Do not rotate
fungicides in same resistance class. Maintain         fungicides in same resistance class. Maintain
thorough coverage.                                    thorough coverage.
Two-spotted spider mite: Avoid early-season,          Two-spotted spider mite: Avoid early-season,
broad-spectrum insecticide applications for           broad-spectrum insecticide applications for
other pests. Use selective products whenever          other pests. Use selective products whenever
possible. May use preventive releases of the          possible. With most miticides (not bifenazate),
predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to             use 2 applications, approximately 5-7 days
suppress populations.                                 apart, to help control immature mites that were
                                                      in the egg stage during the first application.
                                                      Alternate between products after 2 applications
                                                      to help prevent or delay resistence.



Weeds: Use a directed/shielded spray when             Weeds: Use a directed/shielded spray when
using non-selective herbicides such as Scythe.        using pelargonic acid (Scythe). For hand-held
For hand-held equipment spray to completely           equipment spray to completely wet all weed
wet all weed foliage, but not to the point of         foliage, but not to the point of runoff.
runoff.
Use water-sensitive cards to measure spray            Use water-sensitive cards to measure spray
pattern and drift.                                    pattern and drift.

Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter strips   Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter strips
to minimize chemical movement to sensitive            to minimize chemical movement to sensitive
areas such as surface waters, schools,                areas such as surface waters, schools,
residences, and neighboring crops.                    residences, and neighboring crops.
Use mitigation practices as necessary in              Use mitigation practices as necessary in
accordance with pest monitoring results, pest         accordance with pest monitoring results, pest
predictions, action thresholds, and WinPST            predictions, action thresholds, and WinPST
output.                                               output.
Crucifers, Greens, and Herbs

                                               Common Crucifers
                                                      Major Pests




                                                   Major Diseases

                                                         Disorders




Principle                        Practices

            Use certified pest-free seeds and pest-free transplants
            where available. (Example: Purchase certified seed
            and ensure plants are free of insects, diseases, and
            weeds before transplanting.)
            Prevent weeds from going to seed. (Example:
            Cultivate, pull, mow, flame, etc.)




            Reduce moisture on plant surfaces to prevent disease
            incidence. (Example: Use drip irrigation or avoid
            overhead irrigation between 6 p.m. and midnight to
            minimize disease.)

            Employ methods to avoid spreading pests (pathogens,
            weeds, and insects). (Example: Work crop when dry,
            work infested fields last, wash equipment between
            fields, etc.)
             Destroy and/or remove crop residues for field
             sanitation procedures. Include fall tillage where
             appropriate to control weeds and break pest cycles.
             (Example: Plow under corn refuse in the fall to control
             European corn borer.)
PREVENTION




             Eliminate unmanaged plants that serve as pest
             reservoirs, such as abandoned crops, volunteers from
             previous crop, or weed hosts of viruses.
            Test soil or plant tissue annually to determine proper
            fertility and pH levels for crop and time application
            according to crop needs. Apply nutrients, fertilizers,
            and pH-adjusting agents according to
            recommendations.




            Rotate crops that break the pest cycle. Do not plant
            crops from the same family at less than recommended
            intervals for the identified pest(s).
AVOIDANCE
            Match crops to appropriate sites to optimize plant
            health and avoid known pests. (Example: Avoid
            planting crops susceptible to fungal diseases in low
            wet fields.)
AVOIDANCE




            Choose pest-resistant cultivars. (Example: Plant virus
            and powdery mildew resistant vine crops.)


            Adjust planting dates and select cultivars with maturity
            dates that allow avoidance of early or late-season
            pests. (Example: Plant cucurbits after early season
            striped cucumber beetle activity, delay planting of
            brassica crops to avoid cabbage maggots.)



            Use and manage trap crops to protect main crop from
            insect pests and insect-vectored diseases.
                Monitor for pests as recommended for each crop. If no
                monitoring guidelines available, monitor weekly to
                determine presence, density, and locations of pests
                and to determine crop growth stage. **Record findings.
                Record keeping is required**. (Example: Scout crops
                and use other appropriate monitoring aids such as
                pheromone traps, disease diagnostic tests, etc. Map
                weeds in the fall to help plan where specific measures
                may be needed to target problem weeds the following
                spring. Utilize University of Maine Cooperative
                Extension pest monitoring data from newsletters and
                websites.)
MONITORING




                Use on-farm weather monitoring devices to measure
                precipitation, humidity, temperature, and leaf wetness
                and/or use commercial weather prediction service for
                prevention and control of plant diseases. (Example:
                Install weather station with rain gauge, hygrometer,
                maximum and minimum temperature recording
                equipment, leaf wetness sensors.)

                Use pest-forecasting tools (e.g., computer modeling
                software) as additional guides for on-farm pest
                monitoring activities in conjunction with weather data to
                predict risk of pest infestation.
                Use cover crops, especially pest-suppressing crops
                (allelopathic), in the rotation cycle to reduce weeds and
                disease incidence and to improve soil quality.
       NTROLS
                                 Plant using appropriate within- and between-row
                                 spacing optimal for crop, site, and row orientation.
                                 (Example: Use row spacing and plant densities that
                                 assure rapid canopy closure.)
CULTURAL AND PHYSICAL CONTROLS




                                 Use reduced tillage and other residue management
                                 practices to suppress weeds and maintain soil organic
                                 matter as appropriate for crop.
         SUPPRESSION




                                 Use mulches including plastic or reflective mulches for
                                 insect or weed control.

                                 Inter-seed cover crop within or between rows to
                                 suppress weeds.
                                 Use mechanical pest controls. (Examples: Cultivate,
                                 mow, hoe, and hand remove insects and weeds, prune
                                 diseased or insect-infested plants, remove diseased
                                 plants.)
                                 Use physical pest controls and deterrents. (Example:
                                 Use flame weeding or other heat methods for insect,
                                 disease, and weed control; noise-makers; reflectors;
                                 ribbons; and predator models.)

                                 Use exclusion devices for insects or wildlife.
                                 (Examples: Use synthetic row covers and/or fencing.)


                                 Maintain or improve soil aeration and drainage to avoid
                                 standing water and minimize plant disease. (Example:
                                 Use tile drainage, sub soiling, grassed waterways,
                                 raised beds, and organic matter additions. Avoid
                                 planting in low and wet spots in field.)

                                 Use insect mating disruption devices, if available.
                                 (Example: Use pheromone laminate clip-ons or rings
                                 for tomato pinworm.)
BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS
    SUPPRESSION
                      Conserve naturally occurring biological controls.
                      (Example: Select pesticides and time applications to
                      minimize impact on beneficials, use floral perimeter
                      crop to attract and support beneficial insects.)
BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS
    SUPPRESSION




                      Release beneficial organisms where appropriate.
                      (Example: release predatory mites for control of two-
                      spotted mites and thrips.)
                      Use compost as a soil amendment to increase
                      biological diversity in soil and plant health and
                      suppress plant disease.
                      Minimize chemical use. Use in conjunction with
                      accurate pest identification and monitoring, action
                      thresholds, alternative suppression tactics (biological,
                      cultural, etc), and judgments based on previous year's
                      weed map and/or pest scouting records. (Example:
                      Use pheromone traps to monitor for corn earworm in
                      sweet corn.)




                      Select pesticides, formulations, and adjuvants based
                      on least negative effects on environment, beneficials
                      (e.g., pollinators, predators, parasites), and human
                      health in addition to efficacy and economics.
                    Use lowest labeled rate that is effective based on label,
                    scouting results, and Extension-recommended action
                    thresholds for target pest.




                    Limit applications to partial fields or banding to reduce
                    quantity or impact of pesticide. (Example: Spot treat
                    where pests are found or use banding, seed, edge or
                    field perimeter/border treatments.)
CHEMICAL CONTROLS
   SUPPRESSION




                    Calibrate sprayers or applicators prior to use to verify
                    amount of material applied.




                    Use pesticide-resistance management strategies as
                    appropriate and where required on pesticide label.
                    (Example: Alternate applications of chemicals with
                    different modes of action to avoid development of pest
                    resistance or leave part of crop unsprayed to serve as
                    a refuge for susceptible pests and natural enemies.)
Use specialized pesticide application equipment to
increase efficiency and reduce chemical drift.
(Examples: Use wiper applicators, digitally controlled
adjustable tool bars, direct injection sprayers, double-
drop sprayers, laser guided precision sprayers, direct
injection, low-drift nozzles, shielded applicators or air
induction booms, built-in tank washers, etc.)




Use spray-monitoring equipment. (Example: Use
water-sensitive cards to measure spray pattern and
drift.)

Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter strips to
minimize chemical movement to sensitive areas such
as surface waters, schools, residences, and
neighboring crops.




Use mitigation practices as necessary in accordance
with pest monitoring results, pest predictions, action
thresholds, and WinPST output.




NOTE: Additional pesticide use requirements from
the 595 Practice Standard:
> Always follow all pesticide label instructions and
environmental cautions.
 > Store, handle, transport, mix, use, and dispose of
pesticides and pesticide containers per Maine Board of
Pesticides Control recommendations and regulations.
> Follow state and federal worker protection standards.
> When drawing water for pesticide mixing from any
surface waters of the state, use anti-siphoning devices
and do not use hoses that have been in contact with
pesticides.
> Do not mix or load pesticides within 50 ft from the
high water mark of any surface waters of the state.
.Pesticide applicator must be properly licensed and
certified when using restricted use pesticides or when
doing custom pesticide applications for hire. Contact
Maine Board of Pesticides Control for license and
certification requirements.
                                           Brussel Sprouts, Chinese Cabbage,
    Cabbage, Broccoli, Cauliflower
                                             Collards, Kohrabi, Mustard, Kale
Cabbage aphid, cabbage looper (CL), diamondback moth (DBM), imported
cabbageworm (ICW), cabbage root maggot fly, cutworm, flea beetle, leaf miners, onion
thrips, slugs, Swede midge, whiteflies




Alternaria damping off, Alternaria leaf & head rot, black leg, black rot, club root, downey
mildew, Fusarium yellows, seed decay, wire stem, turnip mosaic virus
Oedema of cabbage, head rot & brown
beading (broccoli)


                                                   Brussel Sprouts, Chinese Cabbage,
    Cabbage, Broccolli, Cauliflower
                                                    Collards, Kohrabi, Mustard, Kale
Use tranplants grown in New England to         Use tranplants grown in New England to
avoid importing DBM that have already          avoid importing DBM that have already
developed resistance to one or more            developed resistance to one or more
classes of insecticides.                       classes of insecticides.
.                                              .




Maintain adequate soil water during            .
seeding, transplanting, and period of rapid
vegetative growth.


.                                              .
Incorporate and disk crop residues shortly   Incorporate and disk crop residues shortly
after harvest.                               after harvest.




.                                            .
Apply lime according to soil test to              Chinese cabbage: See NEVMG p85 for
maintain soil pH at 6.5-6.8.                      details regarding nitrogen management.
If the level of boron in the soil is low, apply
as an additive to the fertilizer. Refer to
NEVMG for plant nutrient
recommendations.
Apply less nitrogen fertilizer if manure or
legume sod was plowed down.




Cabbage maggot: Rotate spring crops to            Cabbage maggot: Rotate spring crops to
fields that were not planted with fall            fields that were not planted with fall
Brassicas.                                        Brassicas.
Cauliflower: Plant in fertile, moist soil      .
relatively high in organic matter and
nitrogen. For early plantings, plant in
coarse textured soils (sands, sandy loams,
etc.).
Cauliflower & broccoli: Plant in raised beds
of 4".




.                                              .



Cabbage aphids: Avoid fall plantings.          Kale: Best to plant as fall crop, but can be
Cabbage maggot: Delay planting of              succession planted all season.
brassica crops until after soil temperatures   Cabbage aphids: Avoid fall plantings of
are high enough to kill eggs.                  brussel sprouts.
                                               Cabbage maggot: Delay planting of
                                               brassica crops until after soil temperatures
                                               are high enough to kill eggs.

.                                              .
ICW: Use bucket-type pheromone traps to        ICW: Use bucket-type pheromone traps to
monitor moth flight late July to August.       monitor moth flight late July to August.
DBM: Scout fields by checking underside        DBM: Scout fields by checking underside
of leaves on 25 plants across the field.       of leaves on 25 plants across the field.
CL, DBM, ICW: Scout for DBM & ICW              CL, DBM, ICW: Scout for DBM & ICW
throughout growing season and for CL mid-      throughout growing season and for CL mid-
to late-season.                                to late-season.
ICW: Look for single eggs and larvae on        ICW: Look for single eggs and larvae on
underside of leaves and larvae on the          underside of leaves and larvae on the
heads of cabbage and broccoli. Also look       heads of cabbage and broccoli. Also look
for the adult cabbage butterfly.               for the adult cabbage butterfly.
Cabbage maggot: Scout early spring             Cabbage maggot: Scout early spring
when adult flies are active and late August-   when adult flies are active and late August-
early September for fall crops. Look at the    early September for fall crops. Look at the
base of the plant for small (1/32"), white,    base of the plant for small (1/32"), white,
bullet-shaped eggs.                            bullet-shaped eggs.




.                                              .




.                                              .




Cabbage maggot/flea beetles: Protect           Cabbage maggot/flea beetles: Protect
spring crops with spunbonded row covers        spring crops with spunbonded row covers
at the time of seeding or transplanting and    at the time of seeding or transplanting and
seal the edges with soil. Use only on          seal the edges with soil. Use only on
rotated fields.                                rotated fields.
Cabbage: Plant 2-4 seeds 1/2 - 3/4" deep,     .
12-15" apart with 24-36" between rows.
Thin when 2-4"tall. Do not allow plants to
become crowded.
Cauliflower: Plant 15-18" apart with 30-36"
between rows.




Strip or zone tillage may be suitable for     Strip or zone tillage may be suitable for
mid- to late-season varieties. Contact        mid- to late-season varieties. Contact
Maine Cooperative Extension for               Maine Cooperative Extension for
.                                             .


.                                             .

.                                             .



.                                             .




.                                             Flea beetles: Use rowcovers from planting
                                              until harvest.


.                                             .




.                                             .
Use selective materials or microbial           Use selective materials or microbial
products to spare pollinators as well as       products to spare pollinators as well as
beneficials (e.g. parasitic wasps attack       beneficials (e.g. parasitic wasps attack
larvae) that help control aphids, DBM, and     larvae) that help control aphids, DBM, and
ICW populations.                               ICW populations.




.                                              .


Incorporate compost before planting.           Incorporate compost before planting.


Cabbage aphid: Treat if greater than 10%       Cabbage aphid (brussel sprouts): Treat if
of plants are infested anytime after heads     greater than 10% of plants are infested
or sprouts begin to form.                      anytime after heads or sprouts begin to
CL, DBM, ICW: Treat young plants only if       form.
weather conditions delay plant                 CL, DBM, ICW: Treat young plants only if
development and at least 35% of them are       weather conditions delay plant
infested. Treat plants between the start of    development and at least 35% of them are
heading and harvest if 20% or more of the      infested. Treat plants between the start of
plants are infested. The most critical time    heading and harvest if 20% or more of the
to scout and apply controls is just prior to   plants are infested. The most critical time
head formation.                                to scout and apply controls is just prior to
Cabbage maggot: Apply a soil drench 2-3        head formation.
days after finding an average of 1             Kale, collards, mustard: Use a 10-15%
egg/plant.                                     threshold throughout the season.
                                               Cabbage maggot: Apply a soil drench 2-3
                                               days after finding an average of 1
                                               egg/plant.




Use a spreader-sticker with insecticides to    Use a spreader-sticker with insecticides to
provide better coverage and more               provide better coverage and more
insecticde persistence.                        insecticde persistence.
Use appropriate biological and other low-      Use appropriate biological and other low-
risk pesticides that are registered for use    risk pesticides that are registered for use
in Maine and recommended for the crop          in Maine and recommended for the crop
per New England Extension                      per New England Extension
recommendations.                               recommendations.
Do not use less than 50 gal spray              Do not use less than 50 gal spray
material/A; higher volumes provide better      material/A; higher volumes provide better
coverage.                                      coverage.




Weeds: Use stale seedbed technique             Weeds: Use stale seedbed technique
utilizing Roundup, Gramoxone, or Scythe.       utilizing Roundup, Gramoxone, or Scythe.
Cabbage maggot: Use a direct spray             Cabbage maggot: Use a direct spray
method applying pesticide in a narrow          method applying pesticide in a narrow
band with enough water to penetrate the        band with enough water to penetrate the
root zone - over the row for direct seeded     root zone - over the row for direct seeded
Brassica or directed to the base of the        Brassica or directed to the base of the
plant for transplanted crops.                  plant for transplanted crops.




Calibrate sprayer at beginning of season       Calibrate sprayer at beginning of season
and check regularly during season.             and check regularly during season.
Recalibrate after any nozzle change. (See      Recalibrate after any nozzle change. (See
reference # 8.)                                reference # 8.)




DBM: Alternate between effective               DBM: Alternate between effective
pesticides to retard development of            pesticides to retard development of
resistance. Use newer pesticides and the       resistance. Use newer pesticides and the
aizawai strain of Bacillus thuringiensis for   aizawai strain of Bacillus thuringiensis for
better control of resistant DBM.               better control of resistant DBM.
    Weeds: Use a directed/shielded spray           Weeds: Use a directed/shielded spray
    when using any non-selective herbicide,        when using any non-selective herbicide,
    such as Scythe. For hand-held equipment        such as Scythe. For hand-held equipment
    spray to completely wet all weed foliage,      spray to completely wet all weed foliage,
    but not to the point of runoff.                but not to the point of runoff.
    CL, DBM, ICW: Use drop nozzles for             CL, DBM, ICW: Use drop nozzles for
    better coverage of lower leaf surfaces.        better coverage of lower leaf surfaces.




    Use water-sensitive cards to measure           Use water-sensitive cards to measure
    spray pattern and drift.                       spray pattern and drift.


    Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter   Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter
    strips to minimize chemical movement to        strips to minimize chemical movement to
    sensitive areas such as surface waters,        sensitive areas such as surface waters,
    schools, residences, and neighboring           schools, residences, and neighboring
    crops.                                         crops.




    Use mitigation practices as necessary in       Use mitigation practices as necessary in
    accordance with pest monitoring results,       accordance with pest monitoring results,
    pest predictions, action thresholds, and       pest predictions, action thresholds, and
    WinPST output.                                 WinPST output.




.

.
Lettuce, Endive, Escarole              Mesclun                   Spinach
Aphids,cabbage looper,            Aphids, whiteflies,      Aphids (green peach
cutworms, leafhopper,             cabbage looper,          aphid), leafminers,
tarnished plant bug,              cutworms, flea           blister beetles, cabbage
leafminer, slugs, whiteflies      beetles, leafminers,     looper, fall armyworm
                                  DBM, ICW


Gray mold (Botrytis ), bottom     Downey mildew,           Blight (cucumber
rot (Rhizoctonia ), drop, white   Rhizoctonia              mosaic virus), downey
mold (Sclerotinia minor ),
Tip burn                                                   mildew, seed decay,




Lettuce, Endive, Escarole              Mesclun                   Spinach

Plant disease-free certified or   .                        Use virus-free seed and
treated seed and disease-                                  seed treated for seed
free transplants.                                          decay.

.                                 Flaming can be used.     .
                                  Prepare seedbed at
                                  least 2-3 weeks prior
                                  planting so weeds
                                  after adequate time to
                                  emerge.
                                  After crop emergence
                                  use shallow
                                  cultivation. Do not
                                  move soil into corp
                                  row to reduce
                                  susceptibility to
                                  disease.

Avoid overhead irrigation.        .                        .
Irrigate in the morning or with
sub-surface irrigation to
provide dry soil.

Drop, white mold: Sterilize       .                        .
soil with chemicals, steam, or
heat (solarization) to reduce
inoculum levels.
Downey mildew: Protect
greenhouse grown plants
with fungicides to prevent
introduction of disease into
the field.
Aphids: If one planting         .   .
becomes infested, use tillage
to incorporate crop residue
and prevent spread to
succession plantings.
Drop, white mold: Deep plow
after harvest to bury
sclerotia. Incorporation of
Brassica crop residues may
provide a suppressive effect.

Yellows: Control alternate      .   Blight: Eliminate weeds
weed hosts.                         such as chickweed,
                                    pokeweed, and
                                    milkweed.
                                    Leafminers: Remove
                                    weed hosts including
                                    lambsquarter,
                                    nightshade, chickweed,
                                    and plantain.
Apply lime according to soil        Base application of        Apply lime according to
test to maintain soil pH at 6.5-    fertilizer on soil tests   soil test to maintain soil
6.8. Maintain adequate              results. Refer to          pH at 6.5-6.8.
calcium levels to prevent tip       NEVMG p.138. for           Correct low magnesium
burn.                               plant nutrient             levels in the soil by
Add the band fertilizer             recommendations.           using high magnesium
amount to the preplant                                         lime (dolomitic) or by
broadcast application if the                                   adding magnesium to
fertilizer cannot be banded at                                 the fertilizer. Make a
planting.                                                      topical application of 10-
If using transplants, use of a                                 15 lb magnesium
liquid starter fertilizer at                                   sulfate (Epsom salts) in
planting time is beneficial,                                   100 gal water. Spray to
especially with cool soil                                      wet foilage.
conditions. Use a high                                         Sidedress nitrogen
phosphorus starter fertilizer                                  when crop need is
mixed at a rate of 2 lb/50 gal                                 apparent. Avoid putting
water. Apply 8 fl oz (1 cup)                                   fertilizer directly onto
per transplant.                                                crop foliage.
Apply less nitrogen fertilizer if                              Apply less nitrogen
manure or legume sod was                                       fertilizer if manure or
plowed down.                                                   legume sod was plowed
Drop, white mold: Avoid                                        down.
excessive nitrogen                                             Refer to NEVMG for
fertilization.                                                 plant nutrient
Refer to NEVMG for plant                                       recommendations.
nutrient recommendations.


