VOCABULARY by wuyunyi



                      This vocabulary is listed in the order of the alphabet:
   Most names of sicknesses are not in this vocabulary. Find the name of a sickness in
the Index and read about i t in the book.
  There are many words in this vocabulary that are not in the rest of the book, but
you may see them in other books or hear dentists use them.

Abnormal Different f r o m w h a t is usual,                  Baby teeth T h e first set of teeth. There are 2 0
   natural, or average. N o t normal.                            baby teeth, which are also called m i l k teeth
Abscess A sac of pus caused b y an infection.                    or primary teeth.
   For example, a boil.                                       Bacteria T i n y germs t h a t y o u can only see
Acid A strong liquid t h a t is produced f r o m                 w i t h a microscope and t h a t cause many
   certain foods l e f t i n the m o u t h . A c i d causes      different infectious diseases.
   b o t h t o o t h decay and gum disease.                   Beeswax Wax made b y honey bees.
Acute Sudden and short-lived. A n acute                       Bicuspids The teeth between the canine teeth
   illness is one that starts suddenly and lasts a               and the molars, premolars.
   short time. The opposite o f 'chronic'.
                                                              Bite ( 1 ) T o c u t w i t h the teeth. ( 2 ) T h e way
Adrenaline Also called epinephrine. A drug                       the upper and lower teeth f i t together when
   which stimulates the heart, used f o r severe                 they close.
   allergic shock.
                                                              Blood pressure T h e force, or pressure, of the
Adult teeth      See Permanent teeth.                            b l o o d flowing through the b l o o d vessels
Allergy A bad reaction after breathing in,                       (veins and arteries).
    eating, touching, or being injected w i t h               Blood vessels Tubes that carry b l o o d through
    something. The reaction may be itching,                      the body. Veins and arteries.
    sneezing, or d i f f i c u l t breathing.
                                                              Boil (1) T o heat water u n t i l i t bubbles. ( 2 ) A
Analgesic Medicine t o calm pain. Aspirin,                       swollen, inflamed l u m p w i t h a pocket o f pus
   acetaminophen (paracetamol), and codeine                      under the skin. A k i n d of abscess.
   all are analgesics.
                                                              Brand name Trade name, the name a company
Amalgam A special metal used i n permanent                       gives t o its product. A brand-name medicine
  fillings.                                                      is sold under a special name and is often
Anemia A disease in w h i c h the b l o o d gets                 more expensive than the same generic       .
   thin. Signs include tiredness, pale skin, and                 medicine.
   lack o f energy.                                           Bridge False teeth t h a t are glued o n t o several
Anesthetic A drug t h a t causes the m o u t h or                 nearby healthy teeth.
   other part o f the b o d y t o feel numb.                  Buccal O f the cheek. T h e buccal face of a
Antibiotic Medicine t h a t fights infections                    t o o t h is the side facing the cheek.
   caused b y bacteria. A broad-spectrum                      Bulk    Large q u a n t i t y or amount.
   antibiotic such as tetracycline kills many
   kinds of bacteria, w h i l e a narrow-spectrum
   antibiotic like penicillin kills o n l y a f e w
   kinds o f bacteria.
Appropriate Something t h a t is t h e easiest,               Calcium A nutritional element which makes
  safest, and most likely t o w o r k i n a                      teeth strong and hard.
   particular situation or condition.                         Calculus    Tartar.
Arkansas stone A special stone used t o                       Calories Units o f heat f o u n d i n food, giving
   sharpen dental instruments.                                   energy f o r the b o d y t o use.
Aspirate T o breathe. A n 'aspirating syringe'                Canine teeth Also called cuspids, dog teeth,
   is one t h a t can 'breathe', or allow liquid t o             and eye teeth. These teeth have the longest
   go b o t h i n and o u t o f the needle tip.                  roots of any tooth.
Cancer A t u m o r or lump t h a t grows and may         Diarrhea     Frequent r u n n y or l i q u i d stools.
   keep growing u n t i l it causes death.
                                                         Diet The kinds and amounts o f foods t h a t a
Carbohydrates Starches and sugars-foods                     person should eat o r avoid eating.
   t h a t give energy. I n this book they are called
                                                         Dislocations Bones that have slipped o u t o f
   GO foods.
                                                            place at a joint.
Caries    Cavities, t o o t h decay.
                                                         Distal T h e side o f the t o o t h t h a t faces the
Cavity A hole i n a t o o t h where bacteria have           back o f the mouth. The opposite side f r o m
   entered.                                                 the 'mesial' side.
Cement filling A temporary filling, which may            Drill A n instrument used t o change the shape
  protect a t o o t h f o r u p t o 6 months. Also see      of a cavity before placing a filling.
                                                         Duct A tube t h a t carries liquid. F o r example,
Cementum        The outer covering o f t h e tooth's       ducts carry spit f r o m the spit gland t o the
  root.                                                    mouth.
Chronic Long-term or frequently recurring
   (compare w i t h 'acute'). A chronic disease is
   one that lasts f o r a long time.
                                                         Elevator A n instrument used t o loosen a
Colony A new place where a group o f people                 t o o t h before you take it out.
   start a community. This book speaks o f
   'colonies' o f germs-where germs group                Emergency A sudden sickness or i n j u r y that
   together i n a new place.                               needs Immediate attention.

