VOCABULARY This vocabulary is listed in the order of the alphabet: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Most names of sicknesses are not in this vocabulary. Find the name of a sickness in the Index and read about i t in the book. There are many words in this vocabulary that are not in the rest of the book, but you may see them in other books or hear dentists use them. Abnormal Different f r o m w h a t is usual, Baby teeth T h e first set of teeth. There are 2 0 natural, or average. N o t normal. baby teeth, which are also called m i l k teeth Abscess A sac of pus caused b y an infection. or primary teeth. For example, a boil. Bacteria T i n y germs t h a t y o u can only see Acid A strong liquid t h a t is produced f r o m w i t h a microscope and t h a t cause many certain foods l e f t i n the m o u t h . A c i d causes different infectious diseases. b o t h t o o t h decay and gum disease. Beeswax Wax made b y honey bees. Acute Sudden and short-lived. A n acute Bicuspids The teeth between the canine teeth illness is one that starts suddenly and lasts a and the molars, premolars. short time. The opposite o f 'chronic'. Bite ( 1 ) T o c u t w i t h the teeth. ( 2 ) T h e way Adrenaline Also called epinephrine. A drug the upper and lower teeth f i t together when which stimulates the heart, used f o r severe they close. allergic shock. Blood pressure T h e force, or pressure, of the Adult teeth See Permanent teeth. b l o o d flowing through the b l o o d vessels Allergy A bad reaction after breathing in, (veins and arteries). eating, touching, or being injected w i t h Blood vessels Tubes that carry b l o o d through something. The reaction may be itching, the body. Veins and arteries. sneezing, or d i f f i c u l t breathing. Boil (1) T o heat water u n t i l i t bubbles. ( 2 ) A Analgesic Medicine t o calm pain. Aspirin, swollen, inflamed l u m p w i t h a pocket o f pus acetaminophen (paracetamol), and codeine under the skin. A k i n d of abscess. all are analgesics. Brand name Trade name, the name a company Amalgam A special metal used i n permanent gives t o its product. A brand-name medicine fillings. is sold under a special name and is often Anemia A disease in w h i c h the b l o o d gets more expensive than the same generic . thin. Signs include tiredness, pale skin, and medicine. lack o f energy. Bridge False teeth t h a t are glued o n t o several Anesthetic A drug t h a t causes the m o u t h or nearby healthy teeth. other part o f the b o d y t o feel numb. Buccal O f the cheek. T h e buccal face of a Antibiotic Medicine t h a t fights infections t o o t h is the side facing the cheek. caused b y bacteria. A broad-spectrum Bulk Large q u a n t i t y or amount. antibiotic such as tetracycline kills many kinds of bacteria, w h i l e a narrow-spectrum antibiotic like penicillin kills o n l y a f e w kinds o f bacteria. Appropriate Something t h a t is t h e easiest, Calcium A nutritional element which makes safest, and most likely t o w o r k i n a teeth strong and hard. particular situation or condition. Calculus Tartar. Arkansas stone A special stone used t o Calories Units o f heat f o u n d i n food, giving sharpen dental instruments. energy f o r the b o d y t o use. Aspirate T o breathe. A n 'aspirating syringe' Canine teeth Also called cuspids, dog teeth, is one t h a t can 'breathe', or allow liquid t o and eye teeth. These teeth have the longest go b o t h i n and o u t o f the needle tip. roots of any tooth. Cancer A t u m o r or lump t h a t grows and may Diarrhea Frequent r u n n y or l i q u i d stools. keep growing u n t i l it causes death. Diet The kinds and amounts o f foods t h a t a Carbohydrates Starches and sugars-foods person should eat o r avoid eating. t h a t give energy. I n this book they are called Dislocations Bones that have slipped o u t o f GO foods. place at a joint. Caries Cavities, t o o t h decay. Distal T h e side o f the t o o t h t h a t faces the Cavity A hole i n a t o o t h where bacteria have back o f the mouth. The opposite side f r o m entered. the 'mesial' side. Cement filling A temporary filling, which may Drill A n instrument used t o change the shape protect a t o o t h f o r u p t o 6 months. Also see of a cavity before placing a filling. Filling. Duct A tube t h a t carries liquid. F o r example, Cementum The outer covering o f t h e tooth's ducts carry spit f r o m the spit gland t o the root. mouth. Chronic Long-term or frequently recurring (compare w i t h 'acute'). A chronic disease is one that lasts f o r a long time. Elevator A n instrument used t o loosen a Colony A new place