Rotate crops, especially if         mesclun 8                  Practice crop rotation.
double cropping in same
field.
Bottom rot: Rotate crops
with non-hosts.
Avoid close planting and          mesclun 9   Plant away from Prunus
orient rows in the direction of               sp. (peach, wild cherry,
prevailing winds. Do not                      etc.).
plant in poorly drained areas
or near moist, shady habitats.
Plant on raised beds. Do not
plant where excessive plant
residues are present.
Green peach aphid: Plant
away from Prunus sp.
(peach, wild cherry, etc.).
Potato aphid: Avoid planting
near members of the rose
family.
Tarnished plant bug: DO
NOT plant adjacent to alfalfa
or hay field.
Mosaic viruses: Plant
mosaic-indexed seed away
from old lettice fields.
Yellows: Do not plant lettuce
or other sensitive crops in
fields or areas having a
history of this disease.


Downy mildew, tip burn:           .           Blight/downy
Plant resistant or tolerant                   mildew/white rust:
cultivars.                                    Grow resistent
                                              varieties.
.                                 .           .




.                                 .           .
Aphids: Scout plants             Cutworm caterpillars:    Aphids: Scout plants
beginning at seedling stage.     Scout weekly             beginning at seedling
Check field margins where        checking at least 100    stage. Check field
infestations begin.              plants for crooks        margins where
Cutworm caterpillars: Scout      (misshaped spears).      infestations begin.
weekly checking at least 100     Black cutworms:          Leafminers: Scout
plants for crooks (misshaped     Monitor adults with a    especially in mid-May,
spears). Black cutworms:         yellow and white         late-June, and mid-
Monitor adults with a yellow     Unitrap March through    August.
and white Unitrap March          May. Monitor during      Fall armyworm:
through May. Monitor during      June if catch over 40    Monitor moths with a
June if catch over 40 moths.     moths. Variegated        bucket trap (eg
Variegated cutworms:             cutworms: Monitor        Universal Moth trap or
Monitor adults with blacklight   adults with blacklight   Multipher traps) with a
trap or yellow and white         trap or yellow and       lure (Scentry lure, PSU
Unitrap from July to             white Unitrap from       type). Count moths at
September.                       July to September.       least weekly. Scout by
Slugs: Look for slivery slime                             checking 100 plants in
trails on leaves or turn over                             groups of 10 or 20 in a
soil clods or debris to find                              V or X pattern across
slugs during daylight hours.                              the field. Avoid
May use shallow pans of                                   checking only field
beer or unbaited pitfall traps                            edges and start at
for monitoring populations.                               random, not only where
Leafhoppers: Hosts to                                     damage is seen.
phytoplasm which causes
yellows. Control populations.


.                                .                        .




.                                .                        Use Cucurbit Downey
                                                          Mildew Weather
                                                          Forecaster

.                                .                        .
Crisphead, endive, escarole:   Seeding rates vary        Seed to achieve 6-8
Achieve final spacing of 12-   with seed size and        plants per foot of row
18" between plants and 12-     species. Generally,       with 12" between rows.
24" between rows. May plant    space plants <1"          (Thinning is not
on 4' wide, raised 4" high     between plants and 2-     recommended.) Seed
beds with 3-4 rows per bed.    3" between rows on        1/4-1/2" deep
Other lettuce types: Achieve   30"-wide beds.            depending on soil
final spacing of 10-16"                                  moisture and
between plants and 10-18"                                temperature, deeper if
between rows.                                            warm, dry soil.

Strip or zone tillage may be   Strip or zone tillage     Strip or zone tillage may
suitable for mid- to late-     may be suitable for       be suitable for mid- to
season varieties. Contact      mid- to late-season       late-season varieties.
Green peach aphid: Use         .                         Green peach aphid:
reflective plastic mulch.                                Use reflective plastic
                                                         mulch.
.                              .                         .

.                              .                         Leafminers: Use deep
                                                         plowing in spring to
                                                         reduce population.

.                              .                         .




.                              Flea beetles: Use         Spinach leafminer: Use
                               rowcovers from            row covers combined
                               planting until harvest.   with crop rotation

.                              .                         .




.                              .                         .
Green peach aphid:               Aphids/DBM/ICW:          Green peach aphid:
Preserve pollinators and         Use selective            Preserve pollinators
natural enemies (lady            materials or microbial   and natural enemies
beetles, lacewings, spiders,     products to spare        (lady beetles,
syrphid fly larvae, wasps, and   beneficials (e.g.        lacewings, spiders,
beneficial fungi) by using       parasitic wasps attack   syrphid fly larvae,
selective/microbial pesticides   larvae) .                wasps, and beneficial
for other pests whenever                                  fungi) by using
possible. Avoid early-season                              selective/microbial
broad-spectrum sprays.                                    pesticides for other
                                                          pests whenever
                                                          possible. Avoid early-
                                                          season broad-spectrum
                                                          sprays.
.                                .                        .


Incorporate compost before       Incorporate compost      Incorporate compost
planting.                        before planting.         before planting.

Green peach aphid: Spray         .                        Green peach aphid:
only when aphids are                                      Treat when one
increasing and building up to                             aphid/plant on
high numbers.                                             seedlings and 4-10
Cabbage looper: Treat                                     aphids per plant on
young plants only if weather                              older plants.
conditions delay plant                                    Leafminers: Treat
development and at least                                  when eggs or first tiny
35% of them are infested.                                 mites are noticed.
                                                          Repeat in 7-10 days.
                                                          Cabbage looper: Treat
                                                          young plants only if
                                                          weather conditions
                                                          delay plant
                                                          development and at
                                                          least 35% of them are
                                                          infested.
                                                          Fall armyworm: Treat
                                                          when 15% or more of
                                                          plants are infested.
                                                          White rust: Apply
                                                          preplant and foliar
                                                          fungicides.
Green peach aphid: Add a         .                        Green peach aphid:
spreader-sticker.                                         Add a spreader-sticker.
Select appropriate biological    Select appropriate        Select appropriate
and other low-risk pesticides    biological and other      biological and other low-
that are registered for use in   low-risk pesticides       risk pesticides that are
Maine and recommended for        that are registered for   registered for use in
the crop per New England         use in Maine and          Maine and
Extension recommendations.       recommended for the       recommended for the
                                 crop per New England      crop per New England
                                 Extension                 Extension
                                 recommendations.          recommendations.
Weeds: Use stale seedbed         Weeds: Use stale          Weeds: Use stale
technique utilizing Roundup      seedbed technique         seedbed technique
or Gramoxone.                    utilizing Roundup,        utilizing Roundup.
Cutworms: For best results,      Gramoxone, or             Blister beetle: Use a
apply pesticides between         Scythe.                   single spot spray with a
midnight and dawn while          Cutworms: For best        broad-spectrum
cutworms are feeding above       results, apply            insecticide registered
ground.                          pesticides between        for caterpillars on
Slugs: Scatter baits on          midnight and dawn         spinach.
ground near infested plants.     while cutworms are        Downey mildew: Treat
When appropriate, apply          feeding above ground.     at first sign of disease.
pesticides around perimeter,
around base of plants, or
band down rows.
Downey mildew: Protect
greenhouse grown plants
with fungicides to prevent
introduction of disease into
the field.
Calibrate sprayer at             Calibrate sprayer at      Calibrate sprayer at
beginning of season and          beginning of season       beginning of season
check regularly during           and check regularly       and check regularly
season. Recalibrate after        during season.            during season.
any nozzle change. (See          Recalibrate after any     Recalibrate after any
reference # 8.)                  nozzle change. (See       nozzle change. (See
                                 reference # 8.)           reference # 8.)

To avoid resistence, do not      To avoid resistence,      To avoid resistence, do
use multiple nicotinoids on      do not use multiple       not use multiple
the same crop. Rotate            nicotinoids on the        nicotinoids on the same
fungicides with different        same crop.                crop. Rotate fungicides
modes of action.                                           with different modes of
                                                           action.
Weeds: Use a                    .                           Weeds: Use a
directed/shielded spray when                                directed/shielded spray
using any non-selective                                     when using any non-
herbicide, such as Scythe.                                  selective herbicide,
For hand-held equipment                                     such as Scythe. For
spray to completely wet all                                 hand-held equipment
weed foliage, but not to the                                spray to completely wet
point of runoff.                                            all weed foliage, but not
Cabbage looper: Use drop                                    to the point of runoff.
nozzles for better coverage                                 Cabbage looper: Use
of lower leaf surfaces.                                     drop nozzles for better
                                                            coverage of lower leaf
                                                            surfaces.

Use water-sensitive cards to    Use water-sensitive         Use water-sensitive
measure spray pattern and       cards to measure            cards to measure spray
drift.                          spray pattern and drift.    pattern and drift.

Use vegetative buffers, set-    Use vegetative              Use vegetative buffers,
backs, or filter strips to      buffers, set-backs, or      set-backs, or filter strips
minimize chemical               filter strips to minimize   to minimize chemical
movement to sensitive areas     chemical movement to        movement to sensitive
such as surface waters,         sensitive areas such        areas such as surface
schools, residences, and        as surface waters,          waters, schools,
neighboring crops.              schools, residences,        residences, and
                                and neighboring             neighboring crops.
                                crops.

Use mitigation practices as     Use mitigation              Use mitigation practices
necessary in accordance with    practices as                as necessary in
pest monitoring results, pest   necessary in                accordance with pest
predictions, action             accordance with pest        monitoring results, pest
thresholds, and WinPST          monitoring results,         predictions, action
output.                         pest predictions,           thresholds, and
                                action thresholds, and      WinPST output.
                                WinPST output.
Solanaceae
                                            Common Solanaceae:
                                                   Major Pests:




                                                   Major Diseases:




                                                         Disorders:




                                  Practices
Principle
             Use certified pest-free seeds and pest-free transplants
             where available. (Example: Purchase certified seed
             and ensure plants are free of insects, diseases, and
             weeds before transplanting.)




             Prevent weeds from going to seed. (Example:
             Cultivate, pull, mow, flame, etc.)
             Reduce moisture on plant surfaces to prevent disease
             incidence. (Example: Use drip irrigation or avoid
             overhead irrigation between 6 p.m. and midnight to
             minimize disease.)




             Employ methods to avoid spreading pests (pathogens,
             weeds, and insects). (Example: Work crop when dry,
             work infested fields last, wash equipment between
             fields, etc.)




             Destroy and/or remove crop residues for field
             sanitation procedures. Include fall tillage where
PREVENTION




             appropriate to control weeds and break pest cycles.
             (Example: Plow under corn refuse in the fall to control
             European corn borer.)



             Eliminate unmanaged plants that serve as pest
             reservoirs, such as abandoned crops, volunteers from
             previous crop, or weed hosts of viruses.
    Test soil or plant tissue annually to determine proper
    fertility and pH levels for crop and time application
    according to crop needs. Apply nutrients, fertilizers,
    and pH-adjusting agents according to
    recommendations.




    Rotate crops that break the pest cycle. Do not plant
    crops from the same family at less than recommended
    intervals for the identified pest(s).
E
            Match crops to appropriate sites to optimize plant
            health and avoid known pests. (Example: Avoid
            planting crops susceptible to fungal diseases in low
AVOIDANCE   wet fields.)




            Choose pest-resistant cultivars. (Example: Plant virus
            and powdery mildew resistant vine crops.)

            Adjust planting dates and select cultivars with maturity
            dates that allow avoidance of early or late-season
            pests. (Example: Plant cucurbits after early season
            striped cucumber beetle activity, delay planting of
            brassica crops to avoid cabbage maggots.)

            Use and manage trap crops to protect main crop from
            insect pests and insect-vectored diseases.
             Monitor for pests as recommended for each crop. If no
             monitoring guidelines available, monitor weekly to
             determine presence, density, and locations of pests
             and to determine crop growth stage. **Record findings.
             Record keeping is required**. (Example: Scout crops
             and use other appropriate monitoring aids such as
             pheromone traps, disease diagnostic tests, etc. Map
             weeds in the fall to help plan where specific measures
             may be needed to target problem weeds the following
             spring. Utilize University of Maine Cooperative
             Extension pest monitoring data from newsletters and
             websites.)
MONITORING




             Use on-farm weather monitoring devices to measure
             precipitation, humidity, temperature, and leaf wetness
             and/or use commercial weather prediction service for
             prevention and control of plant diseases. (Example:
             Install weather station with rain gauge, hygrometer,
             maximum and minimum temperature recording
             equipment, leaf wetness sensors.)

             Use pest-forecasting tools (e.g., computer modeling
             software) as additional guides for on-farm pest
             monitoring activities in conjunction with weather data to
             predict risk of pest infestation.




             Use cover crops, especially pest-suppressing crops
             (allelopathic), in the rotation cycle to reduce weeds and
             disease incidence and to improve soil quality.
                                 Plant using appropriate within- and between-row
                                 spacing optimal for crop, site, and row orientation.
                                 (Example: Use row spacing and plant densities that
CULTURAL AND PHYSICAL CONTROLS   assure rapid canopy closure.)




                                 Use reduced tillage and other residue management
                                 practices to suppress weeds and maintain soil organic
         SUPPRESSION




                                 matter as appropriate for crop.


                                 Use mulches including plastic or reflective mulches for
                                 insect or weed control.



                                 Inter-seed cover crop within or between rows to
                                 suppress weeds.
                                 Use mechanical pest controls. (Examples: Cultivate,
                                 mow, hoe, and hand remove insects and weeds, prune
                                 diseased or insect-infested plants, remove diseased
                                 plants.)


                                 Use physical pest controls and deterrents. (Example:
                                 Use flame weeding or other heat methods for insect,
                                 disease, and weed control; noise-makers; reflectors;
                                 ribbons; and predator models.)

                                 Use exclusion devices for insects or wildlife.
                                 (Examples: Use synthetic row covers and/or fencing.)
                      Maintain or improve soil aeration and drainage to avoid
                      standing water and minimize plant disease. (Example:
                      Use tile drainage, sub soiling, grassed waterways,
                      raised beds, and organic matter additions. Avoid
                      planting in low and wet spots in field.)

                      Use insect mating disruption devices, if available.
                      (Example: Use pheromone laminate clip-ons or rings
                      for tomato pinworm.)
                      Conserve naturally occurring biological controls.
                      (Example: Select pesticides and time applications to
BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS




                      minimize impact on beneficials, use floral perimeter
                      crop to attract and support beneficial insects.)
    SUPPRESSION




                      Release beneficial organisms where appropriate.
                      (Example: release predatory mites for control of two-
                      spotted mites and thrips.)


                      Use compost as a soil amendment to increase
                      biological diversity in soil and plant health and
                      suppress plant disease.
                      Minimize chemical use. Use in conjunction with
                      accurate pest identification and monitoring, action
                      thresholds, alternative suppression tactics (biological,
                      cultural, etc), and judgments based on previous year's
                      weed map and/or pest scouting records. (Example:
                      Use pheromone traps to monitor for corn earworm in
                      sweet corn.)
                    Select pesticides, formulations, and adjuvants based
                    on least negative effects on environment, beneficials
                    (e.g., pollinators, predators, parasites), and human
                    health in addition to efficacy and economics.




                    Use lowest labeled rate that is effective based on label,
                    scouting results, and Extension-recommended action
                    thresholds for target pest.


                    Limit applications to partial fields or banding to reduce
                    quantity or impact of pesticide. (Example: Spot treat
                    where pests are found or use banding, seed, edge or
                    field perimeter/border treatments.)
CHEMICAL CONTROLS
   SUPPRESSION




                    Calibrate sprayers or applicators prior to use to verify
                    amount of material applied.
Use pesticide-resistance management strategies as
appropriate and where required on pesticide label.
(Example: Alternate applications of chemicals with
different modes of action to avoid development of pest
resistance or leave part of crop unsprayed to serve as
a refuge for susceptible pests and natural enemies.)




Use specialized pesticide application equipment to
increase efficiency and reduce chemical drift.
(Examples: Use wiper applicators, digitally controlled
adjustable tool bars, direct injection sprayers, double-
drop sprayers, laser guided precision sprayers, direct
injection, low-drift nozzles, shielded applicators or air
induction booms, built-in tank washers, etc.)




Use spray-monitoring equipment. (Example: Use
water-sensitive cards to measure spray pattern and
drift.)
Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter strips to
minimize chemical movement to sensitive areas such
as surface waters, schools, residences, and
neighboring crops.

Use mitigation practices as necessary in accordance
with pest monitoring results, pest predictions, action
thresholds, and WinPST output.


NOTE: Additional pesticide use requirements from
the 595 Practice Standard:
> Always follow all pesticide label instructions and
environmental cautions.
 > Store, handle, transport, mix, use, and dispose of
pesticides and pesticide containers per Maine Board of
Pesticides Control recommendations and regulations.
> Follow state and federal worker protection standards.
> When drawing water for pesticide mixing from any
surface waters of the state, use anti-siphoning devices
and do not use hoses that have been in contact with
pesticides.
> Do not mix or load pesticides within 50 ft from the
high water mark of any surface waters of the state.
.Pesticide applicator must be properly licensed and
certified when using restricted use pesticides or when
doing custom pesticide applications for hire. Contact
Maine Board of Pesticides Control for license and
certification requirements.
                 Okra                                          Eggplant
Aphids, corn earworm, Japanese beetles,       Aphids, blister beetles, Colorado potato
two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), stink         beetle CPB), cutworms, flea beetles,
bugs, nematodes                               leafhoppers (especially potato leafhopper),
                                              two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), tarnished
                                              plant bug, tomato fruit worm, pepper
                                              maggot, whiteflies

Damping-off, Fusarium & Verticillium wilts,   Anthracnose, damping-off, Verticillium wilt
fruit rot (Choanephora)




                  Okra                                        Eggplant

.                                             Whiteflies: Transplant clean plants to field.
                                              Use certified, disease-free seed, fungicide
                                              treated seed, or treat seed with hot water
                                              to disinfect.




Handweed in the planting holes after          .
transplanting. On bare ground, employ
flaming prior to transplanting. Keep
cultivations shallow after transplanting.
.   Irrigate during flowering and fruit set.
    TSSM: Use overhead irrigation to reduce
    populations.




.   Flea beetles: Use clean cultivation.




.   Verticillium wilt: Remove and destroy
    infested plant material after harvest.




.   Keep fields free of solanaceous weeds and
    volunteers.
Apply lime according to soil test to          Apply lime according to soil test to
maintain a soil pH at 6.5-7.0.                maintain a soil pH at 6.5-6.8.
If plants are to be grown on plastic mulch,   Use a liquid starter fertilizer at
reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizer to   transplanting, especially with cool soil
be sidedressed. If using transplants, apply   conditions. Use a high phosphorus starter
a liquid fertilizer before tranplanting,      fertilizer mixed according to label
especially with cool soil conditions.         directions. If plants are to be grown on
TSSM: Do not overfertilize.                   plastic mulch, reduce the amount of
Refer to NEVMG for plant nutrient             nitrogen fertilizer to be sidedressed.
recommendations.                              Instead of sidedressing, nitrogen can be
                                              applied through trickle irrigation which is
                                              especially advantageous with plastic
                                              mulch. (See NEVMG for more
                                              information.)
                                              Use less nitrogen fertilizer if manure or
                                              legume sod was plowed down.
                                              TSSM: Do not overfertilize.
                                              Refer to NEVMG for plant nutrient
                                              recommendations.




Fusarium/Verticillium wilts: Rotate with      Flea beetles: Rotate crops.
non-solanaceous crops. Avoid planting in      Anthracnose: Rotate with non-
fields where these diseases are present.      solanaceous crops for at least 3 years.
                                              Verticillium wilt: Follow a 4-5 year rotation
                                              with non-solanaceous crops and
                                              strawberry.
                                            Plant in deep, well-drained sandy loam
                                            soils, ideally with southern exposures.
                                            TSSM: Avoid weedy fields and do not
                                            plant eggplant adjacent to legume forage
                                            crops.
                                            Tarnished plant bug: Avoid planting near
                                            alfalfa fields.




                                            eggplant 10


Do not plant until soil temperatures have   eggplant 11
warmed in the spring.




.                                           Pepper maggot: Use perimeter trap crop
                                            of cherry peppers. Spot spray the trap
                                            crop (only) when the first stings (egg-laying
                                            scars) occur on the peppers or adult flies
                                            are captured on traps.
.   Aphids: Begin monitoring the first of July.
    CPB: Begin monitoring in June. Watch for
    emergence of summer adults in July and
    August. Scout to determine number of
    adults, egg masses, small and large
    larvae, and to assess feeding damage.
    Cutworms: Scout fields weekly through
    June after transplanting, checking at least
    100 plants for cut stems, especially near
    field margins. Black cutworms: Monitor
    adults with a yellow and white Unitrap
    March through May. Monitor frequently
    during June if catch over 40 moths.
    Variegated cutworms: Monitor adults with
    blacklight trap or yellow and white Unitrap
    from July to September.