Community A group of people living i n the               Enamel The protective layer t h a t covers the
  same village or area w h o have similar living            crown ( t o p part) of a t o o t h . T h e enamel is
  conditions, interests, and problems.                      the hardest part of the body.
Comparative diagnosis A way of looking at                Epulis A t u m o r o f the gums, usually f o u n d
  symptoms and deciding w h i c h o f several               between the teeth.
  similar illnesses is causing the symptoms.             Eruption The m o m e n t when a new t o o t h cuts
Contact Touch. Contagious dlseases can be                   through the gums and becomes visible i n
  spread b y a sick person w h o makes contact              the mouth.
  w i t h (touches or is close t o ) another person.     Evaluation A study t o f i n d o u t the value of
Contagious disease A sickness t h a t can be                something, or t o f i n d o u t w h a t has been
  spread easily f r o m one person t o another.             accomplished. Evaluations o f t e n compare
                                                            different conditions before and after a
Contraindication A situation or condition                   new activity begins.
  when a particular medicine should n o t be
  taken, or a certain treatment n o t given. F o r       Examination A careful look at something;
  example, many medicines are contraindicated               an investigation.
  durlng pregnancy.                                      Expiration date The m o n t h and year marked
Crown The t o p 113 o f t h e t o o t h , the part          o n a medicine t h a t tells when i t w i l l n o
   t h a t is protected w i t h hard enamel.                longer be good. T h r o w away most medicines
                                                            after this date.
Curette     A scaling instrument.
                                                         Explorer     See Probe.
Cuspids     Canine teeth.
                                                         Extraction      Taking o u t a tooth.
Cyst A n abnormal, sac-like g r o w t h i n the body
   which is often filled w i t h water.                                              F