where a group o f people t o o t h before you take it out. start a community. This book speaks o f 'colonies' o f germs-where germs group Emergency A sudden sickness or i n j u r y that together i n a new place. needs Immediate attention. Community A group of people living i n the Enamel The protective layer t h a t covers the same village or area w h o have similar living crown ( t o p part) of a t o o t h . T h e enamel is conditions, interests, and problems. the hardest part of the body. Comparative diagnosis A way of looking at Epulis A t u m o r o f the gums, usually f o u n d symptoms and deciding w h i c h o f several between the teeth. similar illnesses is causing the symptoms. Eruption The m o m e n t when a new t o o t h cuts Contact Touch. Contagious dlseases can be through the gums and becomes visible i n spread b y a sick person w h o makes contact the mouth. w i t h (touches or is close t o ) another person. Evaluation A study t o f i n d o u t the value of Contagious disease A sickness t h a t can be something, or t o f i n d o u t w h a t has been spread easily f r o m one person t o another. accomplished. Evaluations o f t e n compare different conditions before and after a Contraindication A situation or condition new activity begins. when a particular medicine should n o t be taken, or a certain treatment n o t given. F o r Examination A careful look at something; example, many medicines are contraindicated an investigation. durlng pregnancy. Expiration date The m o n t h and year marked Crown The t o p 113 o f t h e t o o t h , the part o n a medicine t h a t tells when i t w i l l n o t h a t is protected w i t h hard enamel. longer be good. T h r o w away most medicines after this date. Curette A scaling instrument. Explorer See Probe. Cuspids Canine teeth. Extraction Taking o u t a tooth. Cyst A n abnormal, sac-like g r o w t h i n the body which is often filled w i t h water. F False tooth A ' t o o t h ' made of plastlc or other material, used t o replace a t o o t h t h a t has been taken o u t Decay See Tooth Decay. , Feces Stools, s h ~ t the waste f r o m the b o d y Dentition A whole set o f teeth. s t h a t 1 moved o u t through the bowels In a Dental floss See Floss. 'bowel movement'. Dental worker A health worker w h o works Fever A b o d y temperature higher than f o r healthy teeth and gums. normal. Dentist A professional w h o has advanced Fiber A fine, threadlike piece. A fibrous food formal education i n care of teeth and gums like coconut contains a l o t o f fiber. Dentures False teeth. Filling Material p u t i n t o the cavity i n a t o o t h Diagnosis A decision made b y a health worker t o prevent further decay. about what a person's illness is. Also see First aid Emergency care or treatment f o r Comparative diagnosis. someone w h o is sick or injured. Floss Special string used t o clean between the Hypertension High b l o o d pressure. teeth. Fluoride A chemical which strengthens the teeth. Painted on the teeth or added t o water f o r drinking or rinsing, f l u o r i d e enters Immunizations (vaccinations) Medicines that and hardens the enamel. I t is especially good f o r children's teeth. give protection against specific diseases. For example, there are immunizations against Forceps lnstruments used t o p u l l teeth. diptheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, and Fracture A broken bone. measles. Incisors The f o u r f r o n t teeth on the t o p and bottom. Infection A sickness caused b y bacteria or Gauze A material made o f cotton, woven i n t o other germs. Infections may affect part o f an open mesh. the b o d y only (such as a sinus infection) or Generic name The scientific name o f a all o f i t (such as measles). medicine. Usually different f r o m the brand Infectious disease A disease that is easily names given i t b y the different companies passed f r o m one person t o another; that make it. contagious disease. Germs Very small organisms t h a t can grow Inflammation A n area that is red, hot, and in the b o d y and cause some infectious painful, often because i t is infected. diseases: bacteria. Inject T o give a medicine such as an Gram A metric u n i t o f weight. There are immunization or anesthetic, using a syringe, about 28 grams i n an ounce. A paper clip weighs about 1 gram. Injure, injury Harm; hurt. Groove A long, narrow c u t on t h e surface of Instruments Tools t h a t a dental worker uses back teeth. Grooves are 'protected areas' t o examine, clean, f i l l , or p u l l teeth. because f o o d and qerms can hide and remain In them longer. Gum bubble Also called a gum boil. A small abscess on the gums Joint The place where t w o bones meet. When Gum disease Illness that causes gums t o b t h ~ s o o k talks about t h e ' p a i n i n the jolnt', i t become loose, red, and swollen, and t o means the j o i n t (called the 'temporomandibular bleed when the teeth are cleaned. joint') where the cheek and jaw bones meet. Gum pocket The space between the t o o t h and the flap o f gums around ~ t f,o r m l n g a small pocket. Gums around the teeth. The s k ~ n Kilogram (kg) One thousand grams. A ' k i l o ' weighs a l i t t l e more than 2 pounds. Health worker A person w h o takes part i n making the c o m m u n i t y a healthier place t o live. o s Labial O f the Ilps. The labla1 s ~ d e f a t o o t h 1 Hemorrhage Bleeding the face of the t o o t h nearest the Ilps. Hemostat A needle holder, used f o r p u t t i n g , Ligature wire A t h ~ n strong wire t h a t bends i n sutures. easlly, used t o attach a loose t o o t h t o a strong tooth. Herb A plant, especially one valued f o r its medicinal or healing qualities. Lingual O f the tongue. The hngual slde o f a s t o o t h 1 the face of the t o o t h nearest the History (medical history) What y o u can learn tongue. through asking questions about a person's sickness-how i t began, when i t gets better or worse, what seems t o help, whether others i n the village or f a m i l y have it, etc. Hydrogen peroxide A liquid used t o clean Malnutrition Health problems caused b y n o t wounds and k i l l certain bacteria. eating enough of the foods that the b o d y Hygiene Actions or practices o f personal needs. cleanliness that lead t o good health. Mandible The lower jaw bone. Maxilla The upper jaw bone. Premolars The teeth between the molars and Mesial The side of the tooth that faces the the canine teeth; bicuspids. front of the mouth; the opposite of 'distal'. Prenatal Before birth. Milligram (mg) One thousandth of a gram. Prevention Action taken t o stop sickness Molar The back teeth, used for grinding. before i t starts. Molars are the largest teeth in the mouth, Probe An instrument for examining teeth for with 2 or even 3 roots each. tartar or other problems. Protective foods Foods that are rich in vitamins and minerals. They help build healthy bodies and make people more able t o resist or fight diseases. I n this book they Nerves T h m threads or strings that run from are called GLOW foods. t the b r a ~ no every part of the body and carry messages for feehng, paln or Proteins Body-building foods necessary for movement. There IS a nerve, along w ~ t h a proper growth and strength. I n this book blood vessel, In every root of every tooth. they are called GROW foods. Normal Usual, natural, or average. Someth~ng Pus A yellow-white liquid found inside that 1 normal has n o t h ~ n g s wrong w ~ t h ~t infections. t Numb W ~ t h o u feeling, anesthet~zed.When teeth and the gums around them are numb, they cannot feel paln. Nutrition The mlxture of foods the body needs t o grow, be healthy, and f ~ g h off t Records, reports Written information about dlsease. sick persons and the treatment they receive. Records are for the personal use of the health worker, reports are written b y one health worker t o another t o describe an illness and ask for further treatment. Occlusal The biting surface, or top, of the Resistance The ability of something t o defend tooth. itself against something that would normally Oral Of the mouth. A n oral medicine is one harm or kill it. Many bacteria become taken by mouth. resistant t o the effects of certain antibiotics. Organisms Living things (animals or plants). Rinse T o hold a liquid in the mouth, moving i t around inside the mouth. Risk The possibility of injury, loss, or harm. Danger. Root The lower part of the tooth, under the Palate The roof or top part of the mouth. gum, connected t o the bone. Permanent filling A filling uslng a special Root canal The hollow part of every root of metal material which lasts for years. a tooth, which has a blood vessel and a Permanent teeth The 32 adult teeth which nerve inside. grow into the mouth t o replace the baby Root canal treatment A special operation on teeth. a dead tooth t o remove material from the Petroleum jelly (petrolatum, Vaseline) A root canal and replace i t w i t h filling grease-like jelly used in preparing skin material. ointments. Root fibers Tiny fibers which hold the root Pharmacy A store that sells medicines and of the tooth t o the jaw bone. health care supplies. Rotten teeth Teeth with a lot of cavities. Plaque A film or coating of germs that can form on the teeth, mix w i t h food and make acid. You cannot see plaque unless you stain it. Plate A set of false teeth. Saliva Spit. Saliva helps us t o swallow our Precaution Care taken in advance t o prevent food. harm or prepare for emergencies before Sanitation Public cleanliness. Community they happen. san~tationefforts include disease prevention, Pregnancy The period (normally 9 months) hygiene, and keeping public places free of when a woman carries a child inside her. waste. Scab The crust of dry blood that forms over Teaspoon A measuring spoon that holds 5 a wound. ml. Three teaspoons equal one tablespoon. Scale T o scrape the tartar o f f the teeth. A Teething The action of new teeth cutting scaler is an instrument for scaling. through the gums. Also see Eruption. Scientific method A way of learning Temperature The degree of heat of something, something. I t begins w i t h information, then s such a the air or a person's body. an idea, and then the idea is tested against Temporary filling A filling meant only to last the information available. until a permanent filling can be placed. Side effects Problems caused by using a T.M.J. The temporomandibular joint. See medicine. Joint. Signs The things or conditions t o look for Tooth abscess See Abscess. when you examine a sick person, t o find out what sickness the person has. I n this Tooth decay Damage t o the tooth caused b y book the symptoms (the problems a person acid; cavities. feels) are included with signs. Toothache Pain in a tooth. Sinus A hollow place inside the bone. Toothpaste A paste for cleaning teeth. Socket The wound left after you take out a Tongue depressor A tongue blade; a piece of tooth. wood used t o keep the tongue out of the Soft drinks Fizzy, carbonated drinks like way when examining or treating the teeth. Coca-Cola. Top of the tooth The part of the tooth that Spatula A n instrument used for mixing bites on food. For both upper and lower cement for fillings. teeth, the biting surface is the 'top' and the Starches Energy foods like maize, rice, wheat, root is at the 'bottom'. cassava, potatoes, and squash. Topical On t o p of the skin. A topical Sterile Completely clean and free from living medicine is put on the skin. micro-organisms. Things usually are not Traditions Practices, beliefs, or customs sterile until you boil them or steam them. handed down from one generation to Sterilize T o make things sterile b y boiling or another b y example or word of mouth. steaming for 20 minutes. Treatment Care given by a health worker t o fight an illness, attend t o an injury, or Stools See Feces. prevent a new problem. Sugars Sweet foods like honey, sugar, or Tropical Having t o d o with the tropics-the fruit that give energy but often cause tooth hot regions of the world. and gum problems. Tumor An abnormal mass of tissue without Survey A collection of facts about a small inflammation. Some tumors are due t o group of persons or things in the community. cancer. If the small group is not unusual, the survey results will describe the whole community. Tweezers Small metal instrument for picking up cotton or small objects. Some persons Suture A stitch made w i t h needle and thread use the word forceps for tweezers, but in t o sew up an opening or wound. this book, forceps are instruments for Swelling A n area of the skin that is taking out a tooth. abnormally large, puffed up. A swollen area is one that has swelling. Symptoms The feelings or conditions that sick persons report about their sickness. I n this book, symptoms are included w i t h Ulcer A break in the skin or mucus membrane; signs. a chronic open sore that can appear on the skin, gums, or gut. Syringe An instrument w i t h a small sharp needle, for giving injections. Vaccinations See Immunizations. Tablespoon A measuring spoon that holds 3 teaspoons or 15 ml. Vaseline See Petroleum jelly. Tartar A hard, rocky coating on the tooth Vessels See Blood vessels. near the gums, also called calculus or Virus Germs smaller than bacteria, which toothstone. Tartar forms when old plaque cause some infectious diseases, like measles mixes with calcium in the spit. or the common cold. Vitamins Protective foods that our bodies Wisdom teeth The 3rd molars, which grow need t o work properly. into the mouth when a person i s 16-22 Volume The amount of space a thing years old. occupies. We measure volume in liters, ml, gallons, etc. X W X-ray picture A special photograph that allows you t o see bone, roots of teeth, etc., Weight Theheavinessorlightnessofathing. under the skin. We measure weight in kilograms, mg, pounds, etc.
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