.   .




.   .




.   .
Space plants 12-18" in rows with 36"           Transplant in the field when 6-8 wks old,
between rows.                                  fairly large, and slightly hardened. Place
Fruit rot: Improve air circulation by proper   plants 18" (small plant types) to 30" (large
plant spacing.                                 plant types) between plants and 36-42"
                                               between rows.




Strip or zone tillage may be suitable for      Strip or zone tillage may be suitable for
mid- to late-season varieties. Contact         mid- to late-season varieties. Contact
Maine Cooperative Extension for                Maine Cooperative Extension for
information.                                   information.
Weeds: Apply plastic mulch at least 2-3        Verticillium wilt: Use black plastic mulch.
weeks prior to planting. Kill the weeds
between the mulch prior to setting okra
plants on the plastic.

.                                              .

.                                              Flea beetles: Use clean cultivation.




Aphids: Use reflective mulch.                  .




.                                              Use floating row covers. Insure plants are
                                               clear of aphids and white flies before
                                               setting in the field. Apply row covers
                                               immediately after setting transplants.
                                               Remove at bloom.
.                                             .




.                                             .


.                                             .




.                                             TSSM: May release predatory mite,
                                              Phytoseiulus persimilis , as preventive
                                              measure.


Incorporate compost before planting.          Incorporate compost before planting.


TSSM: Avoid early-season, broad-              Aphids: Treat when 1-2 aphids per leaf
spectrum insecticide applications for other   are observed. Use a selective insecticide
pests. Use selective products whenever        during the first 2 weeks of July to prevent
possible.                                     need for sprays later.
                                              CPB: Treat when there are 2 small or 1
                                              large larvae per plant (if plant is <6" or 4
                                              small/ 2 large larvae per plant (if plant >6").
                                              Cutworms: Spot spray damaged areas or
                                              edges of the field if 1-2% of the plants
                                              have been cut down.
                                              Flea beetles: Treat newly set transplants if
                                              they have 2 flea beetles per plant,
                                              seedlings 3-6" tall if they have more than 4
                                              beetles per plant, and plants over 6" tall if
                                              they have 8 beetles per plant.
                                              Leafhoppers: Treat if there is an average
                                              of more than 1-1.5 leafhoppers per leaf.
                                              TSSM: Avoid early-season, broad-
                                              spectrum insecticide applications for other
                                              pests. Use selective products whenever
                                              possible.
.                                           Be aware that broad-spectrum insecticides
                                            can cause aphid and mite outbreaks by
                                            reducing the populations of beneficial
                                            organisms. Use a selective insecticide




Nematodes: Fumigate fields in the fall.     Use lowest labeled rate that is effective
See NEVMG, Soil Fumigation Outdoors,        based on label, scouting results, and
for recommendations.                        Extension-recommended action thresholds
                                            for target pest.

Weeds: Kill the weeds between the mulch     Weeds: Use stale seedbed technique with
prior to setting the okra plants on the     Roundup, Gramoxone, or Scythe.
plastic. Use Roundup, flaming, or Scythe    Blister beetles: Apply a single spot spray
(stale seedbed technique) prior to          with a broad-spectrum insecticide.
transplanting.                              Cutworms: Spot spray damaged areas or
                                            edges of the field if 1-2% of the plants
                                            have been cut down. For best results,
                                            apply pesticides between midnight and
                                            dawn while cutworms are feeding above
                                            ground.
                                            Flea beetles: Apply spot treatments
                                            targeting eggplants along field edges.
                                            Pepper maggot: Spot spray the trap crop
                                            (only) when the first stings (egg-laying
                                            scars) occur on the peppers or adult flies
                                            are captured on traps.

Calibrate sprayer at beginning of season    Calibrate sprayer at beginning of season
and check regularly during season.          and check regularly during season.
Recalibrate after any nozzle change. (See   Recalibrate after any nozzle change. (See
reference # 8.)                             reference # 8.)
    Aphids: To avoid resistance, do not use        To avoid resistance, do not use multiple
    multiple nicotinoids on the same crop.         nicotinoids on the same crop.
    TSSM: Avoid early-season, broad-               Avoid using insecticides from the same
    spectrum insecticide applications for other    resistance group more than once per year.
    pests. Use selective products whenever         TSSM: Avoid early-season, broad-
    possible. With most miticides (not             spectrum insecticide applications for other
    bifenazate), use 2 applications,               pests. Use selective products whenever
    approximately 5-7 days apart, to help          possible. With most miticides (not
    control immature mites that were in the        bifenazate), use 2 applications,
    egg stage during the first application.        approximately 5-7 days apart, to help
    Alternate between products after 2             control immature mites that were in the
    applications to help prevent or delay          egg stage during the first application.
    resistance.                                    Alternate between products after 2
                                                   applications to help prevent or delay
                                                   resistance.
                                                   Verticillium wilt: Fumigate in fall with
                                                   Vapam as directed on label.


    Weeds: Use a directed/shielded spray           Weeds: Use a directed/shielded spray
    when using any non-selective herbicide,        when using any non-selective herbicide,
    such as Scythe. For hand-held equipment        such as Scythe. For hand-held equipment
    spray to completely wet all weed foliage,      spray to completely wet all weed foliage,
    but not to the point of runoff.                but not to the point of runoff.




    May use water-sensitive cards to monitor       May use water-sensitive cards to monitor
    spray pattern and drift during calibration.    spray pattern and drift during calibration.

    Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter   Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter
    strips to minimize chemical movement to        strips to minimize chemical movement to
    sensitive areas such as surface waters,        sensitive areas such as surface waters,
    schools, residences, and neighboring           schools, residences, and neighboring
    crops.                                         crops.
    Use mitigation practices as necessary in       Use mitigation practices as necessary in
    accordance with pest monitoring results,       accordance with pest monitoring results,
    pest predictions, action thresholds, and       pest predictions, action thresholds, and
    WinPST output.                                 WinPST output.
.

.
                 Pepper                                               Potato
Aphids, whiteflies, Colorado potato beetle     Aphids (green peach, melon, potato), Colorado
(CPB), cutworms, European corn borer           potato beetle (CPB), cutworms, European corn borer
(ECB), other caterpillars, fall armyworm,      (ECB), flea beetles, potato leafhopper, wireworms
hornworms, leafminers, thrips, mites,          Weeds: Yellow nutsedge, quackgrass
pepper maggot


Bacterial spot (Xanthomonas ), cucumber        Early blight (Alternaria ), late blight (Phytophthora ),
mosaic virus (CMV), damping-off, seed          common scab (Streptomyces ), Pythium leak,
decay, Phytophthora crown rot and blight,      Verticillium & Fusarium wilt, potato leaf roll virus
sunscald, tobacco and mosaic tomato            (PLRV), potato viruses: S (PVS), A (PVA), X (PVX),
virus (TMV, TOMMV), tomato spotted wilt        Y (PVY rugose mosaic)
virus (TSWV)




                 Pepper                                               Potato

Produce own transplants or contract with a     Plant only disease-free certified or foundation seed.
reputable local supplier to minimize risk of   Do not keep potatoes for seed.
importing severe disease and insect
problems.
Use seed treated with fungicide.
Bacterial spot: Hot water treat pepper
seeds.

Keep fields weed-free between 2 and 10         Begin hilling and cultivating after plants begin to
weeks after transplanting in bare-ground       emerge and complete prior to plants filling half the of
culture and between 4 and 10 weeks in          the row. Cultivate during hilling.
plasticulture.
Avoid overwatering in greenhouse.             Early blight (Alternaria ): Avoid harvesting when soil
Hang watering devices when not in use.        is wet.
Do not permit moisture to remain on
seedlings for more than 2-3 hours after
watering.
Use trickle irrigation at least 1-2 times
weekly as needed due to shallow root
system.
Use disease-free media.                       Thoroughly clean and disinfect all storage and potato
Avoid contamination from greenhouse           handling equipment surfaces prior to handling and
floor by lining it with plastic.              placing the crop into storage.
Grow plants on benches.                       Early blight (Alternaria ): Prevent mechanical injury
Disinfect used flats, cell-packs, bench       during harvesting and handling.
tops, machinery etc. Keep tools and hose
nozzles clean.
Work infected fields last and hose down
equipment before returning to non-infested
fields.
Do not allow workers to use tobacco
products while working with plants.
TSWV: Do not raise tomato, pepper,
eggplant, or cauliflower transplants in the
same greenhouse as ornamentals.

Cutworms: Fall plow when peppers follow       Disease: Destroy cull piles.
sod/hay in rotation to reduce spring egg-     Early & late blight/Verticillium & Fusarium wilt:
laying sites.                                 Destroy diseased vines by tillage after harvest.
Pepper maggot: Destroy crop residue           Flea beetles/slugs: Use clean cultivation.
after harvest.



Keep fields weed-free between 2 and 10        Flea beetles and slugs: Destroy or avoid spring
weeks after transplanting in bare-ground      weeds in potato family such as nightshade and
culture and between 4 and 10 weeks in         jimson weed. Clean cultivate.
plasticulture.                                Disease: Destroy volunteer plants.
Eliminate small patches of Solanaceous        Common scab: Eliminate weed hosts.
weeds, such as jimsonweed and                 PLRV: Remove volunteer plants from previous crop.
horsenettle, prior to transplanting. Reduce
the following weeds as much as is
Apply lime according to soil test results to    Apply lime and fertilizer according to soil test results
maintain pH at 6.5-6.8.                         and the potato cultivar to be planted. Maintain soil
Use a liquid starter fertilizer at              pH at 6.0 for common scab resistant varieties and
transplanting, especially with cool soil        pH 5.0-5.2 for common scab susceptible varieties.
conditions. Use a high phosphorus starter       Apply P and K according to soil test results.
fertilizer mixed according to label             Refer to NEVMG for plant nutrient recommendations.
directions. Rather than sidedress, apply        Early blight (Alternaria ): Maintain proper fertility and
nitrogen through a trickle irrigation system.   mineral balance.
Use less nitrogen fertilizer if manure or       Common scab: Avoid using non-decomposed
legume sod was plowed down.                     manure as fertilizer.
Refer to NEVMG for plant nutrient
recommendations.
Bacterial spot: Maintain proper nutrient
levels. Avoid using dolomitic lime (high
magnesium) before planting peppers.
Sunscald: Promote good foliage growth
with proper fertilization and irrigation
during prolonged periods of hot weather.




Hairy galinsoga: Rotate to crops where          CPB: Rotate potatoes, eggplant, and tomato to a
effective triazine herbicides are registered    field that is at least 200 yards from the previous
for use, such as sweet corn.                    year's fields. Take advantage of barriers such roads,
Bacterial spot/TMV, TOMMV: Rotate to            rivers, woodlands, and fields with other crops.
fields where Solanaceous crops and              Flea beetles: Rotate crops.
weeds in the nightshade family have not         Wireworms: Do not grow in rotation with sod or
existed for at least 2 years.                   grass crops. Delay planting susceptible crops, such
Phytophthora crown rot and blight:              as potatoes or corn, on such land for at least 2 years
Practice a 3-year or longer rotation with       after the sod has been broken.
plants other than pepper, tomato,               Early blight (Alternaria ): Avoid growing peppers,
eggplant, or cucurbits.                         tomatoes, and potatoes in a continuous rotation.
                                                Common scab: Rotate out of potatoes for at least 2
                                                years when scab is present.
                                                Verticillium & Fusarium wilt: Rotate with non-
                                                susceptible crops such as grasses.
Set plants in field when soil temperature is   Plant in warm seedbed with medium field capacity in
at least 60oF.                                 moisture content and of uniform texture.
Avoid planting near Prunus species,            Green peach aphid: Plant away from Prunus sp.
cucurbits, and sites with horse nettle.        (peach, wild cherry, etc.).
Phytophthora crown rot and blight: Avoid       Common scab: Avoid planting in fields with history of
planting into soils known to be                scab. Avoid planting near beets, carrots, or radish
contaminated with Phytophthora . If            as these can be weed hosts.
planting into infested soils, chisel plow to
improve drainage, fumigate soil, and plant
on raised beds domed in the center.




Use disease resistant varieties.               Disease: Plant disease resistant strains.


Pepper 11                                      CPB/Flea Beetles: Delay planting.
                                               PVS/PVA/PVX/PVY: Plant early.
                                               Early Blight: allow tubers to fully mature before
                                               harvest


Pepper maggot: Use perimeter trap              CPB: Plant trap crop of 3-5 rows of potatoes earlier
cropping of cherry peppers in rows             than main crop or between the main crop and
surrounding main pepper crop.                  overwintering sites. Treat trap crop with flame,
                                               vacuum or insecticide (such as a systemic applied at
                                               planting) to keep beetles from invading main crop.
Aphids: Begin scouting early June for          Weeds: Create and use weed maps for each field to
aphids and presence of beneficial              plan and implement weed control. Compare maps
species.                                       among successive years to evaluate and change
Cutworms: Scout fields 1-2 times per           weed control strategies as necessary.
week through June after transplanting,         Insects: Scout field regularly. Aphids: Begin
checking at least 100 plants for leaf          scouting late June. Examine 50 fully grown
feeding and cut stems, especially near         compound leaves (5 leaves at 10 locations in the
field margins. Black cutworms: Monitor         field) from top, middle, and bottom of the canopy.
adults with a yellow and white Unitrap         CPB: Scout weekly mid-season. Walk field in V-
March through May. Monitor frequently          shape pattern, stopping every 10-20 paces to
during June if catch over 40 moths.            examine a potato plant. Count numbers of large and
Variegated cutworms: Monitor adults with       small larvae, adult beeltles, and eggs on each of 50
blacklight trap or yellow and white Unitrap    potato stalks selected this way. If the number of
from July to September.                        CPB is between high and low, recheck in 3-5 days.
ECB: Use pheromone traps to monitor            When using products that control only larvae, scout
adult flight activity.                         for eggs, note egg hatch, and apply controls before
Pepper maggot: Monitor fruits of pepper        larvae reach 3rd instar. If using materials that control
plants adjacent to tree lines weekly in July   all stages, may wait and scout for adults and larvae
for egg-laying scars. Use cherry pepper        to determine need for control.
plants located in perimeter as indicator       Cutworm caterpillars: Scout fields 1-2 times per
plants. Monitor adults with yellow sticky-     week through June after transplanting, checking at
traps hung in nearby trees and baited with     least 100 plants for leaf feeding and cut stems,
vials of ammonia.                              especially near field margins.
Bacterial spot: Scout fields weekly for        Black cutworms: Monitor adults with a bucket trap
plants with small brown leaf spots.            March through May. Monitor during June if catch
TSWV: Monitor thrips in the greenhouse         over 40 moths. Variegated cutworms: Monitor
and control as necessary.                      adults with blacklight trap or yellow and white Unitrap
                                               from July to September.
                                               Flea beetles: Sweep young plants along field
                                               edges 25 times.
                                               Potato leafhopper: Sample with sweep net.
                                               Monitor nymphs by visually inspecting lower
.                                              leaf surfaces weather-station to monitor rain, humidity
                                               Use on-farm on lower leaves.
                                               and temperature to forecast late blight susceptibility
                                               and plan fungicide application schedule to protect
                                               against fungal diseases.




ECB: Check state sweet corn IPM reports        Early blight (Alternaria ): Use disease forecasting
for flight activity.                           system.
                                               Late blight: Use disease forecast and fungicide
                                               application recommendations provided by
                                               Cooperative Extension
                                               (http://www.umaine.edu/umext/potatoprogram/ or call
                                               hotline at: 207.760.9ipm)
.                                              Use cover crops, especially pest-suppressing crops
                                               (allelopathic), in the rotation cycle to reduce weeds
                                               and disease incidence and to improve soil quality.
Transplant to 8" within rows and 3-3.5'       Plant seed pieces 6-8" apart within rows. Plant 2-4"
between rows, allowing more space for         below soil level to prevent sunburn, but only 2" below
larger plants.                                soil level to promote rapid emergence and reduce
When using black plastic (5' wide), plant 2   risk of soil-borne diseases such as Rhizoctonia .
rows per bed with rows on each bed as far
apart as the plastic permits and 18" apart
in rows.




Strip or zone tillage may be suitable for     Strip or zone tillage may be suitable for mid- to late-
mid- to late-season varieties. Contact        season varieties. Contact Cooperative Extension for
Maine Cooperative Extension for               information.
information.
Use plastic mulch, especially if combined     CPB: Apply straw mulch around plants.
with trickle irrigation.
Aphids: Use reflective plastic mulch.


.

.                                             Weeds: Cultivate and hill using discs, rolling
                                              cultivators, or other equipment.
                                              Flea beetles: Use clean cultivation.
                                              Diseases: Rogue plants with virus symptoms.


.                                             CPB: Install plastic-lined trench next to overwintering
                                              sites to prevent (see NEVMG for more information)



.                                             Flea beetles: Use row covers.
.




.


Preserve natural enemies (lady beetles,     CPB: Conserve natural enemies such as twelve-
lacewings, spiders, syrphid fly larvae,     spotted ladybeetle, spined soldier bug, Lebia grandis
wasps, and beneficial fungi) by using       (a ground beetle), and a parasitic tachinid fly by using
selective/microbial pesticides for other    pesticides judiciously.
pests whenever possible.




Use microbial pesticides for other pests
whenever possible.



Incorporate compost before planting.        Incorporate well-conditioned compost before
                                            planting.

Aphids: Treat only when aphids are          Weeds: Use herbicides based on weed map results.
increasing and building up to high          Aphids: Treat when aphids are found on 50% of the
numbers. Treat at 5-7 day intervals if      plants or one winged aphid is found within the field.
aphids exceed 10 per leaf before leaf set   CPB: Refer to action threshold table in NEVMG.
and 5 per leaf after fruit set.             Cutworms: Spot spray damaged areas or edges of
Cutworms: Spot spray damaged areas or       the field if 1-2% of the plants have been cut down.
edges of the field if 1-2% of the plants    Flea beetles: Spot treat young plants along field
have been cut down.                         edges if 50 beetles found in sweep net.
ECB: Apply insecticides when second         Potato leafhopper: Spot treat if more than 15
generation moths become active. Make        nymphs are found per 50 leaves.
first application 1 wk after moth count     Wireworms: If present, broadcast insecticide and
equals or exceeds 7 moths/wk and fruit      incorporate into the soil or use furrow application.
are present on the plants. Discontinue      Early blight (Alternaria ): Begin applications of
sprays 1 wk after count drops below 21      fungicides if late blight is found in area or based on
moths/wk. Use shorter spray intervals       recommendations of a disease forecasting system.
during peak flights and while pheromone     Fungal diseases: Use fungicidal dust with proper
trap catches exceed 150 moths/trap.         amount of coverage to treat well-suberized cut seed
Pepper maggot: Treat at 5-8 day intervals   pieces.
when oviposition scars are detected or
when the first fly is captured.
Be aware that broad-spectrum insecticides   Thoroughly rinse (with clean water) bins or
can cause aphid and mite outbreaks by       equipment treated with quaternary compounds
reducing the populations of beneficial      before coming into contact with potatoes to be used
organisms. Use a selective insecticide      for human consumption.
                                            Aphids: Use selective or systemic insecticides for
                                            CPB to conserve pollinators and natural enemies of
                                            aphids.
                                            Green peach aphid: Good coverage of underside of
                                            leaves is needed for control. Add a spreader-sticker.
                                            CPB: Microbial pesticides such as Beauvaria
                                            bassiana and Bacillus thuringiensis tenebrionis can
                                            provide some control.


Use lowest labeled rate that is effective   Weeds: Apply herbicides based on weed map
based on label, scouting results, and       results, susceptibility of weed species to herbicide,
Extension-recommended action                and label and Extension recommendations.
thresholds for target pest.

Weeds: Use Roundup, Gramoxone, or           Weeds: May use stale seedbed technique utilizing
Scythe (stale seedbed technique) prior to   Roundup, Gramoxone, or Scythe.
transplanting.                              CPB: Plant 3-5 rows of potatoes treated with a
Cutworms: Spot spray damaged areas or       systemic insecticide in a perimeter around the fields.
edges of the field if 1-2% of the plants    Cutworms: Spot spray heavily damaged sections of
have been cut down. For best results,       the field if 1-2% of the plants have been cut down.
apply pesticides between midnight and       For best results, apply pesticides between midnight
dawn while cutworms are feeding above       and dawn while cutworms are feeding above ground.
ground.
Pepper maggot: Spot spray perimeter
trap crop of cherry peppers.




Calibrate sprayer at beginning of season    Calibrate sprayer at beginning of season and check
and check regularly during season.          regularly during season. Recalibrate after any nozzle
Recalibrate after any nozzle change. (See   change. (See reference # 8.)
reference # 8.)
To avoid resistance, do not use multiple       Rotate classes of insecticides. Do not use same
nicotinoids on the same crop. Avoid using      chemistry more than once per year, preferably every
insecticides from the same resistance          other year. Use newer chemistries first. Do not use
group more than once per year.                 same chemical class on successive generations in
                                               the same year.
                                               Use a nicotinoid group (group 4) on only 1 generation
                                               every other year. Do not use multiple nicotinoids on
                                               the same crop.




