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Pequannock Township School District Course Title Grade Credits Physics (Honors) 11-12 3 Curriculum area: Science New course X Revision of existing course Course pre-requisites or co-requisites: Basic algebra and geometry Table of contents I. Course Description: ........................................................................................................ 3 III. Course Philosophy / Statement of Purpose: ................................................................. 4 IV. Curriculum Map............................................................................................................ 5 V. Course Curriculum Goals: ............................................................................................ 9 VI. Semester Division of Units / Topics: ......................................................................... 10 VII. Scope and Sequence ................................................................................................. 11 Unit 1 - Introduction to motion and forces ....................................................................... 12 Unit 2 - Kinematics ........................................................................................................... 16 Unit 3 - Newtonian Dynamics .......................................................................................... 19 Unit 4 - Circular motion .................................................................................................... 22 Unit 5 - Impulse and linear momentum ............................................................................ 25 Unit 6 - Work and energy ................................................................................................. 28 Unit 7 - Static equilibrium ................................................................................................ 31 Unit 8 - Gases.................................................................................................................... 33 Unit 9 - Fluids at rest ........................................................................................................ 35 Unit 10 - Fluids in motion ................................................................................................. 37 Unit 11 - Thermodynamics ............................................................................................... 39 Unit 12 - Electric charge ................................................................................................... 41 Unit 13 - Electric fields ..................................................................................................... 43 Unit 14 - DC circuits ......................................................................................................... 45 Unit 15 - Magnetic forces and magnetic fields ................................................................. 47 Unit 16 - Electromagnetic induction (H) .......................................................................... 49 Unit 17 - Vibrations .......................................................................................................... 51 Unit 18 - Mechanical waves ............................................................................................. 53 Unit 19 - Reflection and refraction ................................................................................... 55 PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006 Page 2 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 20 - Geometrical optics ............................................................................................. 57 VII. Scope and Sequence ................................................................................................. 59 Unit 21 - Wave optics ....................................................................................................... 60 VIII. Supplementary Components .................................................................................... 62 Project: I-DVD or Video ................................................................................................... 63 Project: Scientist biography .............................................................................................. 64 Project: Poster or web ad to advertise a simple or compound machine............................ 65 Project: Hollywood Physics .............................................................................................. 66 Project: Physics in the world............................................................................................. 67 IX. Course Assessment / Evaluation of Students: ............................................................ 68 X. Resource Information:.................................................................................................. 70 XI: New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards: ..................................................... 76 XII. Course Revision Notes: ............................................................................................ 79 Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 2 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006 Page 3 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato I. Course Description: Students actively construct a conceptual and quantitative understanding of the fundamentals of physics. Working from the own observations, they will create and test ideas that can explain the essential aspects of mechanics, microscopic energy, electromagnetism, geometric optics, and wave optics. As well as understanding the physical basis of many real-world phenomena, students will build communication and reasoning skills while acquiring scientific abilities that are useful in any field. Developed by: Afaf Maarouf, Charles Crosby, Chris D'Amato Implementation date: September 2006 Previous revision dates: This is the first version. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 3 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006 Page 4 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato III. Course Philosophy / Statement of Purpose: Curriculum content is determined by NJCCCS standards, with an emphasis on content and learning methods that will help students build reasoning ability and scientific skills that will be useful in any field. Each new learning goal is related to something students already know or can see for themselves in the classroom. Students are guided to build new concepts for themselves, and required to accept or discard new ideas based on tests that they make themselves. At all times, the study of physics is connected to the real world as closely as possible. Resources in the classroom provide opportunities for hands-on interaction or a live experience. Principles of physics are used to explain real-world observations, and the scientific skills that students acquire are related to activities they will perform in their life outside class. Students are assessed based on their ability to demonstrate conceptual understanding of physics principles, and their ability to work together and communicate their work. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 4 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006 Page 5 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato IV. Curriculum Map Unit Contents Days 1 Introduction to Using reference frames 10 motion and forces Creating and interpreting motion diagrams Find the direction of change in motion Understanding the physics definition of the word "force" Creating and interpreting free-body diagrams Create an experiment to test Newton's first law 2 Kinematics Using coordinate systems 12 Construct the quantity of velocity Construct the quantity of acceleration Creating and interpreting graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration vs clock reading Construct expressions x(t) and v(t) for motion with uniform acceleration 3 Newtonian Contact forces and forces at a distance 15 Dynamics Newton's Second Law Newton's Third Law The normal force Static and kinetic (H) friction 4 Circular motion Objects in circular motion 6 Tangent and radial directions How to estimate the acceleration of an object in two- dimensional motion Direction of acceleration for an object in circular motion Magnitude of acceleration for an object in circular motion Orbiting bodies as objects in circular motion Universal gravitation producing a centrally-directed acceleration Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 5 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006 Page 6 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit Contents Days 5 Impulse and linear Observe collisions, throws, and catches: what pattern 5 momentum can be seen? Use this pattern to make an idea and test the idea Use this idea to reason about the everyday world Develop the quantities of impulse and momentum Define the idea of a system and its environment Develop a quantitative statement of the impulse- momentum principle Test the impulse-momentum principle with quantitative experiments Learn about the history of the ideas of impulse and momentum Use the impulse-momentum principle to solve problems 6 Work and energy Observe processes involving objects that are lifted, 10 pushed, or stretched: what pattern can be seen? Use this pattern to make an idea and test the idea Use this idea to reason about the everyday world Develop the quantities of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and elastic potential energy Define the idea of a system and its environment Develop a quantitative statement of the impulse- momentum principle Test the impulse-momentum principle with quantitative experiments Learn about the history of the ideas of impulse and momentum Use the impulse-momentum principle to solve problems 7 Static equilibrium Center of mass 10 Lever arm of a force Torque and net torque Conditions of equilibrium 8 Gases Kinetic molecular theory 10 Ideal gas model Derivation of ideal gas equation of state Graphs of P, V, and T History of discovery in matter Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 6 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006 Page 7 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit Contents Days 9 Fluids at rest Density review (optional) 5 Pressure magnitude Pressure direction Derivation of the buoyant force exerted by a fluid on an object suspended in it 10 Fluids in motion Observe and find patterns to build the idea that a fluid 4 exerts less force when it is moving Fluid flow rate Conservation of energy in moving fluids Fluid dynamics bar charts 11 Thermodynamics Microscopic explanation of heating 8 Generalized work-energy principle extended to including heating First law of thermodynamics Graphs of heating vs temperature 12 Electric charge Interactions of simple charged objects 7 Behavior of conducting materials and insulating materials Coulomb's law of electrostatic force Electrostatic potential energy Generalized work-energy principle extended to include electrostatic potential energy 13 Electric fields Concept of field applied to gravitation and 8 electrostatic interaction E field vectors Electrostatic potential V Equipotential lines Potential difference (voltage) 14 DC circuits Movement of charge in conductors 8 Water-in-pipes analogy Moving-crowd analogy Electric circuit symbols and notation Using instruments to measure current and potential difference Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 7 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006 Page 8 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit Contents Days 15 Magnetic forces Interactions of magnetic objects with other magnetic 6 and magnetic fields objects Interactions of magnetic objects with moving electrically charged objects Magnetic field Right-hand rule Interactions of electrons and magnetic field 16 Electromagnetic Conditions required to induce a current in a loop 5 induction (H) Direction of induced current (stretch) 17 Vibrations Simple harmonic motion 6 Period and amplitude Conservation of energy in simple harmonic motion 18 Mechanical waves Wavelength, frequency, and speed 8 Displacement vs time graphs Longitudinal and transverse waves Wave superposition Doppler shift 19 Reflection and How we see 8 refraction Light ray model Emitted and reflected light Particle model of light Wave model of light Snell's law 20 Geometrical optics Virtual and real images 10 Ray diagrams Thin-lens equation 21 Wave optics Huygens' wavelet model of light 9 Young's double-slit experiment Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 8 