Practice Multiple Choice: Chapter 2
Answers appear at the bottom of the page.
1) Assuming that everyone else is staring 6) The extent to which we evaluate our
at the pimple on your chin is an example abilities and opinions by comparing
of the ourselves to others is called
A. transparency effect A. a hoped-for possible self.
B. audience effect B. a feared possible self.
C. spotlight effect C. social rank.
D. headlight effect D. social comparison.
2) The illusion that our concealed emotions 7) Festinger’s theory of social
leak out and can be easily read by others comparison assumes that you
is referred to as the illusion of engage in self-comparisons with
people that are:
B. an audience. A. expected to be much more
C. the spotlight. accomplished than you are
D. the headlight. B. expected to be much less
accomplished than you are.
3) A person’s answer to the question C. expected to be about as
“Who am I?” comprises his or her accomplished as you are.
D. None of these. According to
A. personality. Festinger you compare yourself
B. self-presentation. against your own
C. self-esteem. accomplishments, not the
D. self-concept. accomplishments of others.
4) _______ is defined as an element of 8) When asked to describe herself, Tara
the self that organizes and guides mentions that she is a Business
the processing of self-relevant Administration major at Lock Haven
information. University. This illustrates what source
B. Self-schema A. Social identity.
C. Self-esteem B. Personal identity.
D. Self-concept C. Possible self.
D. Looking glass self
5) Your English Literature professor is
helping you the most to remember a 9) The habit of using how we imagine
character from a story when he/she another person perceiving us, as a mirror
asks you to compare ____ to this for perceiving ourselves, is referred to as
A. a self-fulfilling prophecy.
A. your mother B. low self-esteem.
B. your best friend C. a social comparison.
C. yourself D. the looking-glass self.
D. your dog
10) Which of the following maxims best 14) In a study of affective forecasting,
represents the concept of individualism? Riis et al. asked ill and well
participants to predict how they
A. Two heads are better than one. would feel is their situation was
B. To thine own self be true. reversed (e.g., the ill become well,
C. Father knows best. the well become ill). The results of
D. It takes a village to raise a child. the study showed:
11) Giving priority to the goals of one’s A. Both groups tended to
group, such as one’s family or overestimate the impact of the
workplace, and defining one’s change.
identity accordingly is called B. Both groups tended to
accurately predict their future
A. cooperation. feelings.
B. communality. C. he participants who were ill
C. collectivism. were accurate in their
D. groupthink. predictions, but the well
participants couldn’t predict
12) Your self-esteem would correlate how it would feel to be sick.
closely with what others think of D. The participants who were well
you and your group if you were in were accurate in their
a(n) ______ culture. predictions, but the sick
participants couldn’t predict
A. individualistic how it would feel to be well.
C. self-centered 15) Which statement about predicting your
D. other-centered own behaviors or relationships is
13) In what type of culture would a
threat to our personal identity (such A. You are the best predictor of
as having someone tell us we are your own behaviors.
dumb or weird) cause us to be more B. You can predict the fate of
upset than a threat to our collective your relationships but not your
identity (such as having someone behaviors.
ridicule students)? C. The people who know you can
probably predict your behaviors
A. individualistic better than you.
B. collectivistic D. Neither you nor the people who
C. self-centered know you can predict your
D. other-centered behaviors or the fates of your
16) A sense that one is competent and
effective refers to one’s
17) Researchers reported a _______ 21) Your best friend earned a grade of “F”
correlation between persistence and self- on her latest physics exam, and believes it
efficacy. was because the professor wrote a very
difficult exam. She therefore has a(n)
A. positive _______ locus of control.
C. moderate A. internal
D. zero B. external
18) Karl wishes he had more confidence D. low
quit his safe job and to start his own
company. 22) You attend a self-help discussion
According to self-discrepancy theory group, where the leader is encouraging
(Higgins), Karl is concerned with a people to think of themselves as the writers,
discrepancy between his actual self and his directors, and actors of their own lives. The
________________. group leader is hoping people will adopt
a(n) _______ locus of control.
A. eventual self
B. ought self A. internal
C. ideal self B. external
D. feared self C. high
19) A new mother, Brittany believes she
should be more patient when her baby cries. 23) The “A” or affective component of self,
She feels anxious and guilty as a result. our sense of self-worth is also called our
Self-discrepancy theory describes this as a
discrepancy between her actual self and her A. self-concept.
