1 Practice Multiple Choice Chapter 2 Answers appear at the bottom

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1 Practice Multiple Choice Chapter 2 Answers appear at the bottom Powered By Docstoc
					                                 Practice Multiple Choice: Chapter 2
                               Answers appear at the bottom of the page.
Chapter 2

     1)   Assuming that everyone else is staring           6)       The extent to which we evaluate our
          at the pimple on your chin is an example                  abilities and opinions by comparing
          of the                                                    ourselves to others is called

              A.   transparency effect                              A.   a hoped-for possible self.
              B.    audience effect                                 B.    a feared possible self.
              C.    spotlight effect                                C.    social rank.
              D.   headlight effect                                 D.   social comparison.

2)        The illusion that our concealed emotions         7)       Festinger’s theory of social
          leak out and can be easily read by others                 comparison assumes that you
          is referred to as the illusion of                         engage in self-comparisons with
                                                                    people that are:
              A.   transparency.
              B.    an audience.                                    A. expected to be much more
              C.    the spotlight.                                     accomplished than you are
              D.   the headlight.                                   B. expected to be much less
                                                                       accomplished than you are.
     3)   A person’s answer to the question                         C. expected to be about as
          “Who am I?” comprises his or her                             accomplished as you are.
                                                                    D. None of these. According to
              A. personality.                                          Festinger you compare yourself
              B. self-presentation.                                    against your own
              C. self-esteem.                                          accomplishments, not the
              D. self-concept.                                         accomplishments of others.

     4)       _______ is defined as an element of          8)   When asked to describe herself, Tara
              the self that organizes and guides                mentions that she is a Business
              the processing of self-relevant                   Administration major at Lock Haven
              information.                                      University. This illustrates what source
                                                                of self-concept?
              A.   Personality
              B.   Self-schema                                      A.   Social identity.
              C.   Self-esteem                                      B.   Personal identity.
              D.   Self-concept                                     C.   Possible self.
                                                                    D.   Looking glass self
     5)       Your English Literature professor is
              helping you the most to remember a      9)        The habit of using how we imagine
              character from a story when he/she                another person perceiving us, as a mirror
              asks you to compare ____ to this                  for perceiving ourselves, is referred to as
                                                                    A.   a self-fulfilling prophecy.
              A.   your mother                                      B.    low self-esteem.
              B.   your best friend                                 C.    a social comparison.
              C.   yourself                                         D.   the looking-glass self.
              D.   your dog

10) Which of the following maxims best              14)    In a study of affective forecasting,
    represents the concept of individualism?               Riis et al. asked ill and well
                                                           participants to predict how they
        A.   Two heads are better than one.                would feel is their situation was
        B.   To thine own self be true.                    reversed (e.g., the ill become well,
        C.    Father knows best.                           the well become ill). The results of
        D.   It takes a village to raise a child.          the study showed:

11)    Giving priority to the goals of one’s               A. Both groups tended to
       group, such as one’s family or                         overestimate the impact of the
       workplace, and defining one’s                          change.
       identity accordingly is called                      B. Both groups tended to
                                                              accurately predict their future
        A.   cooperation.                                     feelings.
        B.   communality.                                  C. he participants who were ill
        C.   collectivism.                                    were accurate in their
        D.   groupthink.                                      predictions, but the well
                                                              participants couldn’t predict
12)     Your self-esteem would correlate                      how it would feel to be sick.
        closely with what others think of                  D. The participants who were well
        you and your group if you were in                     were accurate in their
        a(n) ______ culture.                                  predictions, but the sick
                                                              participants couldn’t predict
        A.   individualistic                                  how it would feel to be well.
        B.    collectivistic
        C.    self-centered                         15) Which statement about predicting your
        D.   other-centered                             own behaviors or relationships is
13)     In what type of culture would a
        threat to our personal identity (such              A.  You are the best predictor of
        as having someone tell us we are                      your own behaviors.
        dumb or weird) cause us to be more                 B. You can predict the fate of
        upset than a threat to our collective                 your relationships but not your
        identity (such as having someone                      behaviors.
        ridicule students)?                                C. The people who know you can
                                                              probably predict your behaviors
        A.   individualistic                                  better than you.
        B.    collectivistic                               D. Neither you nor the people who
        C.    self-centered                                   know you can predict your
        D.   other-centered                                   behaviors or the fates of your

                                                    16) A sense that one is competent and
                                                       effective refers to one’s

                                                           A.   self-esteem.
                                                           B.    self-aggrandizement.
                                                           C.    self-worth.
                                                           D.   self-efficacy.

17) Researchers reported a _______                 21) Your best friend earned a grade of “F”
   correlation between persistence and self-       on her latest physics exam, and believes it
   efficacy.                                       was because the professor wrote a very
                                                   difficult exam. She therefore has a(n)
    A. positive                                    _______ locus of control.
    B. negative
    C. moderate                                        A.   internal
    D. zero                                            B.    external
                                                       C.    high
18) Karl wishes he had more confidence                 D.   low
quit his safe job and to start his own
company.                                           22) You attend a self-help discussion
    According to self-discrepancy theory           group, where the leader is encouraging
(Higgins), Karl is concerned with a                people to think of themselves as the writers,
discrepancy between his actual self and his        directors, and actors of their own lives. The
________________.                                  group leader is hoping people will adopt
                                                   a(n) _______ locus of control.
    A.   eventual self
    B.    ought self                                   A.   internal
    C.    ideal self                                   B.    external
    D.   feared self                                   C.    high
                                                       D.   low
19) A new mother, Brittany believes she
should be more patient when her baby cries.        23) The “A” or affective component of self,
She feels anxious and guilty as a result.              our sense of self-worth is also called our
Self-discrepancy theory describes this as a
discrepancy between her actual self and her            A.   self-concept.
___________________.                                   B.    self-efficacy.
                                                       C.    self-esteem.
    A.   eventual self                                 D.   self-value.
    B.    ought self
    C.    ideal self                               24) Baumeister (1996) reported that people
    D.   feared self                                   who tend to be obnoxious, interrupt
                                                       others and talk at people rather than with
20) One way Brittany from the previous                 them, also tend to possess
question could start to feel better is to reduce
the discrepancy between her self-guides.               A.   high self-esteem.
Which is an example of that strategy?                  B.    low self-esteem.
                                                       C.    high self-efficacy.
    A.  Drop the baby off at grandma’s so              D.   low self-efficacy.
       Brittany won’t have to listen to the
       baby cry.                                   25) According to the self-serving bias, we
    B. Ask her doctor to prescribe her                 tend to attribute our successes to
       medication for her anxiety.                     _______ and our losses to _______.
    C. Compare herself to mothers who do
       show more patience.                                  A. chance; skill
    D. Change her standards and realize                     B. skill; chance
       that many new mothers feel                           C. hoped-for possible selves;
       overwhelmed and impatient at                            feared possible selves
       times.                                               D. feared possible selves; hoped-
                                                               for possible selves

                                              30) The false uniqueness effect is
26) Compared to those with low self-
    esteem, people with a sense of self-            A. the anticipation of problems to
    worth are                                          motive effective action.
                                                    B. unrealistic optimism about future
        A.   more competitive.                         life events.
        B.   kinder.                                C. the tendency to see our talents and
        C.   smarter.                                  moral behaviors as relatively
        D.   happier.                                  unusual.
                                                    D. the tendency to see oneself as
27) Most people perceive themselves as                 superior to others.

        A. less intelligent than others.      31) Natalie is upset because she gained
        B. less attractive than others.       about 5 pounds over the holidays. To make
        C. much less prejudiced than          her self feel better she will most likely
           others.                            compare herself to which one of her friends?
        D. knowing others better than we
           know ourselves.                              A. Marion who lost 5 pounds.
                                                        B. Joan who gained 10 pounds.
28) Which of the following is an example                C. Debbie whose weight did not
    of unrealistic optimism?                               change.
                                                        D. Alice who gained 10 pounds,
        A. If I study enough, I’ll do well                 but who has since lost 5.
            on this exam.
        B. I’m sure I’ll get a great, high    32)      John is nervous about his tennis
            paying job when I graduate.                match, but he still stays out late
        C. The stock market is a very risky            instead of getting a good night’s
            place.                                     sleep the night before the match.
        D. If I quit smoking, I’ll lower my            This could be an example of
            risk of cancer.
                                                        A.   self-handicapping.
29) Barbara was really shocked when her                 B.    the self-serving bias.
    candidate was not elected. She had                  C.    impression management.
    assumed that everyone felt as she did               D.   self-presentation.
    and supported her candidate’s ideas.
    This is an example of the                 33)      Self-monitoring is

        A.   false consensus effect.                    A. protecting one’s self-image by
        B.    self-serving bias.                           creating an excuse for later
        C.    unrealistic optimism.                        failure.
        D.   defensive pessimism.                       B. disparaging oneself (false
                                                           modesty) to elicit reassurance.
                                                        C. attempting to present a
                                                           favorable image to an external
                                                        D. adjusting one’s behavior in
                                                           response to external situations
                                                           to create the desired impression.

34) Jack has just started working at an         35) Tesser’s self-relevance theory would
upscale restaurant where many customers         predict that the social comparison that would
may be more conservative. Although it may       most likely threaten your self-esteem is:
affect his tips, Jack continues to wear short
sleeve shirts that show off his multiple                A.  When a student with a different
tattoos because they have special meaning to               major does better in an elective
him. Jack is most likely:                                  course that you are also
    A.    High in self-monitoring                       B. Your same-sex sibling who is
    B.    Low in self-monitoring                           ten years older tells you about a
    C.    High in self-handicapping                        promotion he or she got at work.
    D.    Low in self-handicapping                      C.   You consider yourself to be a
                                                           good athlete and currently are
                                                           on your college soccer team. A
                                                           close friend on the gymnastics
                                                           team just won a gold medal at a
                                                           prestigious match.
                                                        D. Your same-sex sibling who is a
                                                           year younger applies to the
                                                           same college and to the same
                                                           scholarship fund that you did.
                                                           You were accepted to the
                                                           college, but didn’t get a
                                                           scholarship. Your sibling was
                                                           also accepted and got a

    1.    C   19.   B
    2.    A   20.   D
    3.    D   21.   B
    4.    B   22.   A
    5.    C   23.   C
    6.    D   24.   A
    7.    C   25.   B
    8.    A   26.   D
    9.    D   27.   C
    10.   B   28.   B
    11.   C   29.   A
    12.   B   30.   C
    13.   A   31.   B
    14.   A   32.   A
    15.   C   33.   D
    16.   D   34.   B
    17.   A   35.   D
    18.   C


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