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006 Page 9 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato V. Course Curriculum Goals: Unit NJCCCS 1 Introduction to motion and forces 5.1.A2, 5.1.B1, 5.1.B2, 5.3.B1, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2 2 Kinematics 5.1.A2, 5.1.A4, 5.3.A1, 5.3.B1, 5.3.C1, 5.3.D1, 5.7.A1 3 Newtonian Dynamics 5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.1.A3, 5.1.B1, 5.1.B2, 5.1.C1, 5.2.B1, 5.2.B2, 5.2.B3, 5.3.A1, 5.3.B1, 5.3.C1, 5.3.D1, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2 4 Circular motion 5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.1.A3, 5.1.B2, 5.2.A1, 5.2.B1, 5.2.B2, 5.2.B3, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2, 5.7.A3 5 Impulse and linear momentum 5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.1.A3, 5.1.B2, 5.2.A1, 5.3.A1, 5.3.B1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2 6 Work and energy 5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.1.B1, 5.1.B2, 5.2.A1, 5.2.B2, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.3.D1, 5.7.B2, 5.7.B3 7 Static equilibrium 5.1.B2, 5.1.C1, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.A1 8 Gases 5.1.A.4, 5.3.C.1, 5.3.D.1, 5.7.A.4 9 Fluids at rest 5.3.C.1, 5.7.A.1, 5.7.A.2 10 Fluids in motion 5.3.C.1, 5.3.D.1, 5.7.B.2 11 Thermodynamics 5.3.C.1, 5.7.B.1, 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.3 12 Electric charge 5.3.C.1, 5.3.D.1, 5.7.A.4, 5.7.A.8, 5.7.B.1 13 Electric fields 5.3.C.1, 5.3.D.1, 5.7.A.4, 5.7.A.6 14 DC circuits 5.1.A.1, 5.1.B.1, 5.3.C.1, 5.3.D.1 15 Magnetic forces and magnetic fields 5.7.A.6, 5.7.A.8 16 Electromagnetic induction 5.7.A.6, 5.7.A.8 17 Vibrations 5.3.C.1, 5.7.A.1, 5.7.B.2 18 Mechanical waves 5.1.A.2, 5.3.C.1 19 Reflection and refraction 5.3.C.1, 5.7.B.4 20 Geometrical optics 5.1.B.1, 5.1.B.2, 5.3.C.1 21 Wave optics 5.3.B.1, 5.3.C.1 Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 9 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006 Page 10 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato VI. Semester Division of Units / Topics: Approximate timeline to the start of each unit Unit Days Start week 1 Introduction to motion and forces 10 1 2 Kinematics 12 3 3 Newtonian Dynamics 15 5 4 Circular motion 6 8 5 Static equilibrium 5 10 6 Impulse and linear momentum 5 11 7 Work and energy 10 12 8 Gases 10 14 9 Fluids at rest 5 16 10 Fluids in motion 4 17 11 Thermodynamics 8 17 12 Electric charge 7 19 13 Electric fields 8 20 14 DC circuits 8 22 15 Magnetic forces and magnetic fields 6 24 16 Electromagnetic induction 5 25 17 Vibrations 6 26 18 Mechanical waves 8 27 19 Reflection and refraction 8 29 20 Geometrical optics 10 30 21 Wave optics 9 32 Target: 160 planned days 165 total Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 10 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 11 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato VII. Scope and Sequence Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 11 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 12 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 1 - Introduction to motion and forces Unit Learning Objectives Learn that different observers see the same motion differently Learn that a force describes an interaction between two objects (a force is not an entity that becomes part of an object) Understand that an unbalanced interaction causes an object's motion to change; the change in motion, not the motion itself, is in the same direction as the unbalanced force Learn to use a motion diagram to qualitatively represent the motion of an object Learn to use a free-body diagram to qualitatively represent the forces being exerted by other objects on an object of interest Learn to represent the same situation using words, pictures, and diagrams Understand the difference between making an observation, finding a pattern in observations, and making a prediction based on observations Unit Content Using reference frames Creating and interpreting motion diagrams Find the direction of change in motion Understanding the physics definition of the word "force" Creating and interpreting free-body diagrams Create an experiment to test Newton's first law Unit Student Proficiencies Describe the motion of an object as seen by different observers, using words, pictures, and motion diagrams; describe the state of an observer who would see an object moving as described. (5.1.A2, 5.7.A1) Use a motion diagram to qualitatively represent an object's motion, showing the direction of motion and the direction of the change in motion, with correct relative magnitudes of each (5.1.B2, 5.3.B1, 5.7.A1) Use words and pictures to describe the motion of an object represented by a motion diagram (5.1.A2, 5.7.A1) Identify the direction and relative magnitude of the change in motion of an object described in words, pictures, or a motion diagram (5.7.A1) Use a free-body diagram to represent the forces exerted on an object by other objects. Identify the objects exerting forces on an object of interest, and indicate the direction and relative magnitudes of these forces. (5.1.B1, 5.3.B1, 5.7.A1) Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 12 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 13 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Identify the direction and relative magnitude of the net unbalanced interactions with an object of interest, given words, pictures, or a free-body diagram (5.1.A2, 5.7.A1) Use words and pictures to describe the interactions of an object represented by a free- body diagram (5.1.B2, 5.7.A1) Match the direction of the net unbalanced interaction with the direction of the change in motion of objects described in words, pictures, motion diagrams, and free-body diagrams (5.1.A2, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2) State a prediction that would test an idea. (5.1.B1, 5.1.B2) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Activity: imagine a scenario with multiple observers each moving in a different way. describe the motion of each observer from the point of view of another using motion diagrams. Activity: You may find that you and your parents reach completely different conclusions about exactly the same situation. Can you use the concept of "frame of reference" to explain this phenomenon? Class activity: A bowling ball rolls across the floor. A bowling ball rolls across the floor while the teacher exerts a force in the same direction of motion, using a meter stick. A bowling ball rolls across the floor while the teacher exerts a force opposite the direction of motion, using a meter stick. Describe the motion of the bowling ball using motion diagrams and free-body diagrams. Activity: Students observe a constant-velocity cart and a stationary action figure, then describe what the cart appears to be doing from the perspective of the action figure. Students then observe the figure on a separate constant-velocity cart and again describe what the action figure sees. Classroom activity: Testing experiment. Predict what will happen to the motion of an air puck after the instructor exerts a force on it. Lab: create an experiment to test the idea that an object always moves in the direction of the net force exerted on it. Project: Why did Galileo get in trouble? What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Advanced oral and written communication skills Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Students enter this unit with a number of unexamined but strongly-held beliefs, generally corresponding to an Aristotelian view of motion: An object requires an impetus (often termed "force") in order to move. In the absence of an impetus, the object will stop moving. The object carries an impetus along with it, and stops when the impetus runs out. An object is not necessarily be moving if there is a force or impetus exerted on it. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 13 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 14 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Students also have some syntactic and procedural difficulties to face in this unit. The word "force" is generally used in many contexts that are incompatible with its meaning in physics. As used by a new student, the term includes concepts that may become intertia, momentum, and velocity. In class we will never use the word "force" in a way that suggests it could be a quantity or an entity capable of existing separately from an interaction between two objects interacting with one another. Instead of writing or speaking of "the force of A" we will be careful to use the form "the force that A exerts on B." Students have difficulty separating systems from each other and from the environment. The meaning of "system" and "environment" should be established early in the unit, at least in a basic form. The best way to teach these concepts is to use them, regularly and repeatedly, in a simple context until their use and meaning begins to be comfortable for the students. Typical student conceptions about forces: Only the things touching exert forces. Force of motion on anything that is moving. No force unless motion. Force is a willful or teleological influence. Force is a property of material out of which object is made. Surfaces can't exert sideways forces. Passive objects can't exert forces. Technology Infusion: Vernier force probes with LabPro software can be used in many ways in this unit. Web page: Observing motion http://chrisdamato.com/class/hw1004/ Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Instructional Resources: Rolling carts Constant velocity carts Action figure Battery and spring-powered toy cars Various small balls Bowling ball Meter sticks Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 14 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 15 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Strings, pulleys, blocks, ringstands Air puck Ping Pong ball Spring scales Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 15 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 16 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 2 - Kinematics Unit Learning Objectives Learn to differentiate concepts of position, velocity, and acceleration. Learn to use precise language (including coordinate systems) to describe motion quantitatively Learn that the quantity of velocity characterizes the rate of change of an object's position while acceleration characterizes the rate of change of the object's velocity Learn to extract information from descriptions in words, graphs, tables, and mathematics Unit Content Using coordinate systems Construct the quantity of velocity Construct the quantity of acceleration Creating and interpreting graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration vs clock reading Construct expressions x(t) and v(t) for motion with uniform acceleration Unit Student Proficiencies Choose coordinate axes to solve problems involving motion (5.3.A1, 5.3.B1, 5.3.C1, 5.3.D1, 5.7.A1) Represent observed motion in words, with a sketch, motion diagram, graphs, and mathematically (5.1.A2, 5.7.A1) Describe motion in words, pictures, and motion diagrams from tables of numeric data (5.1.A2, 5.7.A1) Translate motion described in graphs of position, velocity, and/or acceleration versus clock reading to and from other representations (5.1.A2, 5.3.D1, 5.7.A1) Translate motion with uniform acceleration described in mathematics to and from other representations. (5.1.A2, 5.1.A4, 5.3.D1, 5.7.A1) Translate motion described in tables of position data to and from other representations. (5.1.A2, 5.7.A1) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Activity: Have students place a dot on a piece of paper at the location of the front wheel of a constant-velocity cart at each tick of a metronome. Use these “motion maps” to create x vs. t graphs. Then, use the motion maps again to create v vs. t graphs. Activity: Have students place a dot on a piece of paper at the location of the front wheel of a Matchbox car as it goes down a shallow incline at each tick of a metronome. Use these “motion maps” to create x vs. t graphs. Then, use the motion maps again to create v vs. t graphs and again to create a vs. t graphs. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 16 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 17 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Homework: Give students a sheet with x vs. t graphs, v vs. t graphs and a vs. t graphs. Give the students one of the three graphs and have them fill in the other two. Activity: Learn how to test an idea. How would you test the idea, "This is a good used car for me to buy."