                                                         False tooth A ' t o o t h ' made of plastlc or other
                                                            material, used t o replace a t o o t h t h a t has
                                                            been taken o u t
Decay     See Tooth Decay.
                                                         Feces Stools, s h ~ t the waste f r o m the b o d y
Dentition      A whole set o f teeth.                               s
                                                            t h a t 1 moved o u t through the bowels In a
Dental floss     See Floss.                                 'bowel movement'.
Dental worker A health worker w h o works                Fever A b o d y temperature higher than
  f o r healthy teeth and gums.                             normal.
Dentist A professional w h o has advanced                Fiber A fine, threadlike piece. A fibrous food
  formal education i n care of teeth and gums               like coconut contains a l o t o f fiber.
Dentures     False teeth.                                Filling Material p u t i n t o the cavity i n a t o o t h
Diagnosis A decision made b y a health worker                t o prevent further decay.
   about what a person's illness is. Also see            First aid Emergency care or treatment f o r
   Comparative diagnosis.                                    someone w h o is sick or injured.
Floss Special string used t o clean between the              Hypertension        High b l o o d pressure.
Fluoride A chemical which strengthens the
   teeth. Painted on the teeth or added t o
   water f o r drinking or rinsing, f l u o r i d e enters
                                                             Immunizations (vaccinations) Medicines that
   and hardens the enamel. I t is especially good
   f o r children's teeth.                                     give protection against specific diseases. For
                                                               example, there are immunizations against
Forceps     lnstruments used t o p u l l teeth.                diptheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, and
Fracture     A broken bone.                                    measles.
                                                             Incisors The f o u r f r o n t teeth on the t o p and
                                                             Infection A sickness caused b y bacteria or
Gauze A material made o f cotton, woven i n t o                  other germs. Infections may affect part o f
   an open mesh.                                                 the b o d y only (such as a sinus infection) or
Generic name The scientific name o f a                           all o f i t (such as measles).
   medicine. Usually different f r o m the brand             Infectious disease A disease that is easily
   names given i t b y the different companies                   passed f r o m one person t o another;
   that make it.                                                 contagious disease.
Germs Very small organisms t h a t can grow                  Inflammation A n area that is red, hot, and
   in the b o d y and cause some infectious                      painful, often because i t is infected.
   diseases: bacteria.
                                                             Inject T o give a medicine such as an
Gram A metric u n i t o f weight. There are                      immunization or anesthetic, using a syringe,
   about 28 grams i n an ounce. A paper clip
   weighs about 1 gram.                                      Injure, injury      Harm; hurt.

Groove A long, narrow c u t on t h e surface of              Instruments Tools t h a t a dental worker uses
   back teeth. Grooves are 'protected areas'                    t o examine, clean, f i l l , or p u l l teeth.
   because f o o d and qerms can hide and remain
   In them longer.
Gum bubble Also called a gum boil. A small
  abscess on the gums
                                                             Joint The place where t w o bones meet. When
Gum disease Illness that causes gums t o                              b
                                                                t h ~ s o o k talks about t h e ' p a i n i n the jolnt', i t
  become loose, red, and swollen, and t o                       means the j o i n t (called the 'temporomandibular
  bleed when the teeth are cleaned.                             joint') where the cheek and jaw bones meet.
Gum pocket The space between the t o o t h
  and the flap o f gums around ~ t f,o r m l n g a
  small pocket.
Gums                around the teeth.
          The s k ~ n
                                                             Kilogram (kg) One thousand grams. A ' k i l o '
                                                                 weighs a l i t t l e more than 2 pounds.

Health worker A person w h o takes part i n
   making the c o m m u n i t y a healthier place t o
   live.                                                                                             o             s
                                                             Labial O f the Ilps. The labla1 s ~ d e f a t o o t h 1
Hemorrhage       Bleeding                                       the face of the t o o t h nearest the Ilps.

Hemostat A needle holder, used f o r p u t t i n g                                    ,
                                                             Ligature wire A t h ~ n strong wire t h a t bends
  i n sutures.                                                  easlly, used t o attach a loose t o o t h t o a
                                                                strong tooth.
Herb A plant, especially one valued f o r its
   medicinal or healing qualities.                           Lingual O f the tongue. The hngual slde o f a
                                                                t o o t h 1 the face of the t o o t h nearest the
History (medical history) What y o u can learn
   through asking questions about a person's
   sickness-how i t began, when i t gets better
   or worse, what seems t o help, whether
   others i n the village or f a m i l y have it, etc.
Hydrogen peroxide A liquid used t o clean                    Malnutrition Health problems caused b y n o t
   wounds and k i l l certain bacteria.                         eating enough of the foods that the b o d y
Hygiene Actions or practices o f personal                       needs.
   cleanliness that lead t o good health.                    Mandible       The lower jaw bone.
Maxilla     The upper jaw bone.                      Premolars The teeth between the molars and
Mesial The side of the tooth that faces the             the canine teeth; bicuspids.
  front of the mouth; the opposite of 'distal'.      Prenatal     Before birth.
Milligram (mg)      One thousandth of a gram.        Prevention Action taken t o stop sickness
Molar The back teeth, used for grinding.                before i t starts.
   Molars are the largest teeth in the mouth,        Probe An instrument for examining teeth for
  with 2 or even 3 roots each.                          tartar or other problems.
                                                     Protective foods Foods that are rich in
                                                        vitamins and minerals. They help build
                                                        healthy bodies and make people more able
                                                        t o resist or fight diseases. I n this book they
Nerves T h m threads or strings that run from
                                                        are called GLOW foods.
   the b r a ~ no every part of the body and
   carry messages for feehng, paln or                Proteins Body-building foods necessary for
   movement. There IS a nerve, along w ~ t h a          proper growth and strength. I n this book
   blood vessel, In every root of every tooth.          they are called GROW foods.
Normal Usual, natural, or average. Someth~ng         Pus      A yellow-white liquid found inside
   that 1 normal has n o t h ~ n g
        s                        wrong w ~ t h
                                             ~t            infections.
Numb W ~ t h o u feeling, anesthet~zed.When
  teeth and the gums around them are numb,
  they cannot feel paln.
Nutrition The mlxture of foods the body
   needs t o grow, be healthy, and f ~ g h off
                                           t         Records, reports Written information about
  dlsease.                                              sick persons and the treatment they receive.
                                                        Records are for the personal use of the
                                                        health worker, reports are written b y one
                                                        health worker t o another t o describe an
                                                        illness and ask for further treatment.
Occlusal The biting surface, or top, of the          Resistance The ability of something t o defend
   tooth.                                               itself against something that would normally
Oral Of the mouth. A n oral medicine is one             harm or kill it. Many bacteria become
   taken by mouth.                                      resistant t o the effects of certain antibiotics.
Organisms       Living things (animals or plants).   Rinse T o hold a liquid in the mouth, moving
                                                        i t around inside the mouth.
                                                     Risk The possibility of injury, loss, or harm.
                                                     Root The lower part of the tooth, under the
Palate     The roof or top part of the mouth.
                                                       gum, connected t o the bone.
Permanent filling A filling uslng a special
                                                     Root canal The hollow part of every root of
   metal material which lasts for years.
                                                       a tooth, which has a blood vessel and a
Permanent teeth The 32 adult teeth which               nerve inside.
   grow into the mouth t o replace the baby
                                                     Root canal treatment A special operation on
   teeth.                                              a dead tooth t o remove material from the
Petroleum jelly (petrolatum, Vaseline) A               root canal and replace i t w i t h filling
   grease-like jelly used in preparing skin            material.
                                                     Root fibers Tiny fibers which hold the root
Pharmacy A store that sells medicines and              of the tooth t o the jaw bone.
   health care supplies.                             Rotten teeth     Teeth with a lot of cavities.
Plaque      A film or coating of germs that can
   form    on the teeth, mix w i t h food and make
   acid.   You cannot see plaque unless you
   stain   it.
Plate     A set of false teeth.                      Saliva Spit. Saliva helps us t o swallow our
Precaution Care taken in advance t o prevent             food.
   harm or prepare for emergencies before            Sanitation Public cleanliness. Community
   they happen.                                         san~tationefforts include disease prevention,
Pregnancy The period (normally 9 months)                hygiene, and keeping public places free of
   when a woman carries a child inside her.             waste.
Scab The crust of dry blood that forms over          Teaspoon A measuring spoon that holds 5
   a wound.                                             ml. Three teaspoons equal one tablespoon.
Scale T o scrape the tartar o f f the teeth. A       Teething The action of new teeth cutting
   scaler is an instrument for scaling.                 through the gums. Also see Eruption.
Scientific method A way of learning                  Temperature The degree of heat of something,
   something. I t begins w i t h information, then           s
                                                       such a the air or a person's body.
   an idea, and then the idea is tested against      Temporary filling A filling meant only to last
   the information available.                           until a permanent filling can be placed.
Side effects Problems caused by using a              T.M.J. The temporomandibular joint. See
   medicine.                                            Joint.
Signs The things or conditions t o look for          Tooth abscess     See Abscess.
   when you examine a sick person, t o find
   out what sickness the person has. I n this        Tooth decay Damage t o the tooth caused b y
   book the symptoms (the problems a person            acid; cavities.
   feels) are included with signs.                   Toothache      Pain in a tooth.
Sinus    A hollow place inside the bone.             Toothpaste     A paste for cleaning teeth.
Socket The wound left after you take out a           Tongue depressor A tongue blade; a piece of
   tooth.                                               wood used t o keep the tongue out of the
Soft drinks Fizzy, carbonated drinks like               way when examining or treating the teeth.
   Coca-Cola.                                        Top of the tooth The part of the tooth that
Spatula A n instrument used for mixing                  bites on food. For both upper and lower
   cement for fillings.                                 teeth, the biting surface is the 'top' and the
Starches Energy foods like maize, rice, wheat,          root is at the 'bottom'.
   cassava, potatoes, and squash.                    Topical On t o p of the skin. A topical
Sterile Completely clean and free from living           medicine is put on the skin.
   micro-organisms. Things usually are not           Traditions Practices, beliefs, or customs
   sterile until you boil them or steam them.           handed down from one generation to
Sterilize T o make things sterile b y boiling or        another b y example or word of mouth.
   steaming for 20 minutes.                          Treatment Care given by a health worker t o
                                                        fight an illness, attend t o an injury, or
Stools   See Feces.
                                                        prevent a new problem.
Sugars Sweet foods like honey, sugar, or
                                                     Tropical Having t o d o with the tropics-the
   fruit that give energy but often cause tooth
                                                        hot regions of the world.
   and gum problems.
                                                     Tumor An abnormal mass of tissue without
Survey A collection of facts about a small
                                                       inflammation. Some tumors are due t o
   group of persons or things in the community.
   If the small group is not unusual, the survey
   results will describe the whole community.        Tweezers Small metal instrument for picking
                                                        up cotton or small objects. Some persons
Suture A stitch made w i t h needle and thread
                                                        use the word forceps for tweezers, but in
   t o sew up an opening or wound.
                                                        this book, forceps are instruments for
Swelling A n area of the skin that is                  taking out a tooth.
  abnormally large, puffed up. A swollen
  area is one that has swelling.
Symptoms The feelings or conditions that
  sick persons report about their sickness. I n
  this book, symptoms are included w i t h           Ulcer A break in the skin or mucus membrane;
  signs.                                                a chronic open sore that can appear on the
                                                        skin, gums, or gut.
Syringe An instrument w i t h a small sharp
   needle, for giving injections.

                                                     Vaccinations    See Immunizations.
Tablespoon A measuring spoon that holds 3
   teaspoons or 15 ml.                               Vaseline    See Petroleum jelly.

Tartar A hard, rocky coating on the tooth            Vessels    See Blood vessels.
   near the gums, also called calculus or            Virus Germs smaller than bacteria, which
   toothstone. Tartar forms when old plaque              cause some infectious diseases, like measles
   mixes with calcium in the spit.                       or the common cold.
Vitamins Protective foods that our bodies       Wisdom teeth The 3rd molars, which grow
    need t o work properly.                        into the mouth when a person i s 16-22
Volume The amount of space a thing                 years old.
   occupies. We measure volume in liters, ml,
   gallons, etc.

                      W                         X-ray picture A special photograph that
                                                   allows you t o see bone, roots of teeth, etc.,
Weight Theheavinessorlightnessofathing.            under the skin.
  We measure weight in kilograms, mg,
  pounds, etc.

To top