___________________. B. self-efficacy.
A. eventual self D. self-value.
B. ought self
C. ideal self 24) Baumeister (1996) reported that people
D. feared self who tend to be obnoxious, interrupt
others and talk at people rather than with
20) One way Brittany from the previous them, also tend to possess
question could start to feel better is to reduce
the discrepancy between her self-guides. A. high self-esteem.
Which is an example of that strategy? B. low self-esteem.
C. high self-efficacy.
A. Drop the baby off at grandma’s so D. low self-efficacy.
Brittany won’t have to listen to the
baby cry. 25) According to the self-serving bias, we
B. Ask her doctor to prescribe her tend to attribute our successes to
medication for her anxiety. _______ and our losses to _______.
C. Compare herself to mothers who do
show more patience. A. chance; skill
D. Change her standards and realize B. skill; chance
that many new mothers feel C. hoped-for possible selves;
overwhelmed and impatient at feared possible selves
times. D. feared possible selves; hoped-
for possible selves
30) The false uniqueness effect is
26) Compared to those with low self-
esteem, people with a sense of self- A. the anticipation of problems to
worth are motive effective action.
B. unrealistic optimism about future
A. more competitive. life events.
B. kinder. C. the tendency to see our talents and
C. smarter. moral behaviors as relatively
D. happier. unusual.
D. the tendency to see oneself as
27) Most people perceive themselves as superior to others.
A. less intelligent than others. 31) Natalie is upset because she gained
B. less attractive than others. about 5 pounds over the holidays. To make
C. much less prejudiced than her self feel better she will most likely
others. compare herself to which one of her friends?
D. knowing others better than we
know ourselves. A. Marion who lost 5 pounds.
B. Joan who gained 10 pounds.
28) Which of the following is an example C. Debbie whose weight did not
of unrealistic optimism? change.
D. Alice who gained 10 pounds,
A. If I study enough, I’ll do well but who has since lost 5.
on this exam.
B. I’m sure I’ll get a great, high 32) John is nervous about his tennis
paying job when I graduate. match, but he still stays out late
C. The stock market is a very risky instead of getting a good night’s
place. sleep the night before the match.
D. If I quit smoking, I’ll lower my This could be an example of
risk of cancer.
29) Barbara was really shocked when her B. the self-serving bias.
candidate was not elected. She had C. impression management.
assumed that everyone felt as she did D. self-presentation.
and supported her candidate’s ideas.
This is an example of the 33) Self-monitoring is
A. false consensus effect. A. protecting one’s self-image by
B. self-serving bias. creating an excuse for later
C. unrealistic optimism. failure.
D. defensive pessimism. B. disparaging oneself (false
modesty) to elicit reassurance.
C. attempting to present a
favorable image to an external
D. adjusting one’s behavior in
response to external situations
to create the desired impression.
34) Jack has just started working at an 35) Tesser’s self-relevance theory would
upscale restaurant where many customers predict that the social comparison that would
may be more conservative. Although it may most likely threaten your self-esteem is:
affect his tips, Jack continues to wear short
sleeve shirts that show off his multiple A. When a student with a different
tattoos because they have special meaning to major does better in an elective
him. Jack is most likely: course that you are also
A. High in self-monitoring B. Your same-sex sibling who is
B. Low in self-monitoring ten years older tells you about a
C. High in self-handicapping promotion he or she got at work.
D. Low in self-handicapping C. You consider yourself to be a
good athlete and currently are
on your college soccer team. A
close friend on the gymnastics
team just won a gold medal at a
D. Your same-sex sibling who is a
year younger applies to the
same college and to the same
scholarship fund that you did.
You were accepted to the
college, but didn’t get a
scholarship. Your sibling was
also accepted and got a
1. C 19. B
2. A 20. D
3. D 21. B
4. B 22. A
5. C 23. C
6. D 24. A
7. C 25. B
8. A 26. D
9. D 27. C
10. B 28. B
11. C 29. A
12. B 30. C
13. A 31. B
14. A 32. A
15. C 33. D
16. D 34. B
17. A 35. D