Weeds: Use a directed/shielded spray           Fusarium tuber rot: Apply pre-storage fungicide
when using any non-selective herbicide,        treatment uniformly in a fine mist or fog as tubers
such as Scythe. For hand-held equipment        pass over a roller table or bin loader.
spray to completely wet all weed foliage,      Weeds: Use a directed/shielded spray when using
but not to the point of runoff.                any non-selective herbicide, such as Scythe. For
                                               hand-held equipment spray to completely wet all
                                               weed foliage, but not to the point of runoff.




May use water-sensitive cards to monitor       May use water-sensitive cards to monitor spray
spray pattern and drift during calibration.    pattern and drift during calibration.

Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter   Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter strips to
strips to minimize chemical movement to        minimize chemical movement to sensitive areas
sensitive areas such as surface waters,        such as surface waters, schools, residences, and
schools, residences, and neighboring           neighboring crops.
crops.
Use mitigation practices as necessary in       Use mitigation practices as necessary in accordance
accordance with pest monitoring results,       with pest monitoring results, pest predictions, action
pest predictions, action thresholds, and       thresholds, and WinPST output.
WinPST output.
                 Tomato
Aphids, cabbage looper (CL), tomato
fruitworm (TFW), tomato/tobacco
hornworms (THW), Colorado potato beetle
(CPB), cutworms, flea beetles, leafminers,
slugs, stink bugs, two-spotted spider mite
(TSSM), whiteflies

Grey mold (Botrytis), leaf spots: early
blight (alternaria & Septoria leafspot,
anthracnose (Colletotrichium species), late
blight (Phytophthora infestans), powdery
mildew, white mold, Sclerotinia blight
(Sclerotinia species), Phytophthora blight
and fruit rot (P. capsici & Pythium
species), seed decay, damping-off,
bacterial canker, bacterial speck, bacterial
spot, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV),
tobacco & tomato mosiac virus (TMV,
TOMMV), tomato spotted wilt virus
(TSWV), Fusarium & Verticillium wilt

Blossom end rot, blotchy ripening,
greywall, fruit cracking




                Tomato

Use tranplants clean of aphids, whiteflies,
& thrips. Use hot water treated seed or
certified disease-free seed. Use sterile
growing media.




Flea beetles: Remove or avoid spring
weed hosts.
Slugs/Diseases: Control weeds.
Diseases: Avoid overhead irrigation to
reduce leaf wetness.
White mold/Sclerotinia/Phytophthora
blight & fruit rot : Irrigate in the morning or
use buried drip irrigation.




Use jointless varieties when available to
avoid damaging other fruit in packaging.
Disease: Avoid working in fields when
plants are wet. Avoid bringing
contaminated soil on equipment to new
land.
TMV/TOMMV: Avoid wearing soiled
clothes. Do not allow smoking or workers
to handle tobacco products while working
with plants. Wash hands after smoking
and weeding. Handle plants as little as
possible. Clean tools after use.




Late blight/leaf spots - early blight and
Septoria : Promptly plow under old tomato
fields after harvest. Eliminate cull piles.




Flea beetles/anthracnose/slugs: Control
weeds.
Late blight: Eliminate volunteer plants of
both tomato and potato.
CMV: Reduce weeds, especially
chickweed, pokeweed, & milkweed.
Transplants: Provide a complete nutrient
solution supplemented with trace
elements, (the latter especially if artifical
mixes are used). Follow directions on
fertilizer label. Use a fertilizer in which
most of the nitrogen is in nitrate form
rather than ammonium or urea. Use a
liquid starter fertilizer when transplanting.
Use a high phosphorus starter fertilizer
mixed according to label instructions.
Field Culture:
Apply lime according to soil test results to
maintain pH at 6.5-6.8. Maintain high
calcium (65-80% base saturation). Use
calcite lime or gypsum if necessary.
Reduce amount of sidedressed nitrogen
fertilizer when growing on plastic mulch,
apply when laying plastic. Refer to
NEVMG for nitrogen amounts when using
fertigation.
Use less nitrogen fertilizer if manure or
legume sod was plowed down.
Blossom end rot/blotchy ripening/greywall:
Use nitrate forms (no urea or ammonium
sources) when sidedressing nitrogen.
Avoid excessive levels of potassium.
Leaf spots - early blight & Septoria :
Provide optimum nutrition throughout
season.
White mold/Sclerotinia : Avoid excessive
Heirloom varieties: Use rotation to
prevent disease as most varieties are not
resistant.
Disease: Rotate out of tomatoes for at
least 2 years.
White mold/Sclerotinia blight: Rotate with
corn or other grass species.
Grow in well-drained soils high in organic
matter.
CPB: Do not transplant to fields
previously planted to potato or eggplant.
Slugs: Grow plants away from moist
shaded habitats.
TSSM: Avoid weedy fields and do not
plant adjacent to legume forage crops.
Anthracnose: Rotate non-host crops at
least every other year.
Phytophthora blight & fruit rot: Prepare
soil & beds to enhance drainage. Avoid
planting in low areas.
CMV: Isolate tomato fields from cucurbits,
especially where there is history of CMV.
TSWV: Do not raise tomato, pepper,
eggplant, or cauliflower in same
greenhouse as ornamentals.



Late blight/TMV/TOMMV: Use resistant
cultivars where available.

Tomato 11




Flea beetles: Plant Italian or Oriental
eggplant around tomato field.
Aphids: Monitor growing tips & under leaf
surfaces.
Cutworms: Scout fields weekly checking
at least 100 plants for fruit feeding.
Monitor with blacklight trap or yellow &
white Unitrap from July through
September.
Flea beetles: Sweep young plants along
field edges 25 times.
Slugs: Slugs: Look for slivery slime trails
on leaves or turn over soil clods or debris
to find slugs during daylight hours. May
use shallow pans of beer or unbaited pitfall
traps for monitoring populations.
TSWV: Monitor thrips and control as
necessary.




Leaf spots - early blight & Septoria : Utilize
weather forecasting system.




Anthracnose/Leaf spots - early blight &
Septoria : Apply fungicides according to a
disease forecasting system.




Use cover crops, especially pest-
suppressing crops (allelopathic), in the
rotation cycle to reduce weeds and
disease incidence and to improve soil
quality.
Transplants: Place on greenhouse bench
so leaves do not touch or overlap during
growing period.
Field culture:
Trellised - 6-7' between double row
centers, 14-18" between plants, 18-24"
between pairs of rows.
Staked - 12-18" apart in rows when
pruning to a single stem, 18-24" apart
when pruning to two stems, 5' between
rows.
Stake & weave - 5-6" between rows, 18-
24" between plants.
Ground - For small-vined (determinate)
varieties, 4-6' between rows, 12-24"
between plants; for large-vined
(indeterminate) varieties, 5-7' between
rows, 2-3' between plants.
Anthracnose/Phytophthora blight & fruit
rot: Stake plants to reduce fruit contact
with soil.
Strip or zone tillage may be suitable for
mid- to late-season varieties. Contact
Cooperative Extension for information.


Apply black plastic mulch when soil is at or
near moisture capacity.
Anthracnose/Phytophthora blight & fruit
rot: Use mulch to reduce fruit contact with
soil.


Flea beetles/disease: Use clean
cultivation.
Slugs: Handpick or crush. Scatter baits
on ground near infested plants.


Sclerotinia : Sterilize soil using chemical,
steam, or heat treatments (solarization).



Flea beetles: Use row covers.
Phytophthora blight & fruit rot: Prepare soil
& beds to enhance drainage. Avoid
planting in low areas.



.


Tomato/tobacco hornworms: Conserve
natural enemies such as the braconid
wasp. Move caterpillars covered with
numerous white wasp pupae to a plant
that will not be sprayed. Use other
selective insecticides to preserve natural
enemies and avoid secondary pest
outbreaks.
Tomato hornworm: Use microbial
products (Bt, spinosad).
TSSM: May release predatory mite,
Phytoseiulus persimilis, as preventive
measure.
Incorporate compost before planting.


Aphids: Treat when aphids exceed 6 per
leaf.
Tomato hornworm: Spot-treat areas of
the field with severe defoliation. Use
insect growth regulators, microbial
products (Bt, spinosad), or other selective
insecticides to preserve natural enemies
and avoid secondary pest outbreaks.
Cutworms: Treat if 1% of plants are
infested with variegated cutworms. Make
application after dark, thoroughly covering
upper & lower foliage..
Flea beetles: Spot treat young plants
along field edges if 50 beetles found in
sweep net.
Leaf spots: early blight & Septoria: If
planting in an area with a history of either
disease, begin fungicide application before
disease is evident, usually when first fruit
are half grown or approximately the first
week in July.
Avoid early-season, broad-spectrum
insecticides to conserve natural enemies
of TSSM.
Use selective pesticides whenever
possible.




Use lowest labeled rate that is effective
based on label, scouting results, and
Extension-recommended action
thresholds for target pest.

Weeds: May use stale seedbed technique
utilizing Roundup, Gramoxone, or Scythe.
Tomato hornworm: Spot-treat areas of
the field with severe defoliation.
Slugs: Scatter baits on ground near
infested plants. Apply around perimeter,
scatter around base of plant, or band
down rows as appropriate.




Calibrate sprayer at beginning of season
and check regularly during season.
Recalibrate after any nozzle change. (See
reference # 8.)
Use a nicotinoid group (group 4) on only 1
generation every other year. Do not use
multiple nicotinoids on the same crop.
TSSM: Alternate between products after 2
applications to help prevent or delay
resistance.
Grey mold: Use a diversity of fungicides
with different modes of action.




Weeds: Use a directed/shielded spray
when using any non-selective herbicide,
such as Scythe. For hand-held equipment
spray to completely wet all weed foliage,
but not to the point of runoff.




May use water-sensitive cards to monitor
spray pattern and drift during calibration.

Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter
strips to minimize chemical movement to
sensitive areas such as surface waters,
schools, residences, and neighboring
crops.
Use mitigation practices as necessary in
accordance with pest monitoring results,
pest predictions, action thresholds, and
WinPST output.
Root & Bulb Family
                          Common Root & Bulb Family:                       Asparagus
                                        Major Pests:          Asparagus aphids, asparagus miner,
                                                              cutworms, asparagus beetle/ Japanese
                                                              beetle

                                          Major Diseases:     Crown rot, rust, botrytis blight




                                                Disorders:




Principle                    Practices                                        Asparagus

            Use certified pest-free seeds and pest-free       Buy top quality crowns.
            transplants where available. (Example:            For starting transplants, use sterilized
            Purchase certified seed and ensure plants are     medium of half sand and half peat or use a
            free of insects, diseases, and weeds before       pest-free commercial seed starting mix.
            transplanting.)                                   Ensure plants are free of insects,
                                                              diseases, and weeds before transplanting.




            Prevent weeds from going to seed. (Example:       Cultivate, pull, mow, flame, etc.
            Cultivate, pull, mow, flame, etc.)

            Reduce moisture on plant surfaces to prevent      Botrytis blight: Reduce humidity within the
            disease incidence. (Example: Use drip             plant canopy by using proper watering
            irrigation or avoid overhead irrigation between   practices and spacing of plants.
            6 p.m. and midnight to minimize disease.)
             Employ methods to avoid spreading pests          Work crop when dry, work infested fields
             (pathogens, weeds, and insects). (Example:       last, wash equipment between fields.
             Work crop when dry, work infested fields last,
             wash equipment between fields, etc.)




             Destroy and/or remove crop residues for field    Disk old ferns lightly in the fall. Remove
             sanitation procedures. Include fall tillage      debris around plants.
PREVENTION




             where appropriate to control weeds and break
             pest cycles. (Example: Plow under corn refuse
             in the fall to control European corn borer.)

             Eliminate unmanaged plants that serve as         Remove female plants.
             pest reservoirs, such as abandoned crops,
             volunteers from previous crop, or weed hosts
             of viruses.
P           Test soil or plant tissue annually to determine    Apply lime according to soil test to
            proper fertility and pH levels for crop and time   maintain soil pH at 6.8 to 7.0
            application according to crop needs. Apply         For new beds: One year before planting
            nutrients, fertilizers, and pH-adjusting agents    deeply incorporate lime to insure proper
            according to recommendations.                      pH at crown depth.
                                                               Apply phosphorus fertilizer to the bottom of
                                                               the furrow at planting time.
                                                               Apply less nitrogen fertilizer if manure or
                                                               legume sod was plowed down.
                                                               Refer to NEVMG for plant nutrient
                                                               recommendations.




            Rotate crops that break the pest cycle. Do not     Use new land or land where asparagus
            plant crops from the same family at less than      has not been grown for 10 years.
            recommended intervals for the identified
            pest(s).
AVOIDANCE
            Match crops to appropriate sites to optimize      Select soils that are deep and well drained,
            plant health and avoid known pests.               such as sandy loams or well-drained
            (Example: Avoid planting crops susceptible to     loams. Try to avoid areas subject to late
            fungal diseases in low wet fields.)               spring frosts as emerging spears are easily
                                                              injured.
AVOIDANCE




            Choose pest-resistant cultivars. (Example:        Use hybrids tolerant of Fusarium crown or
            Plant virus and powdery mildew resistant vine     root rot. See NEVMG for resistant
            crops.)                                           varieties.
                                                              (Jersey Giant seems to be more tolerant to
                                                              asparagus miner than other varieties.)

            Adjust planting dates and select cultivars with   .
            maturity dates that allow avoidance of early or
            late-season pests. (Example: Plant cucurbits
            after early season striped cucumber beetle
            activity, delay planting of brassica crops to
            avoid cabbage maggots.)

            Use and manage trap crops to protect main         .
            crop from insect pests and insect-vectored
            diseases.
             Monitor for pests as recommended for each         Asparagus aphids: Monitor weekly
             crop. If no monitoring guidelines available,      throughout growing season. During
             monitor weekly to determine presence,             September and October look for eggs on
             density, and locations of pests and to            lower portion of ferns.
             determine crop growth stage. **Record             Aparagus miner: Monitor weekly mid-May
             findings. Record keeping is required**.           to late June and early August to late
             (Example: Scout crops and use other               September.
             appropriate monitoring aids such as               Cutworm caterpillars: Scout weekly
             pheromone traps, disease diagnostic tests,        checking at least 100 plants for crooks
             etc. Map weeds in the fall to help plan where     (misshaped spears). Black cutworms:
             specific measures may be needed to target         Monitor adults with a yellow and white
             problem weeds the following spring. Utilize       Unitrap March through May. Monitor
             University of Maine Cooperative Extension         during June if catch over 40 moths.
             pest monitoring data from newsletters and         Variegated cutworms: Monitor adults with
             websites.)                                        blacklight trap or yellow and white Unitrap
                                                               from July to September.
                                                               Japanese or asparagus beetles: Scout
MONITORING




                                                               weekly on sunny afternoons for adults and
                                                               eggs.




             Use on-farm weather monitoring devices to         .
             measure precipitation, humidity, temperature,
             and leaf wetness and/or use commercial
             weather prediction service for prevention and
             control of plant diseases. (Example: Install
             weather station with rain gauge, hygrometer,
             maximum and minimum temperature
             recording equipment, leaf wetness sensors.)

             Use pest-forecasting tools (e.g., computer        UMCE IPM weather forecast or similar
             modeling software) as additional guides for on-
             farm pest monitoring activities in conjunction
             with weather data to predict risk of pest
             infestation.
             Use cover crops, especially pest-suppressing      .
             crops (allelopathic), in the rotation cycle to
             reduce weeds and disease incidence and to
             improve soil quality.
                                 Plant using appropriate within- and between-      Plant healthy one-year-old crowns in
                                 row spacing optimal for crop, site, and row       furrows about 6 to 8” deep. Space crowns
                                 orientation. (Example: Use row spacing and        12” apart in rows 54” to 60” apart.
                                 plant densities that assure rapid canopy
                                 closure.)




                                 Use reduced tillage and other residue             .
CULTURAL AND PHYSICAL CONTROLS




                                 management practices to suppress weeds
                                 and maintain soil organic matter as
                                 appropriate for crop.
                                 Use mulches including plastic or reflective       .
                                 mulches for insect or weed control.
         SUPPRESSION




                                 Inter-seed cover crop within or between rows      .
                                 to suppress weeds.

                                 Use mechanical pest controls. (Examples:          Mow and shallowly disc (no deeper than 2-
                                 Cultivate, mow, hoe, and hand remove insects      3") brush in early sping before spear
                                 and weeds, prune diseased or insect-infested      emergence.
                                 plants, remove diseased plants.)                  Control weeds during the first season by
                                                                                   slowly filling in trenches during the season.
                                                                                   Time cultivations with flushes of weeds.
                                                                                   Can disc beds after harvest prior to
                                                                                   herbicide application.

                                 Use physical pest controls and deterrents.        .
                                 (Example: Use flame weeding or other heat
                                 methods for insect, disease, and weed
                                 control; noise-makers; reflectors; ribbons; and
                                 predator models.)
                                 Use exclusion devices for insects or wildlife.    .
                                 (Examples: Use synthetic row covers and/or
                                 fencing.)



                                 Maintain or improve soil aeration and drainage    Use tile drainage, sub soiling, grassed
                                 to avoid standing water and minimize plant        waterways, raised beds, and organic
                                 disease. (Example: Use tile drainage, sub         matter additions. Avoid planting in low and
                                 soiling, grassed waterways, raised beds, and      wet spots in field.
                                 organic matter additions. Avoid planting in low
                                 and wet spots in field.)
                      Use insect mating disruption devices, if            .
                      available. (Example: Use pheromone laminate
                      clip-ons or rings for tomato pinworm.)

                      Conserve naturally occurring biological             Select pesticides and time applications to
                      controls. (Example: Select pesticides and time      minimize impact on pollinators and natural
                      applications to minimize impact on beneficials,     enemies of aphids: lady beetles,
BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS




                      use floral perimeter crop to attract and support    lacewings, predatory midges, flower fly
                      beneficial insects.)                                larvae, the Braconid wasp, Diaeretiella
    SUPPRESSION




                                                                          rapea , and parasitic fungi.
                                                                          Use floral perimeter crop to attract and
                                                                          support these insects.


                      Release beneficial organisms where                  .
                      appropriate. (Example: release predatory
                      mites for control of two-spotted mites and
                      thrips.)
                      Use compost as a soil amendment to increase         Incorporate compost before planting.
                      biological diversity in soil and plant health and
                      suppress plant disease.



                      Minimize chemical use. Use in conjunction           Weed-control: Base on previous year's
                      with accurate pest identification and               weed map, and/or pest scouting records.
                      monitoring, action thresholds, alternative          Aphids: Treat ferns twice, about 10 days
                      suppression tactics (biological, cultural, etc),    apart, with a systemic insecticide.
                      and judgments based on previous year's weed         Asparagus/Japanese beetles: Treat
                      map and/or pest scouting records. (Example:         spears if greater than 10% of the plants
                      Use pheromone traps to monitor for corn             are infested with beetles or 1-2% have
                      earworm in sweet corn.)                             eggs or damage. Treat ferns if 50-75% are
                                                                          infested.




                      Select pesticides, formulations, and adjuvants      Asparagus/Japanese beetles: Use
                      based on least negative effects on                  selective inseticides on ferns.
                      environment, beneficials (e.g., pollinators,        Select appropriate biological and other low-
                      predators, parasites), and human health in          risk pesticides that are registered for use
                      addition to efficacy and economics.                 in Maine and recommended for the crop
                                                                          per New England Extension
                                                                          recommendations.
                    Use lowest labeled rate that is effective based      .
                    on label, scouting results, and Extension-
                    recommended action thresholds for target
                    pest.



                    Limit applications to partial fields or banding to   Asparagus beetle/ Japanese beetle: Spot
                    reduce quantity or impact of pesticide.              spray along edges of planting where
                    (Example: Spot treat where pests are found or        overwintering adults colonize the field
                    use banding, seed, edge or field                     and/or band insecticide over the row to
                    perimeter/border treatments.)                        help spare natural enemies.
CHEMICAL CONTROLS
   SUPPRESSION




                    Calibrate sprayers or applicators prior to use       Calibrate sprayer at beginning of season
                    to verify amount of material applied.                and check regularly during season.
                                                                         Recalibrate after any nozzle change. (See
                                                                         reference # 8.)



                    Use pesticide-resistance management                  Use pesticide-resistance management
                    strategies as appropriate and where required         strategies where required acording to label
                    on pesticide label. (Example: Alternate              instructions.
                    applications of chemicals with different modes
                    of action to avoid development of pest
                    resistance or leave part of crop unsprayed to
                    serve as a refuge for susceptible pests and
                    natural enemies.)
                    Use specialized pesticide application                Weeds: Use a directed/shielded spray
                    equipment to increase efficiency and reduce          when using any non-selective herbicide,
                    chemical drift. (Examples: Use wiper                 such as Scythe. For hand-held equipment
                    applicators, digitally controlled adjustable tool    spray to completely wet all weed foliage,
                    bars, direct injection sprayers, double-drop         but not to the point of runoff.
                    sprayers, laser guided precision sprayers,
                    direct injection, low-drift nozzles, shielded
                    applicators or air induction booms, built-in
                    tank washers, etc.)
Use spray-monitoring equipment. (Example:          May use water-sensitive cards to monitor
Use water-sensitive cards to measure spray         spray pattern and drift during calibration.
pattern and drift.)


Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter       Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter
strips to minimize chemical movement to            strips to minimize chemical movement to
sensitive areas such as surface waters,            sensitive areas such as surface waters,
schools, residences, and neighboring crops.        schools, residences, and neighboring
                                                   crops.



Use mitigation practices as necessary in           Use mitigation practices as necessary in
accordance with pest monitoring results, pest      accordance with pest monitoring results,
predictions, action thresholds, and WinPST         pest predictions, action thresholds, and
output.                                            WinPST output.




NOTE: Additional pesticide use
requirements from the 595 Practice
Standard:
> Always follow all pesticide label instructions
and environmental cautions.
 > Store, handle, transport, mix, use, and
dispose of pesticides and pesticide containers
per Maine Board of Pesticides Control
recommendations and regulations.
> Follow state and federal worker protection
standards.
> When drawing water for pesticide mixing
from any surface waters of the state, use anti-
siphoning devices and do not use hoses that
have been in contact with pesticides.
> Do not mix or load pesticides within 50 ft
from the high water mark of any surface
waters of the state.
Pesticide applicator must be properly licensed
and certified when using restricted use
pesticides or when doing custom pesticide
applications for hire. Contact Maine Board of
Pesticides Control for license and certification
requirements.
        Beet & Swiss Chard                  Carrot & Parsnip                          Garlic
Aphids, leafminers, margined          Carrot rust fly, carrot weevil,      Onion thrips
blister beetle (most common blister   cutworms, leafhoppers
beetle), cabbage maggot, flea
beetles, leafhoppers, slugs
Leaf spots, blights, downy mildew     Leaf blight (cercospora,             Damping-off (Pythium) , seed
                                      septoria, or alternaria),            rot (Rhizoctonia ), downey
                                      Xanthomonas leaf blight, root-       mildew, purple blotch, white
                                      knot nematode, parsnip blight,       rot, Fusarium , Penicillium ,
                                      aster yellows, sore head             Botrytis rot
                                      (parsnip only), root & crown rot




     Beets & Swiss Chard                    Carrot & Parsnip                          Garlic

Buy treated seeds to prevent seed     Use certified, disease-free seed     Fusarium/Penicillium /white
decay.                                or treat seed with hot water or      rot/Botrytis rot: Select the
                                      fungicides.                          largest bulbs, and plant only
                                                                           those that show no sign of
                                                                           injury or disease.
                                                                           Purchase pathogen-free
                                                                           seed and bulbs or treat seed
                                                                           with hot water or fungicides.

Use clean cultivation.                Use stale seedbed technique          Use shallow cultivation to
                                      employing flaming.                   avoid damage to garlic roots.

Reduce humidity within the plant      Leaf blight: Irrigate early in the   Irrigate during during dry
canopy by using proper watering       day to allow foliage to dry          periods. Avoid organic
practices and spacing of plants.      quickly.                             mulches in wet seasons as
                                                                           may encourage rot.
                                                                           Onion thrips: Use overhead
                                                                           irigation to lower populations
                                                                           quickly.
                                                                           Downey mildew: Avoid
                                                                           overhead irrigation.
Work crop when dry, work infested   Root and crown rot: Avoid         White rot: sanitize boots,
fields last, wash equipment         cultivating late in the season.   tools, and equipment
between fields                                                        between fields.




Plow under or remove crop residue   Aster yellows: Destroy residues   Plow under or remove crop
after harvest.                      from susceptible crops            residue after harvest.
                                    immediately after harvest.        White rot: Destroy infected
                                                                      plants.


Eliminate unmanaged plants that     Sore head ( parsley only) :       White rot: May winter flood.
serve as pest reservoirs, such as   Control wild Apiaceae plant       Soil solarization is not
abandoned crops and volunteers      hosts.                            recommended for Maine.
from previous crop.
Apply lime according to soil test to   Apply lime according to soil test     Soil pH should be maintained
maintain soil pH at 6.5 to 6.8.        to maintain soil pH at 6.5 to 6.8.    in the range of 6.2-7.0.
Apply less nitrogen fertilizer if      Maintain high calcium level to        Follow soil test P and K
manure or legume sod was plowed        avoid cavity spot.                    recommedations for onions
down.                                  Plow down legume sod to               in NEVMG. Without a soil
Refer to NEVMG for plant nutrient      reduce need for sidedress             test, garlic is generally
recommendations.                       nitrogen.                             fertilzed with N-P-K in a 1-2-
To prevent boron deficiency, apply     If large amounts of potassium         2 ratio. Apply about 40 lb/A
2 lb boron/A (10 lb Solubor, 20 lb     are needed, or if soils are highly    of preplant nitrogen and a
borax) with the broadcast fertilizer   leachable, apply some of the          single N sidedressing of
application. Make sure that the next   potassium with first nitrogen         about 30 lb/A when tops are
crop in the rotation schedule is not   sidedressing application.             about 6" high.
sensitive to boron residue.            If soil type or other factors limit
                                       potential to a lower yield,
                                       reduce fertilizer application
                                       accordingly.
                                       Refer to NEVMG for plant
                                       nutrient recommendations.




.                                      Rotate with nonsusceptible/non-       Thrips: Do not plant garlic
                                       host crops on a 2-3 year cycle.       near other Allium, alfalfa,
                                                                             cereal crops, clover,
                                                                             curcurbits, or brassica crops.
                                                                             Fusarium /downy
                                                                             mildew/white rot/Botyrtis
                                                                             blight/purple blotch: Rotate
                                                                             with non-host crops on a 3-4
                                                                             year rotation.
Beets: Plant in deep, friable, well-   Plant in deep, well-drained         Avoid planting in low wet
drained sandy loams to silt loams.     sandy loam soils. (Deep beds        fields.
Slugs: Avoid moist, shaded             achieved via raised beds, chisel
habitats.                              plowing, rototilling.)
                                       Sore head: Plant parsley on
                                       raised beds in well-drained soil.
                                       Aster yellows: Avoid fields near
                                       pastures or river banks that
                                       harbor susceptible vegetation.




.                                      Plant resistant or tolerant         Use disease-resistant or
                                       varieties where available.          tolerant varieties.




.                                      Carrot rust fly: Delay planting     .
                                       (mid-May).




.                                      .                                   .
Monitor weekly.                         Cutworm caterpillars: Scout         If no monitoring guidelines
Slugs: Scout in daylight for            weekly checking at least 100       available, monitor weekly to
shredded foliage, fruit holes, and      plants for stem damage. May        determine presence, density,
silvery slime trails. May use shallow   also scout between midnight        and locations of pests and to
pans of beer or unbaited pitfall        and dawn when cutworms feed.       determine crop growth stage.
traps for monitoring populations.       Black cutworms: Monitor adults     **Record findings. Record
                                        with a yellow and white Unitrap    keeping is required**.
                                        March through May. Monitor
                                        during June if catch over 40
                                        moths. Variegated cutworms:
                                        Monitor adults with blacklight
                                        trap or yellow and white Unitrap
                                        from July to September.
                                        Leafhoppers: Scout in late July
                                        and early August.
                                        Nematode populations: Monitor
                                        soils.
                                        Sore head (parsley only) :
                                        Monitor near maturity and
                                        harvest affected fields early.




.                                       .                                  Follow a fungicide spraying
                                                                           program based on climatic
                                                                           conditions.




Use Cucurbit Downey Mildew              .                                  Follow a fungicide spraying
Weather Forecaster                                                         program based on disease
                                                                           forecasts.


Beets: Plant cover crops or green       Root and crown rot: Avoid          Plant cover crops or green
manure crops to suppress weeds          crops such as alfalfa and          manure crops to suppress
and maintain organic content of         legume cover crops which can       weeds and maintain organic
soil.                                   increase disease risk.             content of soil.
Beets: Seed 1/4” to 1/2” deep in        Carrots: 15 plants per foot of     Space garlic cloves 4-6"
rows 12-18" apart. Thin to one plant    row                                apart in the row, with rows 18-
2” to 3” apart within the row.          Parsnips: 8-10 plants per foot     24" apart, or in rows that
Chard: Seed 1/4” to 1/2” deep in        of row                             accommodate cultivation
rows 12” to 24” apart. Thin to one      Carrots & parsnips: Sow 1/2 -      equipment.
plant every 4” to 8”.                   3/4" deep in rows 12-18" apart     Orient rows in same direction
                                        Leaf blight: Use wider plant       as prevailing winds.
                                        spacing and/or raised beds to
                                        improve air circulation.
                                        Sore head (parsley only):
                                        Protect roots by covering
                                        crowns and exposed upper
                                        roots with soil.

Strip or zone tillage may be suitable   Strip or zone tillage may be       Strip or zone tillage may be
for mid- to late-season varieties.      suitable for mid- to late-season   suitable for mid- to late-
Contact Maine Cooperative               varieties. Contact Maine           season varieties. Contact
Extension for information.              Cooperative Extension for          Maine Cooperative
.                                       .                                  .

Inter-seed cover crop within or         Inter-seed cover crop within or    Inter-seed cover crop within
between rows to suppress weeds.         between rows to suppress           or between rows to suppress
                                        weeds.                             weeds.
Use clean cultivation. Control          Cultivate, mow, hoe, and/or        Use shallow cultivation to
weeds.                                  hand remove insects and            avoid damage to garlic roots.
Slugs: Hand pick/crush                  weeds, prune diseased or
                                        insect-infested plants, remove
                                        diseased plants.




.                                       .                                  .




Cabbage maggot: Manage using            .                                  .
spunbonded row covers.




Use tile drainage, sub soiling,         Use tile drainage, sub soiling,    Use tile drainage, sub
grassed waterways, raised beds,         grassed waterways, raised          soiling, grassed waterways,
and organic matter additions. Avoid     beds, and organic matter           raised beds, and organic
planting in low and wet spots in        additions. Avoid planting in low   matter additions. Avoid
field.                                  and wet spots in field.            planting in low and wet spots
                                                                           in field.
.                                       .                                   .



Select pesticides and time              .                                   Onion thrips: Preserve
applications to minimize impact on                                          natural enemies (lacewing
pollinators and natural enemies of                                          larvae, pirate bugs, and
aphids: lady beetles, lacewings,                                            predatory thrips) and
predatory midges, flower fly larvae,                                        pollinators.
the Braconid wasp, Diaeretiella
rapea, and parasitic fungi.



.                                       .                                   .



Beets: Maintain high organic            Incorporate compost before          Incorporate compost before
content in soil with composted          planting.                           planting.
manure. Organic matter should be
well decomposed to avoid scab
problems with beets.
Cabbage maggot: No insecticides         Cutworms: Use synthetic             Begin application of
currently registered.                   pyrethroids during cool spring      pesticides when damage is
Leafminers: Treat when eggs or          weather for best results.           first noticed. Repeat
first tiny mines are noticed. Repeat    Leafhoppers: Scout in late July     applications at 7-10 day
in 7-10 days. Critical periods - mid-   and early August before             intervals. Use a shorter
May, late June, mid-August.             treating. Make applications at 7-   interval in hot, dry weather.
                                        10 day intervals.                   Apply in the early evening.
                                        Leaf blight: Apply fungicides       Treat seed and soil with
                                        based on a disease forecasting      fungicides.
                                        system.                             White rot: Spot treat the soil
                                                                            around infected plants with
                                                                            fumigants.




Select appropriate biological and       Select appropriate biological       Onion thrips: Use a
other low-risk pesticides that are      and other low-risk pesticides       spreader-sticker.
registered for use in Maine and         that are registered for use in
recommended for the crop per New        Maine and recommended for
England Extension                       the crop per New England
recommendations.                        Extension recommendations.
.                                        .                                  .




Slugs: Scatter baits on the ground       Carrots only: Use stale seedbed    Weeds: Use stale seedbed
near infested plants.                    technique utilizing Roundup,       technique if utilizing
                                         Gramoxone, or Scythe.              Roundup 4S or Scythe.
                                         Limit applications of pesticides
                                         to in-furrow or banding where
                                         applicable.
                                         Cutworms: For best results,
                                         apply pesticides between
                                         midnight and dawn while
                                         cutworms are feeding above
                                         ground.



Calibrate sprayer at beginning of        Calibrate sprayer at beginning     Calibrate sprayer at
season and check regularly during        of season and check regularly      beginning of season and
season. Recalibrate after any            during season. Recalibrate         check regularly during
nozzle change. (See reference #          after any nozzle change. (See      season. Recalibrate after
8.)                                      reference # 8.)                    any nozzle change. (See
                                                                            reference # 8.)

Use pesticide-resistance                 Use pesticide-resistance           Do not use same funigicide
management strategies where              management strategies where        throughout growing season.
required acording to label               required acording to label         May use soil fumigation
instructions.                            instructions.                      procedure.




Weeds: Use a directed/shielded           Weeds: Use a                       Weeds: Use a
spray when using any non-selective       directed/shielded spray when       directed/shielded spray when
herbicide, such as Scythe. For           using any non-selective            using any non-selective
hand-held equipment spray to             herbicide, such as Scythe. For     herbicide, such as Scythe.
completely wet all weed foliage, but     hand-held equipment spray to       For hand-held equipment
not to the point of runoff.              completely wet all weed foliage,   spray to completely wet all
Blister beetles: Control with a single   but not to the point of runoff.    weed foliage, but not to the
spot spray using a broad-spectrum                                           point of runoff.
insecticide registered for flea
beetles on these crops.
May use water-sensitive cards to        May use water-sensitive cards     May use water-sensitive
monitor spray pattern and drift         to monitor spray pattern and      cards to monitor spray
during calibration.                     drift during calibration.         pattern and drift during
                                                                          calibration.

Use vegetative buffers, set-backs,      Use vegetative buffers, set-      Use vegetative buffers, set-
or filter strips to minimize chemical   backs, or filter strips to        backs, or filter strips to
movement to sensitive areas such        minimize chemical movement        minimize chemical
as surface waters, schools,             to sensitive areas such as        movement to sensitive areas
residences, and neighboring crops.      surface waters, schools,          such as surface waters,
                                        residences, and neighboring       schools, residences, and
                                        crops.                            neighboring crops.

Use mitigation practices as             Use mitigation practices as       Use mitigation practices as
necessary in accordance with pest       necessary in accordance with      necessary in accordance
monitoring results, pest predictions,   pest monitoring results, pest     with pest monitoring results,
action thresholds, and WinPST           predictions, action thresholds,   pest predictions, action
output.                                 and WinPST output.                thresholds, and WinPST
                                                                          output.
           Leek                           Onion                              Radish
Onion thrips                     Cutworms, mites, onion           Cabbage maggot, cutworms,
                                 maggot, onion thrips             flea beetle


Damping-off (Pythium ), seed     Botrytis leaf blight, neck rot   Seed decay, Alternaria leaf
rot (Rhizoctonia ), downey       (Botrytis ), downy mildew        spot, downy mildew, white
mildew, purple blotch, white     (Peronospora ), Purple Blotch    rust, white blister
rot,                             (Alternaria porri ,
                                 Stemphylium vesicarium )




           Leek                             Onion                            Radish

Purchase pathogen-free           Use pest-free seeds and          Alternaria leaf spot: Buy
seed and transplants or treat    bulbs and pest-free              certified disease-free seed or
seed with hot water or           transplants.                     hot-water treat seed.
fungicides.




Shallowly cultivate.             Shallowly cultivate.             Shallowly cultivate.


Avoid organic mulches in wet     Irrigate early in the day to     Maintain high level of soil
seasons as may encourage         enhance rapid drying of          moisture.
rot.                             foliage. Irrigate regularly,     Downy mildew: For
Onion thrips: Use overhead       especially in dry years.         transplants, irrigate early in
irigation to lower populations   Onion thrips: Employ             the day and improve air
quickly.                         overhead irrigation to quickly   circulation.
Downey mildew: Avoid             lower populations.
overhead irrigation.
Work crop when dry, work       White rot: Sanitize boots,     Work crop when dry, work
infested fields last, wash     tools, and equipment           infested fields last, wash
equipment between fields       between fields.                equipment between fields.




Plow under or remove crop      Onion maggot: Remove cull      Alternaria leaf spot: Plow
residue after harvest.         piles.                         under crop debris in the fall.
White rot: Destroy infected    Botrytis blight: Plow under
plants.                        crop residues after harvest.


White rot: May winter flood.   Downey mildew/Botrytis         Eliminate unmanaged plants
Soil solarization is not       blight: Remove volunteer       that serve as pest reservoirs,
recommended for Maine.         onion plants and wild Allium   such as abandoned crops
                               species.                       and volunteers from previous
                                                              crop.
Apply lime according to soil      Apply lime according to soil     Apply lime according to soil
test results to maintain soil     test results to maintain soil    test results to maintain pH at
pH at 6.5-6.8.                    pH at 6.5-6.8.                   6.5-6.8.
If magnesium level is high, a     If magnesium level is high, a    Apply less nitrogen fertiilizer if
lime high in calcium (calcitic    lime high in calcium (calcitic   manure or legume sod was
lime) should be used to           lime) should be used to          plowed down.
maintain a high calcium level.    maintain a high calcium level.   Refer to NEVMG for plant
Avoid excesive nitrogen           Avoid excesive nitrogen          nutrient recommendations.
fertilization.                    fertilization. Apply less        White rust / white blister:
Apply less nitrogen fertiilizer   nitrogen fertiilizer if manure   Maintain proper fertility levels,
if manure or legume sod was       or legume sod was plowed         especially of phosphorus and
plowed down.                      down.                            potassium.
For mild-flavored onions,         Refer to NEVMG for plant
maintain soil sulfur levels       nutrient recommendations.
between 35-55 lb/A.               For mild-flavored onions,
                                  maintain soil sulfur levels
                                  between 35-55 lb/A.




Thrips: Do not plant garlic       Thrips: Do not plant garlic      Rotate yearly with
near other Allium, alfalfa,       near other Allium, alfalfa,      noncruciferous crops.
cereal crops, clover,             cereal crops, clover,
curcurbits, or brassica crops.    curcurbits, or brassica crops.
Fusarium /downy                   Fusarium /downy
mildew/white rot/Botyrtis         mildew/white rot/Botyrtis
blight/purple blotch: Rotate      blight/purple blotch: Rotate
with non-host crops on a 3-4      with non-host crops on a 3-4
year rotation.                    year rotation.
Avoid planting in low wet   Plant in medium to light loam   Plant in raised beds
fields.                     soils with good drainage.
                            Select sites to enhance rapid
                            drying of foliage.
                            Plant only long-day or
                            intermediate-day types which
                            are recommended for New
                            England.
                            Onion thrips: Avoid planting
                            onions near alfalfa, clover,
                            cucurbits or Brassica crops
                            that can harbor large
                            populations.

Use disease-resistant or    Plant varieties less            Downy mildew / white rust /
tolerant varieties.         susceptible to Botrytis.        white blister: Plant resistant
                            Purple blotch: Avoid planting   or tolerant cultivars.
                            Sweet Spanish onion.


.                           .                               .




.                           .                               .
 If no monitoring guidelines    Cutworm caterpillars: Scout      Cutworm caterpillars: Scout
available, monitor weekly to    weekly checking at least 100     weekly checking at least 100
determine presence, density,    plants for crooks (misshaped     plants for crooks (misshaped
and locations of pests and to   spears). Black cutworms:         spears). Black cutworms:
determine crop growth stage.    Monitor adults with a yellow     Monitor adults with a yellow
**Record findings. Record       and white Unitrap March          and white Unitrap March
keeping is required**.          through May. Monitor during      through May. Monitor during
                                June if catch over 40 moths.     June if catch over 40 moths.
                                Variegated cutworms:             Variegated cutworms:
                                Monitor adults with blacklight   Monitor adults with blacklight
                                trap or yellow and white         trap or yellow and white
                                Unitrap from July to             Unitrap from July to
                                September.                       September.
                                Onion thrips: Scout plants
                                along field margins where
                                infestations build early.




Follow a fungicide spraying     .                                .
program based on climatic
conditions.




Follow a fungicide spraying     Use disease forecast system      .
program based on disease        (e.g. BOTCAST, Downy
forecasts.                      Mildew Forecaster)


Plant cover crops or green      Plant cover crops or green       Plant cover crops or green
manure crops to suppress        manure crops to suppress         manure crops to suppress
weeds and maintain organic      weeds and maintain organic       weeds and maintain organic
content of soil.                content of soil.                 content of soil.
Place plants 3-6" apart in        Avoid close planting and          Seed radish 1/4-1/2" deep,
rows 15-30" apart depending       orient rows in the direction of   spaced at 3/4-1" apart within
on equipment.                     prevailing winds.                 the row (to obtain 12-15
Orient rows in same direction     Plant 4 rows per bed, 9-18"       plants /ft of row). Space rows
as prevailing winds.              between rows, 3-4" apart          8-15" apart. If using raised
                                  within rows. For direct           beds, plant in 4 ft wide bed
                                  seeding, aim for a stand of 6-    with 6 rows/bed.
                                  9 plants/ft. Can increase to 9-
                                  12 plants/ft if double shoe
                                  precision seeders are used.




Strip or zone tillage may be      Strip or zone tillage may be      Strip or zone tillage may be
suitable for mid- to late-        suitable for mid- to late-        suitable for mid- to late-
season varieties. Contact         season varieties. Contact         season varieties. Contact
Maine Cooperative Extension       Maine Cooperative Extension       Maine Cooperative Extension
.                                 .

Inter-seed cover crop within      Inter-seed cover crop within      Inter-seed cover crop within
or between rows to suppress       or between rows to suppress       or between rows to suppress
weeds.                            weeds.                            weeds.
Cultivate, mow, hoe, and          Cultivate, mow, hoe, and          Cultivate, mow, hoe, and
hand remove insects and           hand remove insects and           hand remove insects and
weeds, prune diseased or          weeds, prune diseased or          weeds, prune diseased or
insect-infested plants,           insect-infested plants,           insect-infested plants, remove
remove diseased plants.)          remove diseased plants.)          diseased plants.)




.                                 .                                 Disc old ferns lightly




.                                 Onion maggot fly: Apply row       Cabbage maggot: Manage
                                  covers over young                 using spunbonded row
                                  transplants.                      covers.
                                                                    Flea beetle: manage using
                                                                    floating row covers.

Use tile drainage, sub soiling,   Use tile drainage, sub soiling,   Use tile drainage, sub soiling,
grassed waterways, raised         grassed waterways, raised         grassed waterways, raised
beds, and organic matter          beds, and organic matter          beds, and organic matter
additions. Avoid planting in      additions. Avoid planting in      additions. Avoid planting in
low and wet spots in field.       low and wet spots in field.       low and wet spots in field.
.                                .                              .



Onion thrips: Preserve           Onion thrips: Preserve         .
natural enemies (lacewing        natural enemies (lacewing
larvae, pirate bugs, and         larvae, pirate bugs, and
predatory thrips) and            predatory thrips) and
pollinators.                     pollinators.




.                                .                              .



Incorporate compost before       Incorporate compost before     Incorporate compost before
planting.                        planting.                      planting.




Begin application of             Onion thrips: Begin            .
pesticides when damage is        applications when damage is
first noticed. Repeat            first noticed or when there
applications at 7-10 day         are three or more thrips per
intervals. Use a shorter         leaf. Repeat applications at
interval in hot, dry weather.    7-10 day intervals. Use
Apply in the early evening.      shorter interval in hot
Treat seed and soil with         weather.
fungicides.                      Diseases: Apply fungicides
White rot: Spot treat the soil   based on a disease forecast
around infected plants with      system and when disease is
fumigants.                       present.
                                 Purple blotch: Apply
                                 fungicides as canopy
                                 becomes more dense and
                                 leaf-wetness periods
                                 increase.

Onion thrips: Use a spreader- Select appropriate biological     Select appropriate biological
sticker.                      and other low-risk pesticides     and other low-risk pesticides
                              that are registered for use in    that are registered for use in
                              Maine and recommended for         Maine and recommended for
                              the crop per New England          the crop per New England
                              Extension recommendations.        Extension recommendations.
Use lowest labeled rate that   Use lowest labeled rate that   Use lowest labeled rate that is
is effective based on label,   is effective based on label,   effective based on label,
scouting results, and          scouting results, and          scouting results, and
Extension-recommended          Extension-recommended          Extension-recommended
action thresholds for target   action thresholds for target   action thresholds for target
pest.                          pest.                          pest.

Weeds: Use stale seedbed       Weeds: Use stale seedbed       Weeds: Use stale seedbed
technique utilizing Roundup    technique utilizing Roundup    technique utilizing Roundup
or Scythe.                     or Gramoxone.                  or Scythe.
                               Cutworms: For best results,    Cutworms: For best results,
                               apply pesticides between       apply pesticides between
                               midnight and dawn while        midnight and dawn while
                               cutworms are feeding above     cutworms are feeding above
                               ground.                        ground.
                               Onion maggot: Purchase         Seed decay: Purchase
                               treated seed.                  treated seed.




Calibrate sprayer at           Calibrate sprayer at           Calibrate sprayer at beginning
beginning of season and        beginning of season and        of season and check regularly
check regularly during         check regularly during         during season. Recalibrate
season. Recalibrate after      season. Recalibrate after      after any nozzle change. (See
any nozzle change. (See        any nozzle change. (See        reference # 8.)
reference # 8.)                reference # 8.)

Do not use same funigicide     Onion thrips: Rotate among     Use pesticide-resistance
throughout growing season.     insecticide groups after two   management strategies
May use soil fumigation        applications to help prevent   where required acording to
procedure.                     resistance.                    label instructions.




Weeds: Use a                   Weeds: Use a                   Weeds: Use a
directed/shielded spray when   directed/shielded spray when   directed/shielded spray when
using any non-selective        using any non-selective        using any non-selective
herbicide, such as Scythe.     herbicide, such as Scythe.     herbicide, such as Scythe.
For hand-held equipment        For hand-held equipment        For hand-held equipment
spray to completely wet all    spray to completely wet all    spray to completely wet all
weed foliage, but not to the   weed foliage, but not to the   weed foliage, but not to the
point of runoff.               point of runoff.               point of runoff.
                               Onion thrips: Use spreader-
                               sticker for better coverage.
                               Apply in early evening using
                               high pressure and 100 gal
                               water/A.
May use water-sensitive         May use water-sensitive         May use water-sensitive
cards to monitor spray          cards to monitor spray          cards to monitor spray pattern
pattern and drift during        pattern and drift during        and drift during calibration.
calibration.                    calibration.

Use vegetative buffers, set-    Use vegetative buffers, set-    Use vegetative buffers, set-
backs, or filter strips to      backs, or filter strips to      backs, or filter strips to
minimize chemical               minimize chemical               minimize chemical movement
movement to sensitive areas     movement to sensitive areas     to sensitive areas such as
such as surface waters,         such as surface waters,         surface waters, schools,
schools, residences, and        schools, residences, and        residences, and neighboring
neighboring crops.              neighboring crops.              crops.

Use mitigation practices as     Use mitigation practices as     Use mitigation practices as
necessary in accordance with    necessary in accordance         necessary in accordance with
pest monitoring results, pest   with pest monitoring results,   pest monitoring results, pest
predictions, action             pest predictions, action        predictions, action thresholds,
thresholds, and WinPST          thresholds, and WinPST          and WinPST output.
output.                         output.
              Celery                       Rutabaga & Turnip               Sweet Potato
Cabbage looper, imported                 Flea beetles, leafminers,    Aphids, cutworms, flea
cabbageworm, green peach aphid,          aphids, cabbage maggot       beetles, tortoise beetle,
leafminers, mites, tarnished plant                                    grubs, wireworms, slugs,
bug                                                                   whiteflies
Leaf blight (Cercospora, Septoria ),     Leaf spots (Alternaria &     Rhizoctonia root rot, stem
basal stalk rot (Rhizoctonia )           Cercospora ), black leg      canker, black rot
                                         (Phoma leaf spot &
                                         canker), seed decay,
                                         damping off (turnip only),
                                         white rust, white blister
Blackheart




              Celery                      Rutabaga & Turnip                Sweet Potato

Use certified pest-free seeds            Buy seed treated with hot    Use healthy propagating
where available.                         water or fungicides          stock/seed roots and
                                         and/or buy certified         inspect frequently in the
                                         disease free seed.           production cycle.




Shallowly cultivate.                     Shallowly cultivate.         Shallowly cultivate.


Irrigate if planted in sandy soils.      Reduce humidity within       Reduce humidity within
Leaf blight: Irrigate early in the day   the plant canopy by using    the plant canopy by using
to allow foliage to dry quickly.         proper watering practices    proper watering practices
                                         and spacing of plants.       and spacing of plants.
Work crop when dry, work infested   Work crop when dry,          Produce and store
fields last, wash equipment         work infested fields last,   planting stock separate
between fields.                     wash equipment between       from commercial sweet
                                    fields.                      potatoes.
                                                                 Post harvest diease:
                                                                 Employ proper handling
                                                                 and curing practices at
                                                                 harvest. Practice good
                                                                 sanitation of farm
                                                                 equipment, storage bins,
                                                                 and storage rooms.

Plow under or remove crop residue   Promptly incorporate         Plow under or remove
after harvest.                      infected crop debris after   crop residue after harvest.
                                    harvest.



Eliminate unmanaged plants that     Eliminate unmanaged          Eliminate unmanaged
serve as pest reservoirs, such as   plants that serve as pest    plants that serve as pest
abandoned crops and volunteers      reservoirs, such as          reservoirs, such as
from previous crop.                 abandoned crops and          abandoned crops and
                                    volunteers from previous     volunteers from previous
                                    crop.                        crop.
Apply lime according to soil test to   Apply lime according to      Apply lime according to
maintain soil pH at 6.0-6.8.           soil test results to         soil test results to
Use a liquid starter fertilizer at     maintain soil pH at 6.5-     maintain soil pH at 4.5-
transplanting, especially with cool    6.8.                         7.5, but 5.8-6.2 is optimal.
soil conditions. Use a high            Apply less nitrogen          Do not exceed 75 lb/A of
phosphorus starter fertilzer mixed     fertiilizer if manure or     available nitrogen. If
at a rate of 3 lb/50 gal of water.     legume sod was plowed        manure or compost is
Apply 8 fluid ounces (1 cup) per       down. Application of         added, be careful not to
transplant. Sidedress 50 lb/A of N     additional fertilizer may    add excessive fertilizer-N.
3-4 weeks after transplanting. On      not be needed if following   Apply nutrients according
light soils, a second sidedressing     other vegetables in the      to soil tests. Maintain
may be necessary. Reduce or            same season.                 high levels of phosphorus
eliminate second sidedressing if       Refer to NEVMG for plant     (up to 200 lb/A) and
manure was applied or a legume         nutrient                     potassium (up to 300
sod was plowed down.                   recommendations.             lb/A).
Refer to NEVMG for plant nutrient      White rust/white blister:    Refer to NEVMG for plant
recommendations.                       Maintain proper fertility    nutrient
Magnesium deficiency: Use              levels, especially of        recommendations.
dolomitic (high magnesium)             phosphorus and               Blister: Prevent by
limestone to partially meet plant      potassium.                   applying boron to boron-
requirements. For additional                                        deficient soils, 0.5 lb/A (5
magnesium, spray plants with                                        lb Borax or 2.6 lb solubor).
Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate)
at 8 lb/A per week until green color
is restored.
Blackheart: Maintain high calcium
level.
Conduct tissue analysis to
determine sufficiency of boron,
manganese, and copper for future
crops.
Leaf blight: Rotate ground             Rotate fields to non-        Rotate crops with
seedbeds.                              susceptible/non-host         nonsusceptible crops.
Basal stalk rot: A two-year rotation   crops.
is recommended. Avoid crops such
as alfalfa and legume cover crops
which can increase disease risk.
Plant in deep, loamy, fertile, moist    .                           Slugs: Grow plants away
soil. Avoid planting in heavy clay                                  from moist, shaded
soils.                                                              habitats.
Green peach aphid: Plant away
from Prunus sp. (peach, wild
cherry, etc.).
Tarnished plant bug: DO NOT
plant adjacent to alfalfa or hay
field.




Plant resistant or tolerant varieties   .                           .
where available.




Basal stalk rot: Avoid cultivating      Cabbage aphids: Avoid       .
late in the season. Maintain            fall plantings.
storage conditions at 50ºF.             Cabbage maggot: Delay
                                        planting until after soil
                                        temperatures are high
                                        enough to kill eggs.

.                                       .                           .
Imported cabbage worm: Use          Cabbage maggot: Scout           Inspect weekly.
bucket-type pheromone traps to      early spring when adult         Cutworm caterpillars:
monitor moth flight late July to    flies are active and late       Scout weekly checking at
August.                             August-early September          least 100 plants. Black
Green peach aphid: Begin to         for fall crops. Look at the     cutworms: Monitor adults
examine plants in early July.for    base of the plant for           with a yellow and white
aphids and the presence of          small (1/32"), white, bullet-   Unitrap March through
beneficial species.                 shaped eggs.                    May. Monitor during June
                                                                    if catch over 40 moths.
                                                                    Variegated cutworms:
                                                                    Monitor adults with
                                                                    blacklight trap or yellow
                                                                    and white Unitrap from
                                                                    July to September.
                                                                    Slugs: Look for slivery
                                                                    slime trails on leaves or
                                                                    turn over soil clods or
                                                                    debris to find slugs during
                                                                    daylight hours. May use
                                                                    shallow pans of beer or
                                                                    unbaited pitfall traps for
                                                                    monitoring populations.




.                                   .                               .




.                                   .                               .




Basal stalk rot: Avoid crops such   Plant cover crops or            Plant cover crops or
as alfalfa and legume cover crops   green manure crops to           green manure crops to
which can increase disease risk.    suppress weeds and              suppress weeds and
                                    maintain organic content        maintain organic content
                                    of soil.                        of soil.
Space plants 6-12" apart with 18-     Rutabaga: Seed 4-8"          Plant 8-12" apart within
36" between rows.                     within rows and 30"          rows and 32-42" between
Leaf blight: Use wider plant          between rows 1/2" deep.      rows, depending on
spacing and/or raised beds to         Turnip: Seed 2-3" within     cultivars. Plant slips at a
improve air circulation.              rows and 14-18" between      depth of 3" with no less
                                      rows 1/2" deep.              than 2 plant nodes in the
                                                                   ground and leaving 2
                                                                   leaves or more above the
                                                                   ground.




Strip or zone tillage may be          Strip or zone tillage may    Strip or zone tillage may
suitable for mid- to late-season      be suitable for mid- to      be suitable for mid- to late-
varieties. Contact Maine              late-season varieties.       season varieties. Contact
Cooperative Extension for             Contact Maine                Maine Cooperative
Green peach aphid: Use reflective
plastic mulch.
Inter-seed cover crop within or       Inter-seed cover crop        Inter-seed cover crop
between rows to suppress weeds.       within or between rows to    within or between rows to
                                      suppress weeds.              suppress weeds.
Cultivate, mow, hoe, and hand         Cultivate, mow, hoe, and     Slugs: Hand pick/crush.
remove insects and weeds, prune       hand remove insects and
diseased or insect-infested plants,   weeds, prune diseased
remove diseased plants.)              or insect-infested plants,
                                      remove diseased plants.)




.                                     .                            .




.                                     Flea beetles/leafminers/     Sweet Potato 23
                                      cabbage maggot: Use
                                      spunbonded row covers
                                      in spring crops. Do not
                                      place over crops with
                                      aphids.
Use tile drainage, sub soiling,       Use tile drainage, sub       Use tile drainage, sub
grassed waterways, raised beds,       soiling, grassed             soiling, grassed
and organic matter additions. Avoid   waterways, raised beds,      waterways, raised beds,
planting in low and wet spots in      and organic matter           and organic matter
field.                                additions. Avoid planting    additions. Avoid planting
                                      in low and wet spots in      in low and wet spots in
                                      field.                       field.
.                                      .                           .



Green peach aphid: Preserve            Aphids: Use selective       .
natural enemies (lady beetles,         materials or microbial
lacewings, spiders, syrphid fly        products to spare
larvae, wasps, and beneficial fungi)   pollinators and natural
and pollinators by using               enemies that help control
selective/microbial pesticides for     aphids.
other pests whenever possible.
Avoid early-season broad-
spectrum sprays.

.                                      .                           .



Incorporate compost before             Incorporate compost         Incorporate compost
planting.                              before planting.            before planting.




Leaf blight: Apply fungicides based    Aphids: Treat if greater    .
on a disease forecasting system.       than 10% of plants are
Cabbage looper/imported cabbage        infested.
worm: Treat young plants only if       Cabbage maggot: Apply
weather conditions delay plant         a soil drench 2-3 days
development and at least 35% of        after finding an average
them are infested.                     of 1 egg/plant.
Green peach aphid: Spray only
when aphids are increasing and
building up to high numbers.




Green peach aphid: Add a               .                           .
spreader-sticker.
Use lowest labeled rate that is      Use lowest labeled rate       Use lowest labeled rate
effective based on label, scouting   that is effective based on    that is effective based on
results, and Extension-              label, scouting results,      label, scouting results,
recommended action thresholds        and Extension-                and Extension-
for target pest.                     recommended action            recommended action
                                     thresholds for target pest.   thresholds for target pest.

Weeds: Use stale seedbed             Weeds: Use stale              Cutworms: For best
technique if utilizing Roundup 4S.   seedbed technique             results, apply pesticides
                                     utilizing Gramoxone           between midnight and
                                     Inteon 2S or Scythe.          dawn while cutworms are
                                     Pesticides: When              feeding above ground.
                                     appropriate, using            Slugs: Scatter baits on
                                     banding to pre-plant          ground near infested
                                     incorporate or soil spray     plants. When
                                     and mechanically              appropriate, apply
                                     incorporate or irrigate.      pesticides around
                                                                   perimeter, around base of
                                                                   plants, or band down
                                                                   rows.

Calibrate sprayer at beginning of    Calibrate sprayer at          Calibrate sprayer at
season and check regularly during    beginning of season and       beginning of season and
season. Recalibrate after any        check regularly during        check regularly during
nozzle change. (See reference #      season. Recalibrate after     season. Recalibrate after
8.)                                  any nozzle change. (See       any nozzle change. (See
                                     reference # 8.)               reference # 8.)

Use pesticide-resistance             When applying foliar          To avoid resistence, do
management strategies where          fungicides, avoid multiple    not use multiple
required acording to label           applications of same          nicotinoids on the same
instructions.                        fungicide. Alternate          crop. Rotate fungicides
                                     fungicides with different     with different modes of
                                     modes of action.              action.


Weeds: Use a directed/shielded       Weeds: Use a                  Weeds: Use a
spray when using any non-            directed/shielded spray       directed/shielded spray
selective herbicide, such as         when using any non-           when using any non-
Scythe. For hand-held equipment      selective herbicide, such     selective herbicide, such
spray to completely wet all weed     as Scythe. For hand-          as Scythe. For hand-held
foliage, but not to the point of     held equipment spray to       equipment spray to
runoff.                              completely wet all weed       completely wet all weed
Cabbage looper/imported cabbage      foliage, but not to the       foliage, but not to the
worm: Use drop nozzles for better    point of runoff.              point of runoff.
coverage of lower leaf surfaces.     Cabbage maggot: Use
                                     drop nozzles directed to
                                     base of plant. Use at
                                     least 100 gal water/A.
May use water-sensitive cards to        May use water-sensitive       May use water-sensitive
monitor spray pattern and drift         cards to monitor spray        cards to monitor spray
during calibration.                     pattern and drift during      pattern and drift during
                                        calibration.                  calibration.

Use vegetative buffers, set-backs,      Use vegetative buffers,       Use vegetative buffers,
or filter strips to minimize chemical   set-backs, or filter strips   set-backs, or filter strips to
movement to sensitive areas such        to minimize chemical          minimize chemical
as surface waters, schools,             movement to sensitive         movement to sensitive
residences, and neighboring crops.      areas such as surface         areas such as surface
                                        waters, schools,              waters, schools,
                                        residences, and               residences, and
                                        neighboring crops.            neighboring crops.
Use mitigation practices as             Use mitigation practices      Use mitigation practices
necessary in accordance with pest       as necessary in               as necessary in
monitoring results, pest                accordance with pest          accordance with pest
predictions, action thresholds, and     monitoring results, pest      monitoring results, pest
WinPST output.                          predictions, action           predictions, action
                                        thresholds, and WinPST        thresholds, and WinPST
                                        output.                       output.
Legume
                                  Common Roots and Bulbs
                                             Major Pests



                                              Major Diseases

                                                    Disorders




Principle                        Practices

                Use certified pest-free seeds and pest-free
                transplants where available. (Example:
                Purchase certified seed and ensure plants
                are free of insects, diseases, and weeds
                before transplanting.)


                Prevent weeds from going to seed. (Example:
                Cultivate, pull, mow, flame, etc.)
                Reduce moisture on plant surfaces to prevent
                disease incidence. (Example: Use drip
                irrigation or avoid overhead irrigation between
                6 p.m. and midnight to minimize disease.)

                Employ methods to avoid spreading pests
                (pathogens, weeds, and insects). (Example:
                Work crop when dry, work infested fields last,
                wash equipment between fields, etc.)
                Destroy and/or remove crop residues for field
                sanitation procedures. Include fall tillage
                where appropriate to control weeds and break
                pest cycles. (Example: Plow under corn
                refuse in the fall to control European corn
   PREVENTION




                borer.)




                Eliminate unmanaged plants that serve as
                pest reservoirs, such as abandoned crops,
                volunteers from previous crop, or weed hosts
                of viruses.
PR
            Test soil or plant tissue annually to determine
            proper fertility and pH levels for crop and time
            application according to crop needs. Apply
            nutrients, fertilizers, and pH-adjusting agents
            according to recommendations.




            Rotate crops that break the pest cycle. Do not
            plant crops from the same family at less than
            recommended intervals for the identified
            pest(s).



            Match crops to appropriate sites to optimize
            plant health and avoid known pests.
            (Example: Avoid planting crops susceptible to
            fungal diseases in low wet fields.)
AVOIDANCE




            Choose pest-resistant cultivars. (Example:
            Plant virus and powdery mildew resistant vine
            crops.)
            Adjust planting dates and select cultivars with
            maturity dates that allow avoidance of early or
            late-season pests. (Example: Plant cucurbits
            after early season striped cucumber beetle
            activity, delay planting of brassica crops to
            avoid cabbage maggots.)

            Use and manage trap crops to protect main
            crop from insect pests and insect-vectored
            diseases.
                Monitor for pests as recommended for each
                crop. If no monitoring guidelines available,
                monitor weekly to determine presence,
                density, and locations of pests and to
                determine crop growth stage. **Record
                findings. Record keeping is required**.
                (Example: Scout crops and use other
                appropriate monitoring aids such as
                pheromone traps, disease diagnostic tests,
                etc. Map weeds in the fall to help plan where
                specific measures may be needed to target
                problem weeds the following spring. Utilize
                University of Maine Cooperative Extension
                pest monitoring data from newsletters and
                websites.)
MONITORING




                Use on-farm weather monitoring devices to
                measure precipitation, humidity, temperature,
                and leaf wetness and/or use commercial
                weather prediction service for prevention and
                control of plant diseases. (Example: Install
                weather station with rain gauge, hygrometer,
                maximum and minimum temperature
                recording equipment, leaf wetness sensors.)

                Use pest-forecasting tools (e.g., computer
                modeling software) as additional guides for
                on-farm pest monitoring activities in
                conjunction with weather data to predict risk
                of pest infestation.
                Use cover crops, especially pest-suppressing
                crops (allelopathic), in the rotation cycle to
                reduce weeds and disease incidence and to
                improve soil quality.
      ONTROLS
                                 Plant using appropriate within- and between-
                                 row spacing optimal for crop, site, and row
                                 orientation. (Example: Use row spacing and
                                 plant densities that assure rapid canopy
                                 closure.)
CULTURAL AND PHYSICAL CONTROLS




                                 Use reduced tillage and other residue
                                 management practices to suppress weeds
                                 and maintain soil organic matter as
         SUPPRESSION




                                 appropriate for crop.


                                 Use mulches including plastic or reflective
                                 mulches for insect or weed control.
                                 Inter-seed cover crop within or between rows
                                 to suppress weeds.
                                 Use mechanical pest controls. (Examples:
                                 Cultivate, mow, hoe, and hand remove
                                 insects and weeds, prune diseased or insect-
                                 infested plants, remove diseased plants.)

                                 Use physical pest controls and deterrents.
                                 (Example: Use flame weeding or other heat
                                 methods for insect, disease, and weed
                                 control; noise-makers; reflectors; ribbons; and
                                 predator models.)
                                 Use exclusion devices for insects or wildlife.
                                 (Examples: Use synthetic row covers and/or
                                 fencing.)
                                 Maintain or improve soil aeration and
                                 drainage to avoid standing water and
                                 minimize plant disease. (Example: Use tile
                                 drainage, sub soiling, grassed waterways,
                                 raised beds, and organic matter additions.
                                 Avoid planting in low and wet spots in field.)

                                 Use insect mating disruption devices, if
                                 available. (Example: Use pheromone
                                 laminate clip-ons or rings for tomato
                                 pinworm.)
ONTROLS
SION
                      Conserve naturally occurring biological
                      controls. (Example: Select pesticides and
                      time applications to minimize impact on
                      beneficials, use floral perimeter crop to attract
                      and support beneficial insects.)
BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS
    SUPPRESSION




                      Release beneficial organisms where
                      appropriate. (Example: release predatory
                      mites for control of two-spotted mites and
                      thrips.)




                      Use compost as a soil amendment to
                      increase biological diversity in soil and plant
                      health and suppress plant disease.
                    Minimize chemical use. Use in conjunction
                    with accurate pest identification and
                    monitoring, action thresholds, alternative
                    suppression tactics (biological, cultural, etc),
                    and judgments based on previous year's
                    weed map and/or pest scouting records.
                    (Example: Use pheromone traps to monitor
                    for corn earworm in sweet corn.)




                    Select pesticides, formulations, and adjuvants
                    based on least negative effects on
                    environment, beneficials (e.g., pollinators,
                    predators, parasites), and human health in
                    addition to efficacy and economics.

                    Use lowest labeled rate that is effective based
                    on label, scouting results, and Extension-
                    recommended action thresholds for target
                    pest.
CHEMICAL CONTROLS
   SUPPRESSION
                    Limit applications to partial fields or banding
CHEMICAL CONTROLS   to reduce quantity or impact of pesticide.
                    (Example: Spot treat where pests are found
                    or use banding, seed, edge or field
   SUPPRESSION




                    perimeter/border treatments.)




                    Calibrate sprayers or applicators prior to use
                    to verify amount of material applied.




                    Use pesticide-resistance management
                    strategies as appropriate and where required
                    on pesticide label. (Example: Alternate
                    applications of chemicals with different
                    modes of action to avoid development of pest
                    resistance or leave part of crop unsprayed to
                    serve as a refuge for susceptible pests and
                    natural enemies.)

                    Use specialized pesticide application
                    equipment to increase efficiency and reduce
                    chemical drift. (Examples: Use wiper
                    applicators, digitally controlled adjustable tool
                    bars, direct injection sprayers, double-drop
                    sprayers, laser guided precision sprayers,
                    direct injection, low-drift nozzles, shielded
                    applicators or air induction booms, built-in
                    tank washers, etc.)

                    Use spray-monitoring equipment. (Example:
                    Use water-sensitive cards to measure spray
                    pattern and drift.)

                    Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter
                    strips to minimize chemical movement to
                    sensitive areas such as surface waters,
                    schools, residences, and neighboring crops.
Use mitigation practices as necessary in
accordance with pest monitoring results, pest
predictions, action thresholds, and WinPST
output.




NOTE: Additional pesticide use
requirements from the 595 Practice
Standard:
> Always follow all pesticide label instructions
and environmental cautions.
 > Store, handle, transport, mix, use, and
dispose of pesticides and pesticide containers
per Maine Board of Pesticides Control
recommendations and regulations.
> Follow state and federal worker protection
standards.
> When drawing water for pesticide mixing
from any surface waters of the state, use anti-
siphoning devices and do not use hoses that
have been in contact with pesticides.
> Do not mix or load pesticides within 50 ft
from the high water mark of any surface
waters of the state.
Pesticide applicator must be properly licensed
and certified when using restricted use
pesticides or when doing custom pesticide
applications for hire. Contact Maine Board of
Pesticides Control for license and certification
requirements.
                Snap, Dry, & Lima Beans                               Pea
Aphids, cutworms, European corn borer (ECB), corn          Corn earworm (CEW), fall
earworm (CEW), cabbage looper (CL), garden springtail,     armyworm, cutworms, pea
leafhoppers, Mexican bean beetle, seedcorn maggot, two-    aphid, seed maggots
spotted spider mite, slugs
Anthracnose, downey mildew, bacterial blights, bean        Damping-off, seed decay,
common mosaic virus (BCMV), bean yellow mosaic virus       root rot, stem canker
(BYMV), rust, seed decay, white mold




              Examples: Snap, Dry, & Lima                       Examples: Pea

Purchase certified, disease-free, and treated seed where   Use treated seed.
available.




.                                                          .


Irrigate, if needed, at time of bloom to ensure maximum    .
pod set under dry soil conditions.



Do not cultivate or harvest when plants are wet.           .
Remove diseased plant material.



Mexican Bean Beetles: Destroy crop residue after harvest   .
to lower overwintering populations.
Seedcorn maggot: Incorporate manue and decaying
organic matter to prevent attracting flies.
Bacterial blights: Plow under stubble in fall.




.                                                          Pea aphid: Harvest or spray
                                                           nearby alfalfa, vetch, or
                                                           clover before winged adults
                                                           are formed in the spring.
Apply lime according to soil test to maintain soil pH at 6.5-   Apply lime according to soil
6.8.                                                            test to maintain soil pH at
Apply no more than 80 to 100 lb/A combined weight of            6.5-6.8.
nitrogen and potash through the planter. A sidedressing of      Refer to NEVMG for nutrient
30 lb nitrogen/A at prebloom may extend harvest period          recommendations. May
and increase yields, especially on sandy soils. Maching         inoculate seed at planting
harvested beans beans are unlikely to need sidedressing.        time with the appropriate
Apply less nitrogen fertilizer if manure or legume sod was      species of Rhizobium
plowed down. Refer to NEVMG for nutrient                        bacterium. May sidedress
recommendations.                                                with an additional 25 lb of
Rust: Avoid overfertilization with high levels of nitrogen.     nitrogen if Rhizobium is not
                                                                present, or leaching has
                                                                occurred, or if early peas are
                                                                desired.
                                                                Apply less nitrogen fertilizer
                                                                if manure or legume sod
                                                                was plowed down.


Rotate every 2-3 years. Avoid planting beans (especially        Use 3-4 year rotation.
early beans) where corn was grown the previous year, or
late beans near corn where ECB may emerge.
After an episode of white mold, rotate away from
susceptible crops (lettuce, cabbage, tomato, carrot,
brassicas, and snap beans) for seven years.

Plant in well-drained soil to reduce risk of disease.           Plant in well-drained sandy
Green peach aphid: Plant away from Prunus sp. (peach,           soils for early plantings and
wild cherry, etc.).                                             in finer-textured soils with
Slugs: Grow plants away from moist, shaded habitats.            high moisture-holding
Bean yellow mosaic virus: Plant at least 800’ away from         capacities for late spring
virus-source plants such as sweet clover, white clover,         crops.
crimson clover and Gladiolus sp.                                Pea aphid: Avoid planting
Mexican bean beetle: Avoid planting near hedgerows              near alfalfa, vetch, and
where beetles overwinter.                                       clover.
Seedcorn maggot: Plant shallow to promote rapid
germination and early emergence.

Use disease resistent varieties when available.                 Plant resistent varieties.


.                                                               .




.                                                               .
Aphids: Scout on undersides of leaves or terminal shoots.          Cutworm caterpillars: Scout
Cutworm caterpillars: Scout weekly checking at least 100           weekly checking at least 100
plants for crooks (misshaped spears). Black cutworms:              plants for crooks
Monitor adults with a yellow and white Unitrap March               (misshaped spears). Black
through May. Monitor during June if catch over 40 moths.           cutworms: Monitor adults
Variegated cutworms: Monitor adults with blacklight trap or        with a yellow and white
yellow and white Unitrap from July to September.                   Unitrap March through May.
ECB: Scout for eggs on underside of leaves or borer holes          Monitor during June if catch
in stems. Field scouting is difficult in beans.                    over 40 moths. Variegated
CL: Scout mid- to late-season.                                     cutworms: Monitor adults
Garden spring tails: Scout for tiny pits in the leaf surfaces.     with blacklight trap or yellow
Feeding resembles that of flea beetles.                            and white Unitrap from July
Potato leafhoppers: Scout for yellowing and dying leaf tips.       to September.
Plants may be stunted.                                             Pea aphid: Begin monitoring
Mexican bean beetle: Look for leaves with a lace-like              when plants begin to flower.
pattern, especially in August. Slugs: Look for slivery slime
trails on leaves or turn over soil clods or debris to find slugs
during daylight hours. May use shallow pans of beer or
unbaited pitfall traps for monitoring populations.




.                                                                  .




Use Cucurbit Downey Mildew Weather Forecaster                      .




.                                                                  .
Space plants to allow good air circulation. Snap beans:          For fresh market, plant
Space plants 1 1/2-2” apart within rows and 18-36” between       seeds 1 1/2-2" apart and 24-
rows. Use higher plant population under a more favorable         36" between rows, rate of 90-
environment. For optimum growth, allow about 36 sq in per        150 lb/A or 2 lb/200 ft in 24-
plant.                                                           36" rows.
Pole Beans: Plant seeds 6” apart in rows 4’ apart for trellis    For processing peas, seed
or fence method. Plant 6-7 seeds around each pole for the        200-250 lb/A at 1" between
tepee method.                                                    plants and 7" between rows.
Lima Beans: Space plants 2-4” apart within rows and 18-          Sugar snap peas: Use at
36” between rows.                                                least a 6' high trellis. A
Dry Beans: Space plants 2-3” apart within rows and 28-36”        double row can be planted
between rows.                                                    for more efficent use of
                                                                 netting.

Garden springtails: Avoid using reduced-till systems and         Strip or zone tillage may be
planting in fields high in organic matter and soils that crack   suitable for mid- to late-
when drying.                                                     season varieties. Contact
Strip or zone tillage may be suitable for mid- to late-season    Maine Cooperative
varieties. Contact Maine Cooperative Extension for               Extension for information.
information.
.                                                                .

.                                                                .

Slugs: Hand pick/crush.                                          .




Two-spotted spider mite: Use ovehead irrigation to reduce        .
populations.



.                                                                .


.                                                                .




.                                                                .
Aphids: Preserve natural enemies (lady beetles, lacewings,      Pea aphids: Preserve
spiders, syrphid fly larvae, wasps, and beneficial fungi) and   natural enemies (lady
pollinators by using selective/microbial pesticides for other   beetles, lacewings, spiders,
pests whenever possible. Avoid early-season broad-              flower fly larvae, predatory
spectrum sprays.                                                midges, Braconid wasps,
                                                                and beneficial fungi) and
                                                                pollinators by using
                                                                selective/microbial
                                                                pesticides for other pests
                                                                whenever possible.

Mexican bean beetle: Annually release the Eulophid wasp,        .
Pediobius faveolatus , timed to coincide with egg hatch of
Mexican Bean Beetle to help control beetle larvae.
Two-spotted spider mite: May use preventive releases of
the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to suppress
populations.




 Incorporate compost before planting. This is not               Incorporate compost before
 applicable where seed corn maggot has been a problem.          planting. This is not
                                                                applicable where seed corn
                                                                maggot has been a problem.
Aphids: Treat only if aphids are well distributed throughout    Pea aphid: Apply a single
the field (50% or more of terminals with 5 or more aphids),     systemic insecticide when 1-
natural enemies are lacking, and population is increasing.      2 aphids per leaf, 2-3 aphids
Two-spotted spider mite: Avoid early-season, broad-             per stem tip, or 9-13 per
spectrum insecticide applications for other pests. Use          sweep if a sweep net is
selective products whenever possible. None of the               used.
registered products for mites on beans provide complete
control of the pest.
European corn borer: Make applications at the pre-bud or
early bloom stage for snap bean if small larvae are found
boring into stems.
CL: Treat young plants only if weather conditions delay
plant development and at least 35% of them are infested.
Treat plants between the start of heading and harvest if
20% or more of the plants are infested.
Potato leafhoppers: Treat newly emerged beans if they
have 2 adults per foot of row. Apply insecticide when
leafhoppers exceed one nymph/leaflet or 5 adults per foot
of row during prebloom and repeat application in 7 to 10
days, if necessary. Be sure to treat lower leaf surfaces.
Mexican bean beetle: Treat when defoliation exceeds 20%
in prebloom or 10% during podding and repeat in 7-10
days, if necessary.
Slugs: Scatter baits on ground near infested plants. When
appropriate, apply pesticides around perimeter, around
base of plants, or band down rows.
Disease: Apply seed treatments to protect germinating
seedlings against soil-borne inoculum especially for downy
mildew.




.                                                               .




    Use lowest labeled rate that is effective based on label,   Use lowest labeled rate that
    scouting results, and Extension-recommended action          is effective based on label,
    thresholds for target pest.                                 scouting results, and
                                                                Extension-recommended
                                                                action thresholds for target
                                                                pest.
Weeds: Refer to NEVMG for recommendations. May use             Weeds: Refer to NEVMG
stale seedbed technique using Roundup, Gramoxone, or           p147 for recommendations.
Scythe.                                                        May use stale seedbed
Cutworms: Spot spray heavily damaged sections of the           technique using Roundup,
field. For best results, apply pesticides between midnight     Gramoxone, or Scythe.
and dawn while cutworms are feeding above ground.              Cutworms: Spot spray
Garden springtails: Spot-treat areas where damage              heavily damaged sections of
occurs.                                                        the field. For best results,
                                                               apply pesticides between
                                                               midnight and dawn while
                                                               cutworms are feeding above
                                                               ground.

 Calibrate sprayer at beginning of season and check            Calibrate sprayer at
 regularly during season. Recalibrate after any nozzle         beginning of season and
 change. (See reference # 8.)                                  check regularly during
                                                               season. Recalibrate after
                                                               any nozzle change. (See
                                                               reference # 8.)
Alternate fungicides.                                          .
Two-spotted spider mite: Avoid early-season, broad-
spectrum insecticide applications for other pests. Use
selective products whenever possible. With most miticides
(not bifenazate), use 2 applications, approximately 5-7 days
apart, to help control immature mites that were in the egg
stage during the first application. Alternate between
products after 2 applications to help prevent or delay
resistence.
Weeds: Use a directed/shielded spray when using any non-       Weeds: Use a
selective herbicide, such as Scythe. For hand-held             directed/shielded spray
equipment spray to completely wet all weed foliage, but not    when using any non-
to the point of runoff.                                        selective herbicide, such as
                                                               Scythe. For hand-held
                                                               equipment spray to
                                                               completely wet all weed
                                                               foliage, but not to the point
                                                               of runoff.

 May use water-sensitive cards to monitor spray pattern        May use water-sensitive
 and drift during calibration.                                 cards to monitor spray
                                                               pattern and drift during
                                                               calibration.
 Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter strips to        Use vegetative buffers, set-
 minimize chemical movement to sensitive areas such as         backs, or filter strips to
 surface waters, schools, residences, and neighboring          minimize chemical
 crops.                                                        movement to sensitive areas
                                                               such as surface waters,
                                                               schools, residences, and
                                                               neighboring crops.
Use mitigation practices as necessary in accordance with   Use mitigation practices as
pest monitoring results, pest predictions, action          necessary in accordance
thresholds, and WinPST output.                             with pest monitoring results,
                                                           pest predictions, action
                                                           thresholds, and WinPST
                                                           output.
Maize
                                          Common Roots and Bulbs
                                                     Major Pests


                                                      Major Diseases

                                                             Disorders




                                       Practices
Principle
                 Use certified pest-free seeds and pest-free transplants
                 where available. (Example: Purchase certified seed
                 and ensure plants are free of insects, diseases, and
                 weeds before transplanting.)
                 Prevent weeds from going to seed. (Example:
                 Cultivate, pull, mow, flame, etc.)
                 Reduce moisture on plant surfaces to prevent disease
                 incidence. (Example: Use drip irrigation or avoid
                 overhead irrigation between 6 p.m. and midnight to
                 minimize disease.)
                 Employ methods to avoid spreading pests (pathogens,
                 weeds, and insects). (Example: Work crop when dry,
                 work infested fields last, wash equipment between
    PREVENTION




                 fields, etc.)
                 Destroy and/or remove crop residues for field
                 sanitation procedures. Include fall tillage where
                 appropriate to control weeds and break pest cycles.
                 (Example: Plow under corn refuse in the fall to control
                 European corn borer.)


                 Eliminate unmanaged plants that serve as pest
                 reservoirs, such as abandoned crops, volunteers from
                 previous crop, or weed hosts of viruses.

                 Test soil or plant tissue annually to determine proper
                 fertility and pH levels for crop and time application
                 according to crop needs. Apply nutrients, fertilizers,
                 and pH-adjusting agents according to
                 recommendations.

                 Rotate crops that break the pest cycle. Do not plant
                 crops from the same family at less than recommended
                 intervals for the identified pest(s).
    CE
             Match crops to appropriate sites to optimize plant
             health and avoid known pests. (Example: Avoid
             planting crops susceptible to fungal diseases in low
             wet fields.)
             Choose pest-resistant cultivars. (Example: Plant virus
AVOIDANCE




             and powdery mildew resistant vine crops.)




             Adjust planting dates and select cultivars with maturity
             dates that allow avoidance of early or late-season
             pests. (Example: Plant cucurbits after early season
             striped cucumber beetle activity, delay planting of
             brassica crops to avoid cabbage maggots.)

             Use and manage trap crops to protect main crop from
             insect pests and insect-vectored diseases.
             Monitor for pests as recommended for each crop. If no
             monitoring guidelines available, monitor weekly to
             determine presence, density, and locations of pests
             and to determine crop growth stage. **Record findings.
             Record keeping is required**. (Example: Scout crops
             and use other appropriate monitoring aids such as
             pheromone traps, disease diagnostic tests, etc. Map
             weeds in the fall to help plan where specific measures
             may be needed to target problem weeds the following
             spring. Utilize University of Maine Cooperative
             Extension pest monitoring data from newsletters and
MONITORING




             websites.)



             Use on-farm weather monitoring devices to measure
             precipitation, humidity, temperature, and leaf wetness
             and/or use commercial weather prediction service for
             prevention and control of plant diseases. (Example:
             Install weather station with rain gauge, hygrometer,
             maximum and minimum temperature recording
             equipment, leaf wetness sensors.)



             Use pest-forecasting tools (e.g., computer modeling
             software) as additional guides for on-farm pest
             monitoring activities in conjunction with weather data to
             predict risk of pest infestation.
                                 Use cover crops, especially pest-suppressing crops
                                 (allelopathic), in the rotation cycle to reduce weeds and
                                 disease incidence and to improve soil quality.

                                 Plant using appropriate within- and between-row
                                 spacing optimal for crop, site, and row orientation.
                                 (Example: Use row spacing and plant densities that
                                 assure rapid canopy closure.)
                                 Use reduced tillage and other residue management
                                 practices to suppress weeds and maintain soil organic
                                 matter as appropriate for crop.
CULTURAL AND PHYSICAL CONTROLS




                                 Use mulches including plastic or reflective mulches for
                                 insect or weed control.

                                 Inter-seed cover crop within or between rows to
                                 suppress weeds.
         SUPPRESSION




                                 Use mechanical pest controls. (Examples: Cultivate,
                                 mow, hoe, and hand remove insects and weeds, prune
                                 diseased or insect-infested plants, remove diseased
                                 plants.)

                                 Use physical pest controls and deterrents. (Example:
                                 Use flame weeding or other heat methods for insect,
                                 disease, and weed control; noise-makers; reflectors;
                                 ribbons; and predator models.)

                                 Use exclusion devices for insects or wildlife.
                                 (Examples: Use synthetic row covers and/or fencing.)




                                 Maintain or improve soil aeration and drainage to avoid
                                 standing water and minimize plant disease. (Example:
                                 Use tile drainage, sub soiling, grassed waterways,
                                 raised beds, and organic matter additions. Avoid
                                 planting in low and wet spots in field.)

                                 Use insect mating disruption devices, if available.
                                 (Example: Use pheromone laminate clip-ons or rings
BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS




                                 for tomato pinworm.)
                                 Conserve naturally occurring biological controls.
    SUPPRESSION




                                 (Example: Select pesticides and time applications to
                                 minimize impact on beneficials, use floral perimeter
                                 Release beneficial organisms where insects.)
                                 crop to attract and support beneficial appropriate.
                                 (Example: release predatory mites for control of two-
                                 spotted mites and thrips.)
                                 Use compost as a soil amendment to increase
                                 biological diversity in soil and plant health and
                                 suppress plant disease.
                    Minimize chemical use. Use in conjunction with
                    accurate pest identification and monitoring, action
                    thresholds, alternative suppression tactics (biological,
                    cultural, etc), and judgments based on previous year's
                    weed map and/or pest scouting records. (Example:
                    Use pheromone traps to monitor for corn earworm in
                    sweet corn.)




                    Select pesticides, formulations, and adjuvants based
                    on least negative effects on environment, beneficials
                    (e.g., pollinators, predators, parasites), and human
                    health in addition to efficacy and economics.

                    Use lowest labeled rate that is effective based on label,
                    scouting results, and Extension-recommended action
                    thresholds for target pest.




                    Limit applications to partial fields or banding to reduce
CHEMICAL CONTROLS




                    quantity or impact of pesticide. (Example: Spot treat
   SUPPRESSION




                    where pests are found or use banding, seed, edge or
                    field perimeter/border treatments.)



                    Calibrate sprayers or applicators prior to use to verify
                    amount of material applied.
                    Use pesticide-resistance management strategies as
                    appropriate and where required on pesticide label.
                    (Example: Alternate applications of chemicals with
                    different modes of action to avoid development of pest
                    resistance or leave part of crop unsprayed to serve as
                    a refuge for susceptible pests and natural enemies.)
Use specialized pesticide application equipment to
increase efficiency and reduce chemical drift.
(Examples: Use wiper applicators, digitally controlled
adjustable tool bars, direct injection sprayers, double-
drop sprayers, laser guided precision sprayers, direct
injection, low-drift nozzles, shielded applicators or air
induction booms, built-in tank washers, etc.)

Use spray-monitoring equipment. (Example: Use
water-sensitive cards to measure spray pattern and
drift.)




Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter strips to
minimize chemical movement to sensitive areas such
as surface waters, schools, residences, and
neighboring crops.
Use mitigation practices as necessary in accordance
with pest monitoring results, pest predictions, action
thresholds, and WinPST output.

NOTE: Additional pesticide use requirements from
the 595 Practice Standard:
> Always follow all pesticide label instructions and
environmental cautions.
 > Store, handle, transport, mix, use, and dispose of
pesticides and pesticide containers per Maine Board of
Pesticides Control recommendations and regulations.

> Follow state and federal worker protection standards.
> When drawing water for pesticide mixing from any
surface waters of the state, use anti-siphoning devices
and do not use hoses that have been in contact with
pesticides.
> Do not mix or load pesticides within 50 ft from the
high water mark of any surface waters of the state.
Pesticide applicator must be properly licensed and
certified when using restricted use pesticides or when
doing custom pesticide applications for hire. Contact
Maine Board of Pesticides Control for license and
certification requirements.
                                            Sweet Corn
European corn borer (ECB), common and fall armyworm, corn earworm (CEW), corn flea beetles, corn
leaf aphid (CLA), cutworms, seedcorn maggot, wireworms, two-spotted spider mite, Japanese beetle,
common stalk borer, sap and picnic beetles, white grub
Rust, maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), seed decay, Stewart's wilt (Pantoae [Erwinia] stewartii),
common smut




                                              Sweet Corn

Sap or picinic beetles: Select varieties that have good tip cover.
Seed decay: Buy treated seed.


Cultivate, flame, or use pre- and/or post-emergent herbicides until crop canopy closure.

Use drip irrigation or avoid overhead irrigation between dusk and midnight to minimize disease.



Don't cutivate or harvest when foliage is wet. Work infested fields last. Wash equipment between fields
to remove soil residue.


Disease/Sap and picnic beetles: Remove or turn under decomposing plant material on a regular basis.
ECB: Plow under corn refuse in the fall or early spring. Plant cover crop if time allows.
Cutworms: Use fall plowing when corn follows sod/hay in rotation. Plant cover crop if time allows.




Common stalk borer: Eliminate grassy weeds along field borders in August by mowing or applying
herbicides.
ECB/CLA: Eliminate overwintering areas, e.g. weedy or grassy areas, cereals, particularly barley.
MDMV: Eradicate Johnson grass.
Apply lime according to soil test to maintain soil pH between 6.5 to 6.8
Plow under corn stalks and cover crops to maintain high high levels of organic matter in the soil.
Apply no more than 80 to 100 pounds per acre combined weight of actual nitrogen and potash applied 2”
on the side and 2” below the seed as a band. Use less nitrogen fertilizer if manure or legume sod was
plowed down.
Test soil and apply nutrients according to recommendations. See NEVMG for recommendations.
Do not plant sweet corn in the same acreage each year. If necessary to plant sweet corn on the same
acreage, ideally utilize acreage where 50% or more was not planted to sweet corn the previous year.
Plow down to incorporate plant residue between crops.
Wireworm/white grubs: Do not grow corn in rotation with sod or grass crops. Delay planting on such land
for at least two years after the sod has been broken. Summer fallow is recommended for at least one
season.
Plant early corn on light, well-drained soil in a warm, sheltered location. Heavier soils are best for the
main crop.
Green peach aphid (vectors MDMV): Plant away from peach trees (overwintering host).

ECB/fall armyworm/CEW: Where allowed, consider using genetically modified Bt varieties using
appropriate buffers and refugia.
Aphids: Use varieties with purple or green tassels which seem to be less susceptible.
Sap/picinic beetles: Select varieties that have good tip cover.
Corn flea beetles: Plant varieties tolerant to Stewart's Wilt.
MDMV: Plant resistant or tolerant corn varieties.
Rust: Plant rust-resistant varieties.
Stewart's wilt: Grow resistant varieties. Information on cultivar susceptibility is available online at
http://www.sweetcorn.uiuc.edu/stewarts.
Avoid planting while soil temperature is lower than 55°F. If soil temperature is below 60°F, it is advisable
to plant treated seed. If planting untreated seed, wait until the soil temperature is at least 65°F.
Rust: Plant early maturing and rust-resistant varieties.
Corn leaf aphid: Seed corn before June 10.


.

ECB: Monitor flight with baited net traps placed in weedy borders of corn fields. Check traps once or
twice per week. Once flight is detected, scout weekly corn with newly emerging tassels for the presence
of ECB larvae. (Refer to NEVMG or reference # 14 for details.)
Fall armyworm larvae: Scout whorl stage and pre-tassel corn for damage.
Fall armyworm moths: Monitor whorl stage corn with pheromone bucket traps. Count moths at least
weekly. (Refer to NEVMG for details.)
CEW: Monitor with pheromone traps. Place traps in blocks with fresh silk and count moths twice weekly
to monitor average nightly catch. (Refer to NEVMG for details.)
Cutworms: If cutworms have been a pest problem in other years, monitor adults with a pheromone
bucket trap from March through May. A catch of over 40 moths before June indicates that frequent
spring and early summer scouting is prudent. Scout problem fields weekly early in season especially near
field margins. (Refer to NEVMG for details.)
Corn leaf aphid: Monitor while scouting pre-tassel stage corn for ECB or FAW in late July or August.
Flea beetles: Scout frequently if Stewart's wilt has been an historical problem.
Utilize commercial satellite weather prediction and recording service, such as 'Skybit' or University of
Maine Cooperative Extension weather forecast at pmo.umext.maine.edu/apple/forecast.html.




Utilize Pestwatch for corn and/or University of Maine Cooperative Extension Sweet Corn IPM Newsletter
(see reference # 43) which provides weekly pest monitoring data for Maine.
 Overseed with cover crop just prior to crop canopy closure or seed winter rye after crop plowdown.



 Plant early varieties 8-10” within rows and 30-36” between rows. Plant main season varieties 10-12”
 within rows and 36” between rows. Match seed size to seed plate. Follow seed company
 recommendations for spacing on specific varieties.

 Strip or zone tillage may be suitable for mid- to late-season varieties. Contact Maine Cooperative
 Extension for information.

 Plastic mulches generally not used for pest management in sweet corn, however they can be used to
 enhance growth of early varieties (see NEVMG for details).

 Overseed with cover crop just prior to crop canopy closure or seed winter rye after crop plowdown.

 ECB: Plow under corn refuse in the fall or early spring.
 Cutworms: When corn follows sod/hay in rotation, use fall plowing to reduce spring egg-laying sites.




Corn leaf aphid: Overhead irrigate, if needed, during the silk stage to reduce or eliminate aphid damage,
however this may increase incidence of rust.



 ECB: Use row covers to protect whorl-stage early corn from ECB egg-laying.
 Corn flea beetles: Use row covers.




 Use tile drainage, sub soiling, grassed waterways, and organic matter additions. Avoid planting in low and
 wet spots in field.




Corn leaf aphid: Overhead irrigate, if needed, during the silk stage to reduce or eliminate aphid damage,
however this may increase incidence of rust.

 Avoid broad-spectrum insecticide applications to protect natural enemies which include the seven- and
 twelve-spotted ladybeetles which prey on eggs, small larvae, and aphids.

 Release Trichogramma ostriniae, which attacks ECB eggs, to reduce the need for insecticide
 applications. See NEVMG Biological controls or reference #14 for more information.

 Incorporate compost before planting.
Follow pest monitoring guidelines and spray thresholds in NEVMG to minimize pesticide applications.
ECB: Apply controls during whorl and pretassel stage if more than 15% of the plants have one or more
larvae present. If trap captures exceed 5 moths/trap/week, spray silking corn.
FAW: Apply controls during whorl and pretassel stage if more than 15% of the plants have one or more
larvae present. If trap captures exceed 3 moths/trap/week, spray silking corn.
CEW: Monitor moths with pheromone traps. Time sprays according to action thresholds (see NEVMG
for table).
Corn leaf aphid: Treat when 50% of plants are infested.
Weeds: Include weed-control decisions based on previous year's weed map and/or pest scouting.
Consider waiting until first planting of sweet corn is 3” to 5” high to apply herbicide. At this time, all fields
of sweet corn planted to date can be treated. After that, each field should be sprayed soon after it is
planted since soils will be warmer and grasses are more likely to emerge soon after seeding the crop.
Conserve predators and parasites by using selective insecticides, such as Bt and spinosad, to control
caterpillars before silking.



Only 1 lb active ingredient of atrazine is recommended for sweet corn in New England. This is well below
the rate on the label and constitutes best management practices for groundwater protection. This rate
could be reduced further, although the grower should be prepared to make a second application of
atrazine if any weeds escape.
Rates for Dual and Lasso should be selected based on soil type. Follow the label to determine the correct
rate. Reducing the rate of Dual or Lasso is dangerous since it is very difficult to control grasses in sweet
corn once they emerge.
CEW: Maintain insecticide coverage of the silks. Directed sprays to the ear zone provide the best
coverage. Repeat applications to silk every three to six days depending on trap captures according to the
chart in NEVMG or UM Extension. If maximum daily temperature is below 85° F for 2-3 days, spray
intervals may be extended by one day. Continue treatments until five to seven days before final harvest
or until silk is completely dry and brown.
Cutworms: Spot spray areas heavily hit or edges of the field if 5% of the plants have been cut down. For
best results, make application between midnight and dawn while cutworms are feeding aboveground.
Foliar-applied rescue treatments are recommended over preventative soil-applied insecticides.
Weeds: Use field history or weed maps to determine if spot treatments can be used.



Calibrate sprayer at beginning of season and check regularly during season. Recalibrate after any nozzle
change. (See reference # 8.)
Alternate applications of chemicals with different modes of action to avoid development of pest
resistance. For genetically modified Bt corn, follow recommendations for refugia.
Avoid broad-spectrum insecticides if possible to minimize resistance.
Use a boom-type sprayer with drop nozzles for best coverage of silks or ears. Arrange nozzles to
sandwich the ear between the spray paths. TX-10 or D2-25 hollow-cone nozzles at 75 to 100 psi provide
excellent coverage. Do not use flat-fan nozzles or nozzles that produce large droplets.
ECB: Use a sprayer configuration with one nozzle directed into the tassel and a single drop nozzle to the
upper parts of the plant for the best control.
Weeds: Use a directed/shielded spray when using any non-selective herbicide, such as Scythe. For
hand-held equipment spray to completely wet all weed foliage, but not to the point of runoff.

May use water-sensitive cards to monitor spray pattern and drift during calibration.




Use vegetative buffers, set-backs, or filter strips to minimize chemical movement to sensitive areas such
as surface waters, schools, residences, and neighboring crops.


Use mitigation practices as necessary in accordance with pest monitoring results, pest predictions, action
thresholds, and WinPST output.
                        Maine IPM Practices for Vegetable Production
                                      Resource List

IPM Guidelines and Elements

1. Howell, J.C., A.R. Bonanno, T.J. Boucher, R.L. Wick, R. Hazzard, & B. Dicklow. New England
Vegetable Management Guide 2008-2009. [Hard copies available from UMCE Highmoor Farm: 207-
933-2100 or University of Massachusetts Outreach Bookstore: 413-545-2717]
http://www.nevegetable.org/

2. Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations. 2007. University of Delaware.
[This guide is identical for PA, MD, DE, VA, and NJ].
http://ag.udel.edu/extension/vegprogram/pdf/DEvegrecs2007.pdf

3. NYS IPM elements. n.d. New York State IPM Program. Cornell University.
http://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/elements/default.asp

4. Umass Amherst. IPM Guidelines. 2007.
http://www.umass.edu/umext/ipm/guidelines/index.html

Crop Specific Guides, Pest Fact Sheets, and Other Resources

5. Bachman, J. 2005. Season extension techniques for market gardeners. National Sustainable
Agriculture Information Service. ATTRA Publication #IP035. [Information on floating row covers,
mulches and other techniques for pest management, and season-extension.]
http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/seasonext.html
PDF version available at <http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/seasonext.pdf>

6. Boucher, T.J. and R. Durgy. 2003. Perimeter trap cropping works. University of Connecticut
Integrated Pest Management.
http://www.hort.uconn.edu/IPM/veg/htms/ptcworks.htm

7. Clark, A. (Ed.). Managing Cover Crops Profitably 3rd ed. 2007. Sustainable Agriculture Network.
Beltsville, MD. Handbook Series Book 9.
http://www.sare.org/publications/covercrops/covercrops.pdf

8. Dill, J. & G. Koehler (Eds.). 2005. Agricultural pocket pesticide calibration guide. University of
Maine Cooperative Extension & USDA.
http://pronewengland.org/INFO/PROpubs/CalibrationGuide-small.pdf

9. Diver, S. 2002. Flame weeding for vegetable crops. National Sustainable Agriculture. Information
Service. ATTRA Publication #CT165.
http://www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/flameweedveg.html
10. DuFour, R. 2001. BioIntensive integrated pest management. National Sustainable Agriculture
Information Service. ATTRA Publication #IP049.
http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/ipm.html
[PDF version available online at <http://www.attra.ncat.org/attrapub/PDF/flameweedveg.pdf>.]

11. Everts, K., S. Sardanelli, R. Kratochvil, and L.B. Gallagher. 2005. Agricultural innovations fact
sheet: Cultural practices for root-knot and root-lesion nematode suppression in vegetable crop rotations.
Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education. SARE Publication #06AGI2005.
http://www.sare.org/publications/factsheet/0605.htm

12. Flint, M.L. and P. Gouveia. 2001. IPM in Practice: Principles and Methods of Integrated Pest
Management. University of California. Publication 3418.

13. Gugino, B.K., O.J. Idowu, R.R. Schindelbeck, H.M. van Es, D.W. Wolfe, J.E. Thies, and G.S.
Abawi. Cornell soil health assessment training manual. ed.1.2. 2007.
http://soilhealth.cals.cornell.edu/Soil Health Manual Edition 1.2.pdf

14. Hazzard, R., A. Brown, and P. Westgate. 2008. Using IPM in the field: Sweet corn insect
management field scouting guide. University of Massachusetts Extension Vegetable Program.

15. Hazzard, R., A. Brown, and P. Westgate. 2008. Using IPM in the field: Sweet corn insect
management record keeping book. University of Massachusetts Extension Vegetable Program.

16. Hendrickson, J. 2003. Cover crops on the intensive market farm.
http://www.hort.wisc.edu/FreshVeg/Publications/Cover crops on the intensive market farm.pdf

17. Invasive plant atlas of New England. 2004. University of Connecticut.
http://nbii-nin.ciesin.columbia.edu/ipane/icat/catalogOfSpecies.do

18. Kersbergen, R. Cover crops for soil health. 2005.
http://www.newenglandvfc.org/2005_conference/sessions/soil_health/cover_crops_soil_health.pdf

19. Kovatch, J., C. Petzoldt, & J. Tette. n.d. A method to measure the environmental impact of
pesticides. New York State Integrated Pest Management. Cornell University. [Environmental impact
quotients of pesticides].
http://nysipm.cornell.edu/publications/eiq/default.asp

20. Kuepper, G. 2001. Pursuing conservation tillage systems for organic crop production.
http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/organicmatters/conservationtillage.html


21. Managing pest resistance to pesticides. 2008. Gemplers.
http://www.gemplers.com/pages/tech/ipmresistance.aspx
22. May, H.L. and M.B. Ryan. IPM and wildlife. 2004. NRCS. Fish and Wildlife Management
Leaflet.      No. 24. [Good introduction to IPM. Illustrated with specific examples.].
ftp://ftp-fc.sc.egov.usda.gov/NHQ/ecs/Wild/IPM_Wildlife.pdf.

23. NYS IPM fact sheets for vegetables. n.d. New York State IPM Program. Cornell University.
http://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/factsheets/vegetables/

24. Organic weed management. n.d. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service.
http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/IPM/weed.pdf

25. Pest management. 1998. National Association of Soil Conservation Districts. [Tip sheet].
http://www.ma.nrcs.usda.gov/news/publications/pestmgt.pdf

26. Vaughn, M., M. Shepherd, C. Kremen, and S.H. Black. Farming for Bees: Guidelines for
Providing Native Bee Habitat on Farms. 2nd ed. 2007. Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.
http://www.xerces.org/Pollinator_Insect_Conservation/Farming_for_Bees_2nd_edition.pdf
Portland, OR.

27. Sullivan, P. 2003. Overview of cover crops and green manure. National Sustainable Agriculture
Information Service. ATTRA Publication #IP024.
http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/covercrop.html

28. Sullivan, P. 2003. Principles of sustainable weed management for cropland.
http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/PDF/weed.pdf

29. Weeden, C.R., A.M. Shelton, and M.P. Hoffmann (Eds.). n.d. Guide to biological control: A guide
to natural enemies in North America. Cornell University.
http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/

30. Windows pesticide screening tool Win-PST 3.0. n.d. Natural Resources Conservation Service.
http://www.wsi.nrcs.usda.gov/products/W2Q/pest/winpst.html

31. Weed Assessment List. n.d. New York State Integrated Pest Management Program. Cornell
http://nysipm.cornell.edu/scouting/weed_assmt.pdf



Forecasting Service Websites

32. Cucurbit downy mildew forecast homepage. 2008.
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/pp/cucurbit/


33. PestWatch. n.d. Penn State University. [A free internet-based insect and disease forecasting
service for sweet corn and other crops. Based on in-season data from Maine and other NE states.].
http://www.pestwatch.psu.edu/
34. Skybit.com. n.d. [Commercial weather service].
http://www.skybit.com/


35. University of Maine Cooperative Extension Maine apple IPM program forecast. 2007. [Includes
current and long-range weather forecasts.]
http://pmo.umext.maine.edu/apple/forecast.htm



IPM Websites IPM

36. Database of IPM resources (DIR). n.d.
http://ipmnet.org/cicp/Vegetable/veg.htm


37. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. 2007. [Source for IPM and organic
guidelines for many pests and practices].
http://www.attra.ncat.org/pest.html

38. Northeast IPM Center. 2008. [Searchable database of IPM resources].
http://www.northeastipm.org/vege_all.cfm

39. ProNewEngland. [Links to web resources for New England IPM].
http://www.pronewengland.org/INFO/PROInfoCropLivestock.htm

40 UMassAmherst Vegetable Program. 2007.
http://www.umassvegetable.org/index.html

41. University of Delaware Cooperative Extension IPM - Vegetables.
http://ag.udel.edu/extension/IPM/info/ipmveg.html

42. University of Maine Cooperative Extension Integrated Pest Management.
http://www.umext.maine.edu/topics/pest.htm

43. University of Maine Cooperative Extension Potato Program. 2008.
http://www.umaine.edu/umext/potatoprogram/

44. University of Maine Cooperative Extension Sweet Corn IPM. 2008.
http://pmo.umext.maine.edu/swetcorn/Corn.htm

								
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