What is Chemical Engineering

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					Undergraduate Teaching:
   past and present
           Dr Patrick Barrie

    Chemical Engineering’s 60th Anniversary
                16 July 2008
Number of undergraduates
                     80

                     70

                     60
Number of students




                     50

                     40

                     30

                     20

                     10

                     0
                     1948   1958   1968   1978   1988   1998   2008
                                          Year
Number of undergraduates
                     80

                     70

                     60
Number of students




                     50

                     40

                     30

                     20

                     10

                     0
                     1948   1958   1968   1978   1988   1998   2008
                                          Year
Number of undergraduates
                     80                        Students enter Department after two
                            Fox
                                               years of either Natural Sciences or
                     70
                                               Mechanical Sciences
                     60
Number of students




                     50                  Year 3:
                                         Qualifying Examination for Chemical Engineering
                     40
                                         Year 4:
                     30                  the Chemical Engineering Tripos
                     20

                     10

                     0
                     1948         1958       1968     1978     1988      1998        2008
                                                       Year
1950-1 course:
    Year 3 (“qualifying examination”)
   Applied Physical Chemistry
     •   Chemical Thermodynamics (16, Denbigh)
     •   Reaction and Phase Equilibrium (28, Denbigh)
     •   Kinetic Theory of Gases (8, Fox)
     •   Reaction Kinetics (4, Danckwerts)
   Chemical Engineering Principles
     •   Material and Thermal Balances (20, Danckwerts)
     •   Fluid Mechanics (16, Kay)
     •   Unit Operations (20, Sellers)
     •   Applied Thermodynamics (16, Kay)
   Mathematics (32, Fox)
   External courses:
     •   Ex-Natural Sciences: Electricity, Materials, Structures, Laboratory
     •   Ex-Mechanical Sciences: General Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry,
         Organic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Practical Organic Chemistry
1950-1 course:
    Year 4 (“Chem Eng Tripos”)
   Applied Physical Chemistry
     •   Thermodynamic Properties (20, Fox)
     •   Reaction Kinetics (16, Danckwerts)
     •   Electrochemistry (16, Danckwerts)
     •   Surface Chemistry (8, Denbigh)
     •   Colloidal Phenomena (16, Denbigh)
   Chemical Engineering Principles
     •   Mass and Heat Transfer (32, Kay)
     •   Unit Operations (24, Sellers)
     •   Continuous Reaction Systems (8, Denbigh)
     •   Automatic Control (8, Kay/Sellers)
     •   Radiant Heat Transfer (8, Fox)
   Chemical Processes (48, Sellers/Denbigh)
   Mathematical Methods (24, Fox)
   Choice of external courses: “Statistical Methods” or “Corrosion of Metals”
   Assessed using SEVEN three hour examinations
   Research Project
Number of undergraduates
                     80
                            Fox
                     70

                     60
Number of students




                                                1959: move to Pembroke Street
                     50

                     40

                     30

                     20

                     10

                     0
                     1948         1958   1968       1978     1988    1998       2008
                                                    Year
Number of undergraduates
                     80
                            Fox          Danckwerts   1960: approval given for purchase
                     70                                      of a digital computer
                     60
Number of students




                     50                                    Vast bulk of students came via the
                                                           Natural Sciences route
                     40

                     30
                                                    1966: Natural Sciences Tripos reformed:
                     20                             Year 2 course on “Fluid Mechanics and
                     10                             Transfer Processes”
                     0
                     1948         1958       1968         1978      1988     1998      2008
                                                           Year
Number of undergraduates
                     80
                            Fox          Danckwerts
                     70

                     60                               1967: Year 3 became known as
Number of students




                     50
                                                       “Part I Chemical Engineering Tripos”
                                                      1968: Year 4 became known as
                     40                                “Part II Chemical Engineering Tripos
                     30

                     20
                                                          1969: Engineering Tripos starts

                     10

                     0
                     1948         1958       1968      1978      1988     1998      2008
                                                        Year
1968-9 course:
    Year 3 (Part I Chemical Engineering)
   Chemical Thermodynamics (24, Hutchison)
   Fluid Mechanics (32, Harrison/Nedderman/Bridgwater)
   Catalysis and Kinetics (24, Kenney/Blackadder)
   Unit Operations (32, Danckwerts/Bridgwater)
   Chemical Reactors (8, Turner)
   Process Control (8, Armstrong)
   Mathematics (24, Hutchison/Turner)
   Statistics (8, Harrison)
   Design (8, Bridgwater)
   External courses:
    • Ex-Natural Sciences: Structures, Laboratory
    • Ex-Mechanical Sciences: Chemistry, Laboratory
 Design Project
1968-9 course:
   Year 4 (Part II Chemical Engineering)
   Fluid Mechanics (40, Nedderman/Armstrong)
   Separation Processes (16, Danckwerts/Blackadder)
   Multicomponent Separations (16, Kenney)
   Thermodynamic Properties (8, Hutchison)
   Radiant Heat Transfer (8, Turner)
   Polymers & Colloids (32, Blackadder)
   Electrochemistry (16, Turner)
   Tubular Reactors (16, Kenney)
   Mathematics (28, Pearson)
   Statistics (8, Harrison)
   Industrial Lectures
   Research Project
Number of undergraduates
                     80
                            Fox          Danckwerts
                     70
                                                        1974: department permitted use of
                     60
                                                        electronic calculators in exams
Number of students




                     50

                     40

                     30

                     20

                     10

                     0
                     1948         1958       1968     1978     1988     1998     2008
                                                      Year
    Number of undergraduates
Year 4 students awarded                                   1990: Year 4 students now
“Certificate in Advanced Study
         80
                 Fox     Danckwerts                       awarded M.Eng. degree.
                                                       Davidson
in Chemical Engineering”
         70                                               University agreed previous
                           60
                                                          students could claim one too.
1980: Biotechnology started
      Number of students




being taught in Year 4
        50

                           40
1986: Structures now taught “in-house”
        30
for ex-Natural Scientists
                           20

                           10

                           0
                           1948   1958   1968   1978        1988      1998      2008
                                                Year
   Number of undergraduates
1994: Chemistry now taught “in-house”
        80
for ex-Engineering students
             Fox        Danckwerts               Davidson      B’water
                          70

        General Engineering
1995-6:60
becomes a 4-year M.Eng. course
     Number of students




                          50

1997: Physics starts a 4th year
       40
course for the M.Sci. degree.
       30
Other sciences follow.
                          20
1997: Chemical Engineering Tripos
starts in 2nd Year at University, after
        10

just one0year of Natural Sciences or
Engineering:
         1948      1958      1968         1978          1988       1998   2008
         Year 2: Part I                   Year

         Year 3: Part IIA
         Year 4: Part IIB
    Number of undergraduates
2001: Undergraduate exchange scheme
       80
with MIT startsFox 2nd year students)
                (for     Danckwerts                   Davidson      B’water    Chase
                          70

                          60
2002:          2nd
           year Natural Sciences
     Number of students




option of Fluid Mechanics ended
        50

                          40

        UCAS codes set up for
2004/5:30
 Chemical Engineering via Natural Sciences
       20
 Chemical Engineering via Engineering
                          10

                          0
                          1948   1958   1968   1978          1988       1998           2008
                                               Year
    Number of undergraduates
                          80
             Fox          Danckwerts      Davidson           B’water    Chase   Gladden
2008: Merger with Institute of Biotechnology
                          70

                          60
     Number of students




                          50

                          40

                          30

                          20

                          10

                          0
                          1948   1958   1968   1978   1988       1998           2008
                                               Year
Number of undergraduates
                     180

                     160

                     140
Number of students




                     120

                     100

                     80

                     60

                     40

                     20

                      0
                      1948   1958   1968   1978   1988   1998   2008
                                           Year
Current course structure
   Year 1:
     •   Either Natural Sciences or Engineering. Lectures and labwork.
   Year 2:
     •   First part of core Chemical Engineering. Lectures, labwork and
         exercises.
   Year 3:
     •   Rest of core Chemical Engineering. Lectures and exercises.
     •   Full time Design Project for 5 weeks in Easter term
   Year 4:
     •   Advanced Chemical Engineering Options
     •   Broadening Material Options
     •   Research Project
   Written examinations still the major assessment method
     •   Some exam papers for you to inspect (’50,’60,’70,’81,’90,’00,’08)
Information on undergraduates
 Student background:
  • 65% come via Natural Sciences
  • 35% come via Engineering
  • will be 50/50 in next year’s intake
 37% of our undergraduates are female
 Nationalities:
  • 65% are UK
  • 5% are EU
  • 30% are overseas
Class list distribution


1st
2.1
2nd (undiv)
2.2
3rd
Other
Number
Class list distribution
              University
                1960
1st             10.3%
2.1             24.1%
2nd (undiv)      4.0%
2.2             35.5%
3rd             22.1%
Other            4.0

Number           4300
Class list distribution
              University   University
                1960         2007
1st             10.3%        22.2%
2.1             24.1%        50.2%
2nd (undiv)      4.0%         7.0%
2.2             35.5%        16.8%
3rd             22.1%         2.1%
Other            4.0          1.0%

Number           4300         9950
Class list distribution
              University   University   Chem Eng
                1960         2007         2008
1st             10.3%        22.2%       24.8%
2.1             24.1%        50.2%       46.3%
2nd (undiv)      4.0%         7.0%         -
2.2             35.5%        16.8%       20.8%
3rd             22.1%         2.1%        6.0%
Other            4.0          1.0%        2.0%

Number           4300         9950        152
Changes in discipline
 New technologies:
  • Polymers
  • Membranes
  • Biotechnology
 New understanding of fundamentals:
  • Thermodynamics
 New aspects are deemed important:
  • Product Design
 Computers:
  • Routine use of numerical methods to solve equations
  • Process simulators
  • Thermodynamic and other databases readily available
Changes in teaching
 Lectures continue, now often accompanied by detailed
  handouts
 Less laboratory work
 More project work
 Examples classes discontinued
 Plenty of College supervisions
   • A large proportion of which are given by postdocs and PhD
     students
 Teaching almost entirely in-house (other than a few 4th year
  options)
 Internet
   • Web resources for learning
   • Weblabs
Industrial involvement in teaching
 Industrial lectures
 Industrial backing of research projects
 Teaching Consortium
   • Scheme been running for 10 years
   • About 20 companies have been involved
   • Current supporters:
Independence
 Set up as independent of
   • Faculty of Engineering
   • Faculty of Physics & Chemistry
 Still true for “new” department
   • Can modify course rapidly as and when we want
 We train our students:
   • to do Engineering calculations
   • to think like Scientists
 The emphasis on the fundamental scientific
  principles behind processes continues:
   • We don’t teach our students how to follow recipes –
   • We teach our students how to write them

				
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Description: Chemical Engineering