? What students must know before this unit in order to succeed How to describe and interpret motion using words, sketches, and motion diagrams How to tell the direction of change in motion Algebra skills appropriate to grade level How to create and interpret a graph in two dimensions How to state a prediction that would test an idea Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Students have an undifferentiated view of the idea of "motion", with no clear distinctions between position, velocity, and acceleration. Position and velocity are often confused, as are velocity and acceleration. Example: ask a student about the acceleration of an object at a turning point, like a pendulum at the end of its arc. Many students are certain the acceleration of the object is zero at this point. Students may associate a positive quantity to be in the up or right direction, and a negative quantity to be in the down or left direction. Remind them to include coordinate axes in all problems that require them. Although many students can draw a graph without too much trouble, there are many common difficulties in interpreting graphs: Students do not know that a graph of A vs B has A is on the vertical axis. Many students think that the slope of a straight line graph is y / x using any point on the graph, rather than y / x Many students don't recognize that a graph has units, or how to determine the units Many students will interpret the graph literally; in other words, a line at 45 degrees will always have a slope of 1 regardless of units Students need help understanding the initial and final states of a situation. For example, in a problem that starts "A ball is thrown at 20 m/s…" the student may often try to include the throw although a physicist knows the problem starts when the ball has left the thrower's hand. Technology Infusion: Application: Graphs and Tracks Dynamics carts with LabPro software can be used in many ways in this unit. Applet: motion simulations including Moving Man at http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet/web-pages/simulations-base.html Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 17 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 18 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Applet: kinematics at http://www.learner.org/exhibits/parkphysics/ Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Instructional Resources: Rolling carts Constant velocity carts Action figure Battery and spring-powered toy cars Various small balls Bowling ball Meter sticks Strings, pulleys, blocks, ringstands Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 18 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 19 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 3 - Newtonian Dynamics Unit Learning Objectives Understand the different types of interactions between objects (the types of force) Learn the quantitative forms of Newton's second law and understand Newton's third law Understand how kinematics is used with forces in problem solving Learn how to apply Newton's second law on inclines, for multiple-connected objects, and for horizontal and vertical motion Understand the difference between a relationship and the predicted outcome for an experiment Unit Content Contact forces and forces at a distance Newton's Second Law Newton's Third Law The normal force Static and kinetic (H) friction Unit Student Proficiencies Identify the objects interacting with an object of interest; identify the direction of the forces resulting from each interaction (5.1.B2, 5.7.A1) Apply the quantitative form of Newton's second law and use it to solve problems including problems with kinematics (5.1.B2, 5.2.B1, 5.2.B3, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.A1) Apply Newton's third law to answer questions about everyday situations (5.1.B2, 5.2.B2, 5.2.B3, 5.3.C1, 5.2.B3) Identify the magnitude and direction of the force exerted by a surface on an object of interest (5.3.B1, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2) Identify the magnitude and direction of the force exerted by friction on an object of interest (5.3.B1, 5.7.A1) Solve problems involving objects on inclined surfaces, objects connected by ideal ropes and pulleys, and objects moving horizontally or vertically (5.1.C1, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2) Represent the same situation using words, pictures, motion diagrams, free-body diagrams, and equations (5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.3.A1, 5.3.D1, 5.7.A1) Check for consistency among different representations of an object (5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.7.A1) Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 19 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 20 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Find a pattern in an observation and describe it; use the pattern to produce an idea; test the idea by using it to predict the outcome of an experiment (5.1.A3, 5.1.B1, 5.1.B2, 5.1.C1, 5.3.B1, 5.1.C1) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Activity: Have a race between a bowling ball and a ping-pong ball. Choose students to propel the balls, and then inform them they can only propel the balls with their breath. Have students predict a winner. Run the race, and then have students discuss why they knew who would win Activity: Run a string through two straws, then tie the string across the room. Have students inflate, but not tie, a balloon and tape it to the straw on one side of the room. Have the students release the balloon. Activity: Give a spring scale to each of two students. Hook the scales together. Challenge the students to pull so that the scales have different readings. (Students will think that one side can pull harder than the other.) Activity: If you mother wants you to clean your room, she might need to remind you gently many times. Or she might just yell at you once. How is this similar to something we have learned? Discussion: Review the definition of Newton's third law, then pose the following question: A horse is hitched to a cart. If the force of the horse on the cart is the same as the force of the cart on the horse, why does the cart move? What students must know before this unit in order to succeed How to apply and interpret the physics definition of the word "force" How to create and use coordinate axes in two dimensions How to create and interpret a free-body diagram How to create and interpret a motion diagram How to represent motion using words, pictures, and free-body diagrams Understand the meaning of Newton's first law Algebra skills appropriate to grade level Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge The word "force" is generally used in many contexts that are incompatible with its meaning in physics. As used by a new student, the term includes concepts that may become intertia, momentum, and velocity. In class we will never use the word "force" in a way that suggests it could be a quantity or an entity capable of existing separately from an interaction between two objects interacting with one another. Instead of writing or speaking of "the force of A" we will be careful to use the form "the force that A exerts on B." Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 20 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 21 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato To many students, Newton's third law is nonsensical and/or contrary to common sense. The formulation "for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction" is usually not helpful. A better statement of Newton's third law: If object A exerts a force on object B, object B exerts a force on object A of the same magnitude in the opposite direction. Technology Infusion: Dynamics carts and Vernier probes with LabPro software can be used in many ways in this unit. Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Instructional Resources: Strings, pulleys, blocks, ringstands Spring scales Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 21 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 22 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 4 - Circular motion Unit Learning Objectives Learn a graphical method of finding the direction of acceleration for two-dimensional motion Understand that the net force that other objects exert on an object that is moving in a circle points toward the center of the circle; this acceleration is due to a change in direction not a change in speed 2 Understand why the magnitude of this acceleration is v / r Learn how to apply Newton's second law for circular motion Learn how Newton's law of Universal Gravitation accounts for the motion of orbiting bodies Unit Content Objects in circular motion Tangent and radial directions How to estimate the acceleration of an object in two-dimensional motion Direction of acceleration for an object in circular motion Magnitude of acceleration for an object in circular motion Orbiting bodies as objects in circular motion Universal gravitation producing a centrally-directed acceleration Unit Student Proficiencies Use concepts of circular motion to reason about everyday experiences (5.1.B2, 5.2.B2, 5.2.B3, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2) Identify the direction of acceleration and the direction of the net unbalanced interactions for an object moving in a curved path (5.3.C1, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2) Identify the resulting motion of an object moving while other objects exert a force on it directed always toward the same point (5.3.C1, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2) Apply the radial form of Newton's second law to solve problems about objects moving in a circular path (5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.A1) Represent the same situation using words, pictures, motion diagrams, free-body diagrams, and equations (5.1.A2) Check for consistency among different representations (5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.1.A3, 5.3.A1) Apply the principal of universal gravitation to solve simple problems in astrophysics (5.2.A1, 5.2.B1, 5.2.B3, 5.3.A1, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.A3) Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 22 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 23 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Demo or classroom activity: you have a ball (or air puck) on the floor, and a croquet mallet or similar to hit it with. It what direction must you hit it to make it move in a circular path? Lab or classroom activity: predict the motion of a battery powered cart when a string is attached to the front and the other end fixed to a point on the floor. Predict and test: an object hangs from a string connected to a spring scale. Note the reading on the spring scale. If the object is set to swinging, will the scale read less or more when the object is passing the lowest point of its path? Explain your reasoning. What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Major learning goals of units 1-3 How to find the direction of the change in motion How to create and use coordinate axes in two dimensions How to create and interpret a free-body diagram How to create and interpret a motion diagram How to represent motion using words, pictures, and free-body diagrams Understand the meaning of Newton's first law How to apply the quantitative component form of Newton's second law Algebra skills appropriate to grade level Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Many students do not acquire the concept that curvilinear motion at a constant speed is associated with an acceleration. The instructor can use the graphical velocity-addition method to help reinforce this idea. Typical student conceptions relating to circular motion: A particular circular motion is a condition, it does not depend on factors of speed, radius, or mass. Involves outward and inward balancing forces. Circular motion involves outward, centrifugal force. Technology Infusion: Vernier force probes with LabPro software can be used in many ways in this unit. Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Observation experiment: http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3/experiment.php?topicid=5&exptid=56 Predict and test: http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3/experiment.php?topicid=5&exptid=57 Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 23 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 24 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Instructional Resources: Various small balls Bowling ball Meter sticks Strings, pulleys, blocks, ringstands Air puck Ping Pong ball Spring scales Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 24 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 25 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 5 - Impulse and linear momentum Unit Learning Objectives Learn the physical quantities of momentum and impulse Understand the idea of conservation and the meaning of initial and final states of a system Construct the relationship between the initial and final momentums of a system Learn to describe physical processes with impulse-momentum bar charts Understand that the same process can be described with the concept of forces or the concept of momentums Learn the meaning of the terms "elastic" and "inelastic" collision Unit Content Observe collisions, throws, and catches: what pattern can be seen? Use this pattern to make an idea and test the idea Use this idea to reason about the everyday world Develop the quantities of impulse and momentum Define the idea of a system and its environment Develop a quantitative statement of the impulse-momentum principle Test the impulse-momentum principle with quantitative experiments Learn about the history of the ideas of impulse and momentum Use the impulse-momentum principle to solve problems Unit Student Proficiencies Use concepts of momentum and impulse to reason about everyday experiences (5.1.B2, 5.2.A1, 5.7.B2) Use the physical quantities of impulse and momentum, and the concept of conservation, to solve problems (5.3.A1, 5.3.B1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2) Choose systems of objects, identify which objects are in the system and whether any objects external to the system are interacting with the system objects (5.1.A1, 5.1.A3, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2) Choose and identify the initial and final states of a system of objects (5.7.B2) Identify interactions with the system objects by objects external to the system and equate the quantity of impulse to the quantity of change of total system momentum (5.3.B1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2) Reason and solve problems about the same process using different choices of system objects (5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2) Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 25 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 26 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Describe the same process using the concept of forces and the concept of momentums (5.1.A2, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2) Represent physical processes with impulse-momentum bar charts, words, pictures, and equations (5.1.A2, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Activity: observe a video of two people on rollerskates playing catch with a heavy medicine ball. What do you observe when the ball is thrown or caught? Observe the direction and magnitude of the interacting objects before and after the throw or catch. What pattern can account for all the observations you made? Activity: Play bar chart jeopardy. Given an impulse-momentum bar chart, describe a situation that is consistant with the chart. Activity: Play equation jeopardy. Given an expression describing the conservation of momentum, describe a situation that is consistant with the equation. What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Major learning goals of units 1-4 How to make a prediction that will test an idea Algebra skills appropriate to grade level Basic proportional reasoning skills Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Typical student conceptions relating to interactions: Effects (such as damage or resulting motion) dictate relative magnitudes of forces during interaction. Equal force pairs are identified as action and reaction but are on the same object. Stronger exerts more force. One with more motion exerts more force. More active/energetic exerts more force. Bigger/heavier exerts more force. Technology Infusion: Dynamics carts and Vernier probes with LabPro software can be used in many ways in this unit. Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Instructional Resources: Dynamics carts Blocks of various mass Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 26 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 27 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Various small balls Bowling ball Meter sticks Strings, pulleys, blocks, ringstands Air puck Ping Pong ball Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 27 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 28 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 6 - Work and energy Unit Learning Objectives Learn to identify a system and the initial and final states of a physical process Learn to describe physical processes with energy bar charts Understand the concept of work and how work is related to the concepts of dynamics Learn about different kinds of energy and how to describe them mathematically Understand energy transformations within a system and changes in system energy caused by interactions with objects outside the system Build the concept of the internal energy of an object or system of objects Apply concepts of work and energy to real-life situations Unit Content Observe processes involving objects that are lifted, pushed, or stretched: what pattern can be seen? Use this pattern to make an idea and test the idea Use this idea to reason about the everyday world Develop the quantities of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and elastic potential energy Define the idea of a system and its environment Develop a quantitative statement of the work-energy principle Test the work-energy principle with quantitative experiments Learn about the history of the ideas of work and energy Use the work-energy principle to solve problems Understand that the quantity of power is a term for the rate at which the energy of a system changes (H) Unit Student Proficiencies Use concepts of work and energy to reason about everyday experiences (5.1.B2, 5.2.A1, 5.2.B2, 5.7.B2) Use the physical quantities of work and energy, and the concept of conservation, to solve problems (5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2) Choose systems of objects, identify which objects are in the system and whether any objects external to the system are interacting with the system objects (5.1.A1, 5.7.B2) Choose and identify the initial and final states of a system of objects (5.1.B1, 5.7.B2) Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 28 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 29 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Identify interactions with the system objects by objects external to the system and equate the quantity of work to the quantity of change of total system energy (5.3.A1, 5.7.B2, 5.7.B3) Reason and solve problems about the same process using different choices of system objects (5.1.A2, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2, 5.7.B3) Describe the same process using the concepts of impulse/momentum and the concepts of work/energy (5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.7.B2) Describe physical processes with energy bar charts, words, pictures, and mathematics. Translate among these representations (5.1.A2, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.3.D1, 5.7.B2) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Demo: Lifting a block gives it the ability to smash chalk. Giving movement to a cart gives it the ability to smash chalk. Stretching a rubber band gives it the ability to smash chalk. What is the pattern? Lab: measure the gravitational potential energy of a steel ball at the top of a ramp, and predict its speed at the bottom. Activity: Play bar chart jeopardy. Given a work-energy bar chart, describe a situation that is consistant with the chart. Activity: Play equation jeopardy. Given an expression describing the conservation of energy, describe a situation that is consistant with the equation. What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Major learning goals of units 1-5 How to represent physical processes with bar charts How to find a mathematical pattern in a table of data How to select a system of objects, separate the system objects from their environment, and describe their initial and final states. Understand the idea of conservation of a quantity within a system How to reason and solve problems about the same physical process using different choices of system objects Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Typical student difficulties with the idea of Work: Work is proportional to (or undifferentiated from) a time interval during which force is applied (without control of other variables). Work is proportional to (or undifferentiated from) distance through which the force is applied (without control of other variables). Work is undifferentiated from (or proportional to) force. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 29 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 30 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Technology Infusion: Dynamics carts and Vernier probes with LabPro software can be used in many ways in this unit. Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Instructional Resources: Chalk Dynamics cart and track Springs Slingshot-type device Blocks "Happy and sad" balls Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 30 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 31 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 7 - Static equilibrium Unit Learning Objectives Learn what the center of mass of an object is and how to find its location experimentally Understand the difference between a particle model and a rigid-body model of an object Learn how to find the lever arm for a force Understand the conditions under which a force produces a torque Learn the two conditions for static equilibrium of a rigid body (H) Unit Content Center of mass Lever arm of a force Torque and net torque Conditions of equilibrium Unit Student Proficiencies Find the center of mass of a rigid body (5.1.C1, 5.7.A1) Use the concept of torque to reason about everyday experiences (5.1.B2, 5.7.A1) Identify the interactions that cause a torque on a rigid body (5.7.A1) Reason quantitatively about the net torque on a rigid body (5.3.C1, 5.7.A1) Solve simple problems concerning the net torque on a rigid body (5.3.A1, 5.7.A1) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Lab: how can you suspend a meter stick with blocks attached so that it remains level? Classroom activity: Support a 1kg block using a meter stick and one hand. What do you feel when you hold the meter stick at the 0cm end and hang the block at 20cm? What about when you hang the block at 100cm? What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Major learning goals of units 1-4 Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Most students at this level have a hard time understanding that the angle between the force and the lever arm is important to determine the torque exerted on an object. Technology Infusion: Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Vernier force probes with LabPro software can be used in many way in this unit. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 31 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 32 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Instructional Resources: Meter sticks Objects of various mass that can be hung from meter sticks Ringstands and clamps Spring scales Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 32 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 33 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 8 - Gases Unit Learning Objectives Understand that matter consists of particles that are in continuous random motion Learn that an ideal gas is a simplified model in which the particles are considered point particles that obey Newton's laws Learn that the pressure of an ideal gas is due to the collisions of the particles with the walls of their container, and depends of the frequency of the collisions and on the forces that the particles exert on the walls during each collision Learn to represent gas processes by using graphs, and to describe the same processes by using microscopic and macroscopic quantities Learn how to devise multiple explanations of the same phenomenon Unit Content Kinetic molecular theory Ideal gas model Derivation of ideal gas equation of state Graphs of P, V, and T History of discovery in matter Unit Student Proficiencies Reason about everyday observations using the kinetic molecular theory of gases (5.1.A.4, 5.7.A.4) Reason about gas processes using the ideal gas model, describing and explaining macroscopically and microscopically (5.3.C.1) Use words and pictures to describe gas processes represented by V vs T, P vs T, and P vs V graphs (5.3.D.1) Extract information about gas processes from V vs T, P vs T, and P vs V graphs and describe the process using words and pictures (5.3.D.1) Describe and explain the differences between observable behaviors of gases and liquids (5.1.A.4) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Lab: what happens to alcohol when it disappears from a piece of paper? Where did it go? Why? Develop and test explanations. Activity: Predict what will happen to a drop of food coloring placed carefully at the top of a glass of water. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 33 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 34 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Activity: A bottle of strong perfume is opened at the front of the room. Have students raise their hands when they can smell it. How can you explain the order in which the hands went up? Lab: predict and test what will happen to a flaccid sealed balloon when it's placed in a sealed contained and some of the air is removed from the container. Activity: Hide a small amount of water in an empty soda can and heat the can. Quickly invert the can into a pan of cold water. Have students describe their observations and reason about the can’s behavior. (Instructor describes the can as being full of air.) Lab: Change the temperature of an isochoric sample of gas and record how the pressure varies. Do your observations suggest any conclusion about the lowest possible temperature the gas can attain? What is that temperature? What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Major learning goals of units 1-3 and 5-6 How to formulate an idea based on observations, and how to make a prediction that will test the idea Understand the idea of conservation of momentum and the impulse-momentum principle Understand the idea of conservation of energy and the generalized work-energy principle Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Many students do not have a well developed concept of volume: Volume is size, amount of stuff, or quantity of objects, undifferentiated from mass, weight, area, etc. Technology Infusion: Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Applet: NetLogo Gas lab "Gas in a box" at http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/run.cgi?GasLabGasinaBox.907.608 Instructional Resources: Bell jar with vaccuum pump Balloons Flasks Sealed gas samples with attached manometer and/or thermometer. Ice bath and wam water bath the accommodate the above Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 34 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 35 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 9 - Fluids at rest Unit Learning Objectives Understand why fluids exert forces in all directions, and why this pressure varies with the depth in the fluid Understand why fluids exert a net upward force termed "buoyancy" on any object submerged in them Learn that the upward force that a fluid exerts on a submerged object depends on the density of the fluid and the submerged volume of the object, not on the density of the object Unit Content Density review (optional) Pressure magnitude Pressure direction Derivation of the buoyant force exerted by a fluid on an object suspended in it Unit Student Proficiencies Distinguish the concept of density from the concepts of mass, volume, and viscosity (5.3.C.1) Reason qualitatively about processes concerning fluids and submerged objects (5.7.A.1, 5.7.A.2) Calculate the magnitude of the upward force exerted by a fluid on a submerged object (5.3.C.1) Solve simple dynamics problems involving the upward force exerted by a fluid on a submerged object (5.3.C.1) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Demonstration: a can of regular cola sinks in a tank of water, while a can of diet cola floats. Why? Activity: Tie an inflated balloon to each end of a wooden dowel so that the dowel is balanced. Pop one balloon. Have students observe the dowel and describe reasons for the change in balance. Activity: Fix the neck of a balloon over the neck of a flask. Warm the flask. Record observations. Cool it in an ice bath. Record observations. Explain observations in terms of microscopic behavior of gas particles. What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Major learning goals of units 1-3, 5-6, 8 Understand how to use the concept of density to reason quantitatively about substances Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 35 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 36 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato How to use the kinetic molecular theory of matter to reason about physical processes How to apply the ideal gas model to reason about physical processes Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Many students, despite repeated exposures, do not have a concept of "density" as distinguished from volume or mass. Typical student conceptions about floating: Focus on weight relative to surrounding medium. Things float if heavier than water and sink if lighter. Object floats if it has a large area on the bottom (in contact with the medium on which it floats. Things sink if they have holes in them. Materials float if they are "floating materials" in that medium. Things float if they are made to float. Technology Infusion: Vernier pressure probes and LabPro software can be used in many ways in this unit Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Instructional Resources: Plastic water bottles with pushpins Trays to catch water Flasks Balloons Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 36 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 37 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 10 - Fluids in motion Unit Learning Objectives Understand the idea of fluid flow rate Understand that the pressure a fluid exerts against a surface decreases as the speed of the fluid across the surface increases Understand the quantitative relationship among physical quantities in a moving fluid (Bernoulli's principal) Learn to represent fluid dynamics processes using a fluid dynamics bar chart Unit Content Observe and find patterns to build the idea that a fluid exerts less force when it is moving Fluid flow rate Conservation of energy in moving fluids Fluid dynamics bar charts Unit Student Proficiencies Use the concept of Bernoulli's principle to reason about everyday observations (5.7.B.2) Apply the quantitative definition of fluid flow rate to solve simple problems (5.3.C.1) Use a fluid dynamics bar chart to represent physical processes that are described in words and pictures (5.3.D.1) Use words and pictures to represent physical situations that are described in a fluid dynamics bar chart (5.3.D.1) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Class activity: fold an index card into a ┌─┐ shape and set it on the desk. Blow under the card. What happens? Class activity: hold a piece of paper by two corners. Blow over the top of it. What happens? Lab: Predict and test what will happen when you blow between two light bulbs suspended by strings, or two soda cans balanced on straws that allow them to move together or apart with little friction. What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Major learning goals of units 1-3, 5-6, 8-9 How to represent physical processes using bar charts Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 37 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 38 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Understanding that the quantities in Bernoulli's equation express a conservation of energy is easier if students have built an understanding of the units involved: [Pressure]=[Energy]/[Volume] Technology Infusion: Web page: qualitative observation experiment http://chrisdamato.com/class/?page_id=536 Web page: advanced quantitative testing experiment: http://chrisdamato.com/class/demo- tech/fluid-dynamics/video-experiment/ Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Instructional Resources: Soda Cans Straws Lightbulbs on string Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 38 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 39 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 11 - Thermodynamics Unit Learning Objectives Understand and distinguish between concepts of heating (thermal energy transfer) and thermal energy Understand and distinguish between concepts of thermal energy and temperature Learn to reason qualitatively about thermodynamic processes Learn to represent thermodynamics processes using thermodynamics bar charts, words, sketches, graphs, and mathematics Learn to use the first law of thermodynamics quantitatively in problem solving Unit Content Microscopic explanation of heating Generalized work-energy principle extended to including heating First law of thermodynamics Graphs of heating vs temperature Unit Student Proficiencies Use concepts of thermodynamics to reason about everyday experiences (5.7.B.1, 5.7.B.2) Use the first law of thermodynamics to reason about physical processes macroscopically and microscopically (5.7.B.1, 5.7.B.2) Distinguish between processes that can be explained with the generalized work-energy principle and processes that must be explained using the concept of heating (5.7.B.1, 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.3) Solve simple problems using the first law of thermodynamics (5.3.C.1) Reason about physical processes using a graph of heating vs temperature (5.3.C.1) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Demo: A test tube is sealed with a stopper and heated. The stopper pops out. Why? Class activity: Rub two pieces of paper together. Why did the papers become hot? Project: Heating was once considered to be the flow of an invisible fluid called "phlogiston." How did the phlogiston theory explain combustion and heat from mechanical friction? What could phlogiston explain successfully? Why did scientists eventually abandon the phlogiston theory? What students must know before this unit in order to succeed How to use the kinetic molecular theory of matter to reason about physical processes Algebra skills appropriate to grade level Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 39 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 40 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Ability to interpret graphs in two dimensions Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge The common meanings of the term "heat" are confusing to beginning students of physics. As used colloquially, the term includes concepts related to temperature, thermal energy, and thermal energy transfer. We will use the term "heating" to indicate the transfer of thermal energy, and avoid the use of the term "heat" in favor of more specific meaning. Technology Infusion: Vernier temperature probes and LabPro software can be used in many ways in this unit. Instructional Resources: Foam-cup calometers Graduated cylinders Thermometers Blocks of various materials Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 40 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 41 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 12 - Electric charge Unit Learning Objectives Understand that electric interaction is a new kind of interaction Understand that there are two types of electric charge, positive and negative, and that neutral objects contain equal amounts of positive and negative charge Understand how charged objects of both types interact with other charged objects of both types Understand that some types of electrically charged particles can move freely inside certain materials, and in other materials the movement of charged particles is limited Understand that preexisting knowledge of forces and energy applies to processes involving electrically charged objects Unit Content Interactions of simple charged objects Behavior of conducting materials and insulating materials Coulomb's law of electrostatic force Electrostatic potential energy Generalized work-energy principle extended to include electrostatic potential energy Unit Student Proficiencies Dintinguish electric interactions from magnetic and other types of interactions (5.7.A.8) Apply knowledge of electric charges, conductors, and insulators to reason about real-life processes (5.7.A.4) Use concepts of electric charges, conductors, and insulators to explain observation and predict results of new experiments (5.7.A.4) Use the quantity of electrostatic force to solve simple problems (5.3.C.1) Use free-body diagrams and energy bar charts to reason about phenomena involving electrically charged objects (5.3.D.1) Explain the observed behavior of materials that are insulators and materials that are conductors (5.7.A.4) Explain how to charge a neutral conductor by induction (5.7.B.1) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Lab: Rub a foam rod with felt and suspend it horizontally from a string. Observe its behavior when you bring other rubbed objects into its vicinity. Classroom activity: Stick some Scotch™ tape to the desk and peel it off quickly. Observe how it interacts with another similar strip. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 41 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 42 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Lab: Hang a small ball of aluminum foil from a string. Predict what will happen when you slowly bring a charged object toward it, then touch it. Repeat experiment using a styrofoam packing peanut. Project: Research paper on a scientist who contributed to the study of electricity. Include a bio, a description of their major contributions, and how their work helped another scientist build off of that work. Sign-up sheet limits students per scientist. What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Advanced oral and written communication skills Major learning goals from units 1,4,5,6,11 Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Students think of charge as an object rather than a property of an object. We will avoid reinforcing this idea by using the term "charged object" instead of "charge." Students don't understand the meaning of charged and neutral objects at the atomic level. Typical student conceptions about electric charge: Concepts of charged objects and magnetized objects are not differentiated Neutral objects do not interact with charged objects If two objects attract, they must have opposite charges Insulators cannot be charged Students do not recognize charge conservation Technology Infusion: Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Instructional Resources: rods of polystyrene, PVC, vinyl, plexiglas, and metal swivel mounts for rods fur, felt, and plastic squares to rub rods with aluminum foil thread or dental floss electroscopes bar magnets Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 42 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 43 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 13 - Electric fields Unit Learning Objectives Understand that electric charge interactions can be explained with the electric field model Understand that an electric field is a real entity created by charged objects in space Learn the operational definition of the physical quantities electric field E and the electric potential V Unit Content Concept of field applied to gravitation and electrostatic interaction E field vectors Electrostatic potential V Equipotential lines Potential difference (voltage) Unit Student Proficiencies Reason about electric fields using the concepts of source charge and test charge (5.7.A.4) Describe the similarities and differences between the concept of a gravitational field and an electrical field (5.7.A.6) Use the quantity of electrostatic potential energy to solve simple problems (5.3.C.1) Draw electric field lines for simple arrangements of test charges (5.3.D.1) Draw equipotential lines for simple arrangements of test charges (5.3.D.1) Reason about electric energy situations using energy bar charts (5.3.D.1) Apply knowledge of electric field quantities to solve simple problems (5.3.C.1) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Classroom activity: Think of a mechanism by which the Earth can exert a force on distant objects Class or homework: How is this topographical map like an electric field diagram? What do the lines represent? Demo or lab: An electroscope deflects when a charged object is brought near its bulb. But when the bulb is covered by a half soda can, this behavior is not observed. How can you explain this? What students must know before this unit in order to succeed How to use concepts of electric charges, conductors, and insulators to explain observations and predict results of new experiments Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 43 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 44 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato How to use the quantity of electrostatic force to solve simple problems Major learning goals of units 1,3,5,6,11 Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Students often have difficulty with the concept of a test charge. They don't realize that a field exists independently of the test charge, and that the test charge is merely measuring the field. Technology Infusion: Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Applet: Charges and Fields at http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet Instructional Resources: rods of polystyrene, PVC, vinyl, plexiglas, and metal swivel mounts for rods fur, felt, and plastic squares to rub rods with aluminum foil thread or dental floss electroscopes bar magnets Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 44 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 45 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 14 - DC circuits Unit Learning Objectives Understand how phenomena occurring in electric circuits are described by physical quantities such as potential difference ("voltage"), electric current, electric resistance, and electric power Learn analogies that describe aspects of DC circuit behavior, what they describe best and where they break down Understand that a battery is not a source of constant current, but more like a source of constant potential difference (voltage) Learn to describe processes in an electric circuit using Kirchhoff's loop rule and the junction rule (H) Learn to measure electric current, voltage, and resistance Unit Content Movement of charge in conductors Water-in-pipes analogy Moving-crowd analogy Electric circuit symbols and notation Using instruments to measure current and potential difference Unit Student Proficiencies Use analogies to explain processes occuring in electric circuits and to provide microscopic explanations for these processes (5.1.A.1) Use a circuit diagram to build an electric circuit (5.1.B.1) Represent the changes in potential in an electric circuit graphically (5.3.D.1) Calculate the equivalent resistance of a combination of resistors (5.3.C.1) Apply mathematical relationships to solve problems involving DC circuits with sources of electric potential and resistors (5.3.C.1) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Classroom activity: connect a charged electroscope to an uncharged electroscope using a length of metal wire. Observe and explain what happens. Classroom activity: Connect a charged electroscope to an uncharged electroscope using a neon lightbulb. Observe and explain what happens. Why does the flash of light only last for an instant? Demonstration: An aluminum foil ball suspended between the poles of a Wimshurst generator bounces back and forth between the poles. Why does this happen? Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 45 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 46 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Lab: is a battery a source of constant current or constant potential difference? What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Use the quantity of electrostatic potential energy to solve simple problems Reason about electric energy situations using energy bar charts Major learning goals of unit 12, 13 Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Typical student conceptions about DC circuits: First resistor gets its electricity, next gets less, etc. (sequential mental model; attenuation mental model; downstream sequential reasoning). (down stream change does not affect up or side stream). The more devices, the more current (devices 'draw' electric current). Flow always divides equally at a branching. Current proportional to potential difference regardless of resistance. Technology Infusion: Applet: circuit construction kit at http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Instructional Resources: Electroscopes Foam rods, vinyl rods Felt, fur, plastic sheets Thread or dental floss Galvanometers Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 46 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 47 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 15 - Magnetic forces and magnetic fields Unit Learning Objectives Understand that a magnetic field interacts with moving electrically charged objects and with wires carrying electric currents Understand the difference between sources of a magnetic field and test objects in a magnetic field Learn to describe magnetic interactions quantitatively Unit Content Interactions of magnetic objects with other magnetic objects Interactions of magnetic objects with moving electrically charged objects Magnetic field Right-hand rule Interactions of electrons and magnetic field Unit Student Proficiencies Explain why we believe that magnetic interactions are different from electrostatic interactions Find the direction of the magnetic field created by a current-carrying wire at any given point (5.7.A.6) Use the concepts of magnetic fields and magnetic interactions to reason about everyday observations (5.7.A.8) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Classroom activity: interaction of a compass and a current-carrying wire Demo or classroom activity: interaction of a bar magnet and the dot on an oscilloscope Demo: Demonstrate magnetic field lines using a magnet and iron filings What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Advanced oral and written communication skills Major learning goals of unit 12 Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Unlike electric field lines, magnetic field lines have no ends. On the outside of the magnet the field lines run from north to south pole, then from south to north pole on the inside of the magnet. This is why you can never have one magnetic pole. Many students believe that a positively charged object repels the north pole of a magnet and attracts the south pole. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 47 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 48 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Technology Infusion: Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Instructional Resources: Source of electric potential Wires Small compasses Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 48 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 49 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 16 - Electromagnetic induction (H) Unit Learning Objectives Learn under what conditions a current is induced in a coil Learn how to determine the direction of an induced current using Lenz's law Unit Content Conditions required to induce a current in a loop Direction of induced current (stretch) Unit Student Proficiencies Apply the knowledge of magnetic field and magnetic force to determine the direction of an induced current (5.7.A.6) Use the concept of electromagnetic induction to reason about everyday observations (5.7.A.8) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Lab or classroom activity: Experiment with coil, magnet, and galvanometer. List the conditions necessary to induce a current in a coil. Lab: predict the direction that the galvanometer needle will deflect when a bar magnet is passed through a coil Project: explain how a galvanometer works Project: build an electric motor What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Advanced oral and written communication skills Major learning goals of unit 14, 15 Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Most students have a hard time with the idea that only a moving charge can create a magnetic field, and that only a changing magnetic field can induce an electric current. Technology Infusion: Applet: Faraday's Electromagnetic Lab at http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet Instructional Resources: Coils Galvanometers Bar magnets Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 49 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 50 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 50 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 51 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 17 - Vibrations Unit Learning Objectives Learn the difference between vibrational motion and linear and circular motion Learn the new vibrational quantities period and amplitude Learn to write mathematical descriptions of period, velocity, and acceleration of a vibrating object as functions or time Learn to write mathematical descriptions of the changing energy of a vibrational system Unit Content Simple harmonic motion Period and amplitude Conservation of energy in simple harmonic motion Unit Student Proficiencies Read kinematics graphs describing the vibrational motion of an object and extract information about the initial position, amplitude, and period of vibration (5.3.C.1, 5.7.A.1) Use motion diagrams, free-body diagrams, and energy bar charts to describe and explain vibrational motion (5.7.B.2) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Lab: Period of a pendulum. Does the mass of the hanging object affect the period? Does the initial displacement of the object? Does the length of the string? What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Major learning goals of units 1, 3, 6 Algebra skills appropriate to grade level Basic knowledge of sine and cosine functions Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Most students will have difficulty with trigonometry in general, including the use or radians and the fact that radians are dimensionless. This unit requires a lot of vocabulary. Technology Infusion: Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3 Vernier probes and LabPro software can be used for several class activities and labs in this unit. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 51 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 52 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Instructional Resources: Ringstands Springs Strings Small heavy blocks Stopwatches Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 52 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 53 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 18 - Mechanical waves Unit Learning Objectives Understand that the frequency of a wave is determined by its source, the speed of a wave depends on the properties of the medium through which it travels, and the wavelength is determined by both the frequency and the speed of the wave Understand how waves from more than one source add to make waves of smaller or larger amplitude, depending on the location where the waves meet Learn to apply these wave concepts to beats, standing waves on strings, and standing waves in pipes (H) Learn that the relative velocities of the sources of waves and of the observers affect the frequency of the observed waves Unit Content Wavelength, frequency, and speed Displacement vs time graphs Longitudinal and transverse waves Wave superposition Doppler shift Unit Student Proficiencies Reason qualitatively about the behavior of mechanical waves, using the concepts of wavelength, frequency, and speed (5.1.A.2) Apply the mathematical relationship between the wavelength, frequency, and speed of a mechanical wave (5.3.C.1) Apply the principle of wave superposition to reason about physical phenomena (5.3.C.1) Apply the relative velocities of source and observer to reason about the characteristics of observed waves (5.1.A.2) Apply wave ideas to describe and explain everyday processes (5.1.A.2) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Lab: Does a larger pulse move faster along a slinky? Do pulses of higher frequency move faster along a slinky? Do longitudinal slinky-waves move faster than transverse slinky- waves? What does affect the speed of a pulse along a slinky? Activity: Use a Slinky on the floor to create a longitudinal and a transverse pulse. What students must know before this unit in order to succeed How to use the vibrational quantities period and amplitude Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 53 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 54 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato How to write mathematical descriptions of period, velocity, and acceleration of a vibrating object as functions or time Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Students often have difficulty believing that the speed of a mechanical wave is independent of its amplitude or frequency. Make sure that when students represent waves graphically, they pay attention to labelling the axes. If the axes are displacement vs time, the graph is showing the vibrational motion of one part of the medium as time passes. If the graph shows displacement vs position, it is a snapshot of the mechanical wave at a moment in time. Technology Infusion: Applets: Various at NTNU www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/~hwang/ Vernier probes and LabPro software can be used for several class activities and labs in this unit. Instructional Resources: Slinky Rope Stopwatches Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 54 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 55 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 19 - Reflection and refraction Unit Learning Objectives Understand that we see objects by light emitted from or reflected off their surfaces and into our eyes Understand that each point of a light-emitting object sends light in all directions Understand that light travels in straight lines only in the same medium Understand how a particle model of light can explain some aspects of light propagation Understand how a wave model of light can explain other aspects of light propagation Unit Content How we see Light ray model Emitted and reflected light Particle model of light Wave model of light Snell's law Unit Student Proficiencies Represent light phenomena using a ray diagram (5.7.B.4) Describe light phenomena using the particle model and using the wave model (5.7.B.4) Apply the geometrical relationship between an incoming light ray and the reflected light ray (5.3.C.1) Apply the mathematical relationship between an incoming light ray and a refracted light ray (5.3.C.1) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Activity: Can you see anything in a completely darkened room? Even if you wait a long time for your eyes to adjust? Activity: Use a laser pointer to test the idea that light propates in a straight line. Discussion: Why can't you see a laser beam in clear air? Why can you see it when it passes through chalk dust or some? Lab or Activity: Use a ray diagram to predict what you will see with a pinhole aperture between an electric candle bulb and a screen. Lab: At desks with laser pointer, plane mirror, and a target. Use ray diagrams to predict where the laser must be aimed to reflect off the mirror and hit the target. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 55 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 56 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Demo: If you have the right kind of glass microscope slide, you can submerge it in Wesson brand vegatable oil and it will disappear. Ask students how they can explain this observation. Project: How did people explain vision in antiquity? What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Advanced oral and written communication skills Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Explain that laser pointers use a very narrow beam of light, and that regular light sources do not radiate this way. Students usually think that each point on an object only radiates (or reflects) light in one direction. Students often have difficulty using a protractor. Remind them that an angle is always between two lines. Remind them to identify the two lines before they try to measure the angle. Technology Infusion: Video: Light Fantastic, BBC & Schaffer, Simon. 2004. Episode 1. Demo: Observe the way light travels through a fiber-optic cable. How can you explain these observations? Instructional Resources: Water tank with clear sides Glass and/or plastic prisms Plane mirrors Electric candles with frosted bulbs Laser pointers Protractors Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 56 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 57 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 20 - Geometrical optics Unit Learning Objectives Understand how plane mirrors, curved mirrors, and lenses form images of objects Understand the difference between a real image and a virtual image Understand the process through which the lens equation and curved mirror equation are derived Unit Content Virtual and real images Ray diagrams Thin-lens equation Unit Student Proficiencies Describe mathematically the location of an object and its image (5.3.C.1) Be able to find the focal length of a curved mirror or lens experimentally using two different methods (5.1.B.2) Be able to predict where an image formed by a mirror or a lens will appear, and then perform an experiment to test the prediction (5.1.B.1, 5.1.B.2) Use ray diagrams to reason qualitatively about objects and images (5.1.B.1, 5.1.B.2) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Lab: Test the idea that the image in a plane mirror is formed on the surface of the mirror Project: Students make a periscope, a pinhole camera, or a model of an eye or camera. Provide accurate ray diagrams and a description of the critical parts and what is important about them. What students must know before this unit in order to succeed Understand that we see objects by light emitted from or reflected off their surfaces and into our eyes Understand that each point of a light-emitting object sends light in all directions Understand that light travels in straight lines only in the same medium Geometry and algebra skills appropriate to grade level Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Many people think that if they stay in a completely dark room long enough, eventually they will be able to see objects in the room. Students do not start with a clear distinction between the concepts of light and vision. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 57 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 58 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Students often think light is only radiated from objects like lightbulbs and candles. Students often have difficulty with the idea that light is also radiated from non-luminous objects. Students often do not understand that light is a physical entity that exists separately from its source and effects. Students often think of light "running down" after a certain distance. Make sure that students understand that each point on an object radiates light in all directions. Students often think that an image is on the surface of a mirror -- even though if pressed they can't say exactly what they mean by that. Technology Infusion: Video: Light Fantastic, BBC & Schaffer, Simon. 2004. Episode 2. Applet: Optics bench at http://webphysics.davidson.edu/Applets/Optics/intro.html Applets: Various at NTNU www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/~hwang/ Instructional Resources: Water tank with clear sides Glass and/or plastic prisms Plane mirrors Electric candles with frosted bulbs Laser pointers Curved mirrors Lenses Optics benches Protractors Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 58 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 59 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato VII. Scope and Sequence Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 59 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 60 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Unit 21 - Wave optics Unit Learning Objectives Understand the different characters of the particle and wave model of light propagation Understand Huygens' principle and how it can be used to explain how light propagates through small openings Unit Content Huygens' wavelet model of light Young's double-slit experiment Unit Student Proficiencies Describe interference and diffraction patterns quantitatively (5.3.B.1) Represent light phenomena using wave fronts, ray diagrams, and mathematics (5.3.C.1) Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers Lab: Calculate the separation between two small slits by observing how a laser beam passes through them. What students must know before this unit in order to succeed How to describe light phenomena using the particle model and using the wave model Algebra skills appropriate to grade level Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge Huygens' principle is helpful if students can understand how it is used. Remind students of the relation between the ray and wavefront models of light propagation: rays are perpendicular to wavefronts, and rays point in the same direction that the wave travels. Students should be encouraged to understand that sometimes light acts like a wave and sometimes it acts like a particle, but it is neither wave nor particle. Instead, it is something different which has no analogy in our normal experience. Don't confuse n, the integer in the diffraction equations, with the n for a material's index of refraction. Make sure students know n=0 is for the central band in refraction. Technology Infusion: Applet: http://www.chrisdamato.com/wave/applet-ripple.htm Applet: Ripple tank http://falstad.com/ripple/ Video: Light Fantastic, BBC & Schaffer, Simon. 2004. Episode 4. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 60 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 61 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Instructional Resources: Laser pointers Slits and apertures Optics benches Unit Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 61 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 62 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato VIII. Supplementary Components Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 62 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 63 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Project: I-DVD or Video Choose a topic to teach. Develop an anticipatory set, objectives, instructions, closure, and suggest an assessment. Component Learning Objectives: Give students hands-on experience in setting goals for learning objectives. Component Student Proficiencies: Give students hands-on experience in setting goals for proficiencies. Component Specific Instructional Strategies: Give students hands-on experience in setting goals for instructional strategies. Invest their learning experience through the year. Technology Infusion: Student will choose a form of technology for the project. Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 63 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 64 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Project: Scientist biography full biography laws or work Application of his work quotes if any Component Learning Objectives: Addresses the following NJCCCS items: 5.2.B.1 Examine the lives and contributions of important scientists who effected major breakthroughs in our understanding of the natural and designed world. 5.2.B.2 Discuss significant technological achievements in which science has played an important part as well as technological advances that have contributed directly to the advancement of scientific knowledge. 5.2.B.3 Describe the historical origin of important scientific developments such as atomic theory, genetics, plate tectonics, etc., showing how scientific theories develop, are tested, and can be replaced or modified in light of new information and improved investigative techniques. Component Student Proficiencies: Students will be able to explain how the life and work of one or more scientists relates to the work by other scientists before and after. Students will build an understanding of the collaborative (and competitive) nature of scientific progress. Students will express their understanding of the importance of the work of the scientist in real life. Component Specific Instructional Strategies: Students work together in small groups to do research, create a project, and make a presentation. Technology Infusion: Students may use technology of their choice in making a presentation, including audiovisual materials or online presentation materials. Research will include online resources. Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 64 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 65 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Project: Poster or web ad to advertise a simple or compound machine The reason for the choice of the machine history of the machine information and description of the machine application and use of the machine Component Learning Objectives: Students will learn about the operation of a simple machine and practice scientific communication skills. Component Student Proficiencies: At the completion of this project, students will be able to describe the importance and operation of a simple machine, based on physical principles. Component Specific Instructional Strategies: Students will work hands-on with tools and materials to learn about a simple or compound machine. Students will use publishing tools to create a presentation in the form of an advertisement. They will adapt new learning and present it in a familiar form. Technology Infusion: Students may use publishing or web technology of their choice. Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 65 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 66 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Project: Hollywood Physics Students prepare a presentation on good and bad physics seen in a selection from mainstream movie or TV media Component Learning Objectives: Learn to identify and criticize the use of physics in the media Examine emerging research in physics Component Student Proficiencies: At the conclusion of this unit the students will be able to: Identify physics concepts used in media. (5.1.A4, 5.1.B2, 5.2.A1) Use concepts of physics to reason about the correctness of what they see in the media (5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.2.A1, 5.1.B2, 5.2.A1) Examine current research to determine whether theories should be modified (5.1.A1, 5.1.A3, 5.2.B3, 5.4.A1, 5.4.B1) Component Specific Instructional Strategies: cooperative learning small-group instruction critical thinking active learning addressing learning styles Technology Infusion: Examples of Television and Movie physics Internet searching and research Notes: Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 66 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 67 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Project: Physics in the world Component Learning Objectives: Learn to identify the presence of physics in everyday life Examine the life and labors of a physicist Component Student Proficiencies: At the conclusion of this unit the students will be able to: Discuss the life of a physicist and how he or she was impacted by the era. (5.1.A4, 5.2.A1, 5.2.B1) Discuss one invention or idea of a physicist and the effect of that invention or idea. (5.1.A3, 5.2.A2, 5.2.B2, 5.2.B3, 5.4.A1, 5.4.B1) Identify any new problems that arose as a result of the invention or idea (5.1.A2, 5.1.A4, 5.1.B2, 5.4.A1, 5.4.B1, 5.4.C1) Component Specific Instructional Strategies: cooperative learning critical thinking active learning addressing learning styles Technology Infusion: Internet searching and research Notes: This project has students research the life of a physicist, their ideas and the impact of their ideas. Students will also research how the era affected the life, research and ideas of the physicist as well as how his or her research and ideas affected the era. Students will also examine what new directions opened as a result of their physicist’s research. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 67 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 68 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato IX. Course Assessment / Evaluation of Students Marking Period Grades The marking period grade for each student will be calculated by the average achievement level in each of the categories below, weighted as indicated Homework 30 Exams 40 Lab 15 Project 15 100% At the option of the instructor, students will have the option to improve their grades by attending extra help sessions outside class, and demonstrating their mastery in a manner satisfactory to the instructor. Semester Grades The marking period grade for each student will be calculated by the average achievement level in each of the categories below, weighted as indicated: Marking period grades 30 Midterm or final exam 20 100% Final Course Grade The marking period grade for each student will be calculated by the average of semester grades. Representive rubrics for evaluation of student work Rubric for Work-Energy bar chart A work-energy bar chart is typical of the representations that students will use as formative assessments to build physical concepts, and also as summative assessments to demonstrate their mastery of these concepts. The rubric is intended to be useful as a guide to teacher evaluation, but the rubric must also clearly describe what the student needs to do to be successful. Several features of the work-energy bar chart must be mastered in order for students to show complete command of this representation. This rubric can be used with few modifications for impulse-momentum bar charts, and bar charts used in thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, and electrostatics. Sample rubic: Work-energy bar chart Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 68 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 69 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Aspect Below expectations Meets expectations Above expectations Initial and The choice of initial and The initial and final states The initial and final states final states final states may not be are chosen appropriately of system are described useful to solve the in order to solve the clearly in words and problem. problem. sketch. The initial and final states The initial and final states are mentioned but the both clearly indicate an precise time and state of instant of time and the the system objects are not state of all system objects clear. at that time Objects in The choice of objects in The objects in the system The objects in the system system the system may not be are chosen appropriately are selected to create the useful to solve the in order to solve the most straightforward problem. problem. problem, and described clearly in words and Some system objects are Each object in the system sketch. not clearly identified. is identified. Each object Some system objects may can be treated as a point be incorrectly combined particle or simple body. or incorrectly The boundary or differentiated. It is not distinction between the clear which objects are in system objects and the the system and which are environment is clear. in the environment. Work An action by the The work done on the The system and environment on the system by objects in the environment are chosen system is not described as environment causes a so as to make the work- work. Or, an interaction change in the total energy energy principle easy to between system objects is of the system objects. apply. described as work. The change in the Or, an inconsistency system's total energy is between selection of equal to the work in system objects and magnitude and sign. description of work makes the intention unclear. Change in total system energy before total system energy before total system energy before total energy + work ≠ total system + work = total system + work = total system energy after energy after energy after, and relative magnitudes of energies and work are plausible Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 69 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 70 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato X. Resource Information Textbook: Physics Principles and Problems Glencoe Science 2005 Instructor resources: The Physics Active Learning Guide. Alan van Heuvelen and Eugenia Etkina. Addison Wesley, 2006 Five easy lessons: Strategies for successful physics teaching. Randall D. Knight, Addison Wesley, 2004 Alan Van Heuvelen, "Learning to Think Like a Physicist," Am. J. Phys. 59, 888-897 (1991) Scientific Abilities Project, Rutgers University Graduate School of Education. Eugenia Etkina, Alan Van Heuvelen, Suzanne Brahmia, David Brookes, Chris D'Amato; Michael Gentile, Anna Karelina, Marina Miner- Bolotin, Sahana Murthy, David Rosengrant, Maria Ruibal-Vilassenor, Aaron Warren, Xueli Zou. http://paer.rutgers.edu/ScientificAbilities/Introduction/default.aspx Minstrell, J. Facets of Students Knowledge and Relevant Instruction. In: Duit, R., Goldberg, F., and Niedderer, H. (Eds.), Proceedings of an International Workshop - Research in Physics Learning: Theoretical Issues and Empirical Studies. Kiel, Germany: The Institute for Science Education (IPN), 1982, pp. 110-128. http://depts.washington.edu/huntlab/diagnoser/facet.html Online/software Resources: Applet: Charges and Fields at http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet Applet: Faraday's Electromagnetic Lab at http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet Applet: NetLogo Gas lab "Gas in a box" at http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/run.cgi?GasLabGasinaBox.907.608 Applet: Optics bench at http://webphysics.davidson.edu/Applets/Optