Survival by alicejenny


									   S-Size Up the Situation
   Size up three different things:
       -Your surroundings: determine the
    pattern of the area.
       -Your physical condition: take care to
    prevent bodily harm. Drink plenty of
    water, and in cold or wet climates put on
    more clothing to prevent hypothermia.
       -Your equipment: check to see what
    equipment you have and what condition
    it’s in. Keep in mind basic physical
    needs- water food and shelter
   U-Use All Your Senses,Undue
    Haste Makes Waste
   Reacting quickly without thinking can be
    life-threatening. Don’t move just for the
    sake of taking action. Plan your moves
    and use all your senses to evaluate a
    situation. BE OBSERVANT!! What you don’t
    know, can hurt you.
   R-Remember Where You Are
   A basic principle to follow is, spot your
    location on a map and relate it to the
    surrounding terrain. Constantly orient
    yourself and try to determine how your
    location relates to the location of local
    water sources.
   V-Vanquish Fear
   If left uncontrolled fear and panic can
    destroy your ability to make an
    intelligent decision. They cause you to
    react to your feelings and can drain your
    energy causing other negative emotions
    such as hopelessness, anxiety, and
    paranoia.”No passion so effectively robs
    the mind of all its powers of acting and
    reasoning as fear”-Edmund Burke
   I-Improvise
   Learn how to improvise, take a tool
    designed for a specific purpose and see
    how many other uses you can make of it.
    Learn how to use natural objects around
    you. Nothing is useless when survival is
    the issue.
   V-Value Living
   The number one necessity of life is the
    Will to Live/ Positive Mental Attitude
    (PMA). If all priorities are maintained
    but you lack the will to live then all is
    lost. The power of the mind must never be
    underestimated. Sometimes its seems like
    death is the easiest way out during
    periods of extreme mental and physical
    stress. People have to power to will
    themselves to death, as to live.
   A-Act Like the Natives
   Animal life in the area can give you
    clues on how to survive, by watching them
    you can find sources of food and water.
    Remember that animals cannot serve as an
    absolute guide to what you can eat and
    drink. Some animals eat plants that are
    toxic to humans
   L-Live By Your Wits, But for
    Now, Learn Basic Skills
   Without training basic skills the chances
    of living are slim. Practice basic
    survival skills. Survival training
    reduces fear of the unknown and gives you
    self confidence. It teaches you to live
    by your wits.
 Develop a survival pattern, it must include
  food, water, shelter, fire, first aid, and
  signals. If you are injured first aid has top
  priority, no matter what climate you are in.
 The necessities of life in order are 1)Will
  to Live/ Positive Mental Attitude- the rest
  wont matter if you don’t want to live
  2)Air/Oxygen- you can only survive 3-5
  minutes without air 3)Shelter, clothing, and
  warmth 4)Rest- both physical and mental rest
  are needed 5)Signals 6)Water- you can survive
  without water for 3 days at most 7)Food-you
  can go without food for 3-4 weeks
   Survival at sea is about Staying alive
    long enough to reach safety.
   To do so, you need to know the main
    factors that endanger your survival and
    the techniques and equipment needed to
    overcome them and most importantly, to
    maintain the right attitude and keep the
    will to survive.
 Preparation for a sea survival situation
  has three aspects
   Knowledge
   Equipment
   Attitude
 If a sea survivor is thoroughly prepared
  for their ordeal, knows what to expect
  and how to deal with it, they will not be
 Learning gives you the ability to share
  knowledge rather than having to start
  from scratch every time.
   In order to stay alive you must be aware
    of the four main enemies to survival.
   In order of priority they are
     Drowning
     Exposure
     Thirst
     Hunger
   Drowning is the ocean’s number one
    killer. Your body cannot function without
    oxygen being transported by blood to
    vital organs.
   Without sufficiently oxygenated blood the
    brain will become hypoxic, causing
    unconsciousness, brain damage, and then a
    coma within minutes
   However when we are immersed in water
    your lungs help keep you afloat, and if
    your head or at least your face is kept
    above the water, you can inflate your
    lungs and stay afloat.
   Above all, it is important that you stay
    calm. Panic increases the body’s demand
    for oxygen.
   Panicking reduces the oxygen intake,
    because your breathing quickens but also
    becomes shallower.
   As you panic you wear out you body and
    become exhausted, then you will lose the
    energy to stay afloat, and drown
   The normal human body has a core
    temperature of 98.4°F
   It is important that your body's core
    temperature be kept as close to normal as
    possible in a survival environment.
   There are two types of exposure
     Cold
     Heat
 When a body is immersed in water, it
  loses heat up to 25 times faster than it
  does in air
 The greater the difference between body
  temperature and water temperature, the
  greater the rate of heat loss
 When you get cold your body triggers
  defense mechanisms
 First your body shivers, a reflex
  intended to restore the body to its
  normal temperature. By contracting
  muscles, large amounts of heat are
   If your body’s core temperature drops
    below 95°F the body becomes hypothermic.
   Symptoms
     Become numb with cold and shiver intensely
     Impaired motor function and coordination
     Slurred and slow speech
     Impaired mental function
     Poor decision making
     Difficulty concentrating
     Vasoconstriction (constricted blood vessels)
      ▪ Vasoconstriction leads to frostbite
   If core temperature continues to drop
    survival becomes less likely
   At 89.9° F the body’s defense mechanisms
    begin to fail
   Shivering will be replaced by muscle
    rigidity and cramping
   The most dangerous thing is when
    vasoconstriction fails because this
    allows the blood to return to the
    extremities, lowering blood pressure and
    slowing the pulse and rate of respiration
   Blood will lose more heat as it passes
    through the cold extremities and then the
    cold blood will circulate around the
    vital organs impairing them even further
   By then you will become confused,
    disoriented, apathetic and eventually
   Death occurs if the core temperature
    drops below 77° F
   Apathy is the most important and worrying
    sign, it indicates that the will to
    survive has been extinguished, without
    it, we die.
   Exposure to heat is potentially more
    dangerous than cold because it involves
   Slight rise of core temperature causes
    veins near the surface of the skin to
    expand, increasing the amount of blood
    near the surface of the skin.
   If your core temperature rises between
    0.5-1°F your sweat glands start secreting
 Sweat is made up of salt and water.
 If sweating fails to return the body’s
  core temperature to normal, the effects
  of the loss of salt and water start to
 After sweating for awhile you will
  experience cramping which is a result of
  losing salt. You can prevent this by
  taking salt tablets with you. Then find a
  place of shade to rest.
   If the salt isn't replaced you will
    experience heat exhaustion, which is a
    form of shock.
   As water and salt are lost your blood
    thickens and blood pressure drops, which
    reduces the blood flow to vital organs.
   You will become cold and clammy and may
    get a headache, feel dizzy, confused, and
    drowsy, it will leave you feeling weak
    and drained.
   Heat stroke will follow if correct action
    isn't taken.
   To counter the drop in blood pressure the
    blood vessels widen, called vasodilation
    (opposite of vasoconstriction), and heart
    rate increases.
   As fluid and salt levels decrease the
    blood thickens further, this means
    sweating has failed.
   Skin will now feel dry and hot as the
    heart beats faster to try to raise blood
   The lack of oxygen to the brain leads to
    unconscious, hypoxic brain damage, and
    eventually death
   Heat exposure also includes UV radiation,
    and if you don’t protect your skin, it
    will result in sunburn
   Sunburn is usually a first-degree burn
    because only affects the skin, but it can
    be uncomfortable and extremely painful,
    and can sap morale
 Another risk of UV rays is sun blindness
 UV radiation is reflected by the water
  and after as little as six hours can burn
  the cornea.
 Sun blindness has a gritty feeling as if
  you got sand in your eyes, and your
  vision may deteriorate
 To prevent this, wear sunglasses
 Another type of exposure is salt water.
 No matter how hard you try, at sea, you
  will have contact with salt water.
 Saltwater sores usually first occur on
  feet, knees, elbows and hands, and then
  it spreads to the rest of the body.
 Putting on waterproof sunscreen provides
  some relief but it will eventually get
  rubbed off
 Do NOT try to drain the resulting boils,
  they will become open sores and the
   If broken skin is exposed to salt water,
    it will not heal, it will become
    infected, scabrous and filled with pus.
   The scabs should NOT be broken as it
    leads to ulceration.
   Antiseptic ointment should be applied and
    sea water should be kept away from the
 When at sea, sources of fresh water may not
  be readily available and your reserve
  supplies are unlikely to be enough.
 In stressful situations your body increases
  the production of adrenaline, as a result
       Pupils dilate to increase visual activity
       Sense of hearing sharpens
       Heart rate rises
       Vasodilation for vital organs
       Vasoconstriction for skin
       Increased amount of oxygen in blood
       Digestion shuts down
       Raised metabolism
       Water in urine is reabsorbed into body tissue
   This response cannot be maintained for
    long periods of time.
   To prevent loss of water you should take
    seasickness pills as not to lose fluids
    through vomiting.
   If you do have to vomit then vomit into a
    bag that can be sealed- vomiting
    overboard will attract sharks
   You are also likely to become
    constipated, possibly for several weeks.
   You should resist the urge to urinate,
    but if you have to do it into a
   Urinating overboard increases the chances
    of falling out and attracts sharks.
   To save water in the long term you must
    reduce water loss such as sweating.
    Reduce activities to a bare minimum.
   Water will be the single most important
    factor in your life at sea
   Hunger comes is a very distant second to
   Hunger is painful, but its malnutrition
    that kills.
   Once your stores of fat are burned up to
    produce energy, your body will start
    drawing energy from breaking down
    proteins in muscles, leading to muscle
    wastage and physical weakness.
   Without insulating fat or the capacity to
    generate heat by shivering, the body is
    more susceptible to the effects of cold.
   Your life raft will attract food so you
    will not go hungry at sea.
   The majority of the oceans food sources
    are rich in protein. If you lack adequate
    water, do not eat protein.

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