# Part1 of C1213 Course

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```					Course: Logic Design            Topic: Introduction

Course Number: COMP 1213

Course Title: Logic Design

Instructor: Dr. Ali Elkateeb

Text Book: Contemporary Logic Design by
Randy H. Katz

Dr. Ali Elkateeb                    Slide No. 1
Course: Logic Design           Topic: Introduction

Course Objectives

To learn:
•   The combinational logic design.
•   The programmable logic design.
•   The sequential circuit design.
•   Computer Organization.

Dr. Ali Elkateeb                   Slide No. 2
Course: Logic Design                       Topic: Introduction
Design Steps
1. Terms
• Design:
Convert the problem to a hardware blocks.
• Parts Selection:
Select the parts required by the design.
• Schematic Capture:
• Simulation:
Check the operation of the design.
• Mapping:
Map the design to a certain chip.
• Debugging:
Check whether the design is error free.
• Implementation:
Assembly all the design blocks.
Dr. Ali Elkateeb                                Slide No. 3
Course: Logic Design                  Topic: Introduction

2. Design Flow: Using LogicWork

Design             Schematic   Simulation      Debugging
Capture

Dr. Ali Elkateeb                            Slide No. 4
Course: Logic Design                      Topic: Introduction

Design Representation

Start
1. Functional description
flow charts, program fragments                  Green: On
Yellow: Off
Red: Off
after 45 seconds
Green: Off
Yellow:On
2. Structural description                            Red: Off

complex components decomposed into                       after 2 seconds
Green: Off
a less complex components                        Yellow: Off
Red: On
after 45 seconds
3. Physical description
design is represented in terms of most          Functional
primitive building blocks, e. g.,               Description Of
logic gates or transistors                      One Traffic
Light Signal

Dr. Ali Elkateeb                               Slide No. 5
Course: Logic Design                   Topic: Introduction

Design Methodology

Top Down Design:
Complex functions replaced by more primitive functions

Bottom Up Design:
Primitives composed to build more and more complex assemblies

Dr. Ali Elkateeb                            Slide No. 6
Course: Logic Design                         Topic: Introduction
The Process of Design
Bottom Up Assembly

Primitives composed to build                     Building
more and more complex assemblies

e.g., a group of rooms form a floor

e.g., a group of floors form a bldg.
Floor
a group of transistors form a gate

a group of gates form an addition circuit

form a processor datapath
Rooms

Dr. Ali Elkateeb                                 Slide No. 7
Course: Logic Design                      Topic: Introduction
The Process of Design: Debugging the System
What Can Go Wrong
• Design Flaws
Implementation does not meet functional specification

Logic design is incorrect (wrong function implemented)

• Implementation Flaws
Individual modules function correctly but their compositions do not

Misunderstanding of interface and timing behavior

Wiring mistakes, Electrical mistakes

• Component Flaws
Every thing is correct. Nevertheless, the design still not working!

Not all hardware components are guaranteed to work!

E.g., burnt out component

Dr. Ali Elkateeb                              Slide No. 8
Course: Logic Design             Topic: Introduction
The Process of Design
Debugging via Simulation

Debugging Skills:
• Improving the testability of the design

• Formulating a testing plan.

• Isolating portions of the implementation for
testing

• Effective use of laboratory instruments for
troubleshooting

Dr. Ali Elkateeb                      Slide No. 9
Course: Logic Design                    Topic: Introduction
Digital Hardware Systems
Digital Systems
Digital Vs. Analog Waveforms

+5                                     +5

1     0     1
0                                      V
Time                                 Time
–5

Digital:                             Analog:
only assumes discrete values         values vary over a broad range
continuously

Dr. Ali Elkateeb                             Slide No. 10
Course: Logic Design                          Topic: Introduction

Digital Hardware Systems

Analog systems: slight error in input yields large error in output

Digital systems more accurate and reliable

Computers use digital circuits internally

Interface circuits (i.e., sensors) often analog

Dr. Ali Elkateeb                                   Slide No. 11
Course: Logic Design                        Topic: Introduction
Digital Hardware Systems

Physical electronic components are continuous, not discrete!

+5
Logic 1

V

Logic 0
0

Transition from logic 1 to logic 0
does not take place instantaneously
in real digital systems

Dr. Ali Elkateeb                                Slide No. 12
Course: Logic Design                   Topic: Introduction
Digital Hardware Systems

Integrated circuit technology:

• Small Scale Integration (SSI)
• Medium Scale Integration (MSI)
• Large Scale Integration (LSI)
• Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI)

Main technologies:
MOS: Metal-Oxide-Silicon

Bipolar
Transistor-Transistor Logic
Emitter Coupled Logic

Dr. Ali Elkateeb                            Slide No. 13
Course: Logic Design                        Topic: Introduction
Digital Hardware Systems
MOS Technology
Transistor
basic electrical switch

Gate

Drain          Source

three terminal switch: gate, source, drain

voltage between gate and source exceeds threshold
switch is conducting or "closed"
electrons flow between source and drain

when voltage is removed,
the switch is "open" or non-conducting
connection between source and drain is broken

Dr. Ali Elkateeb                                 Slide No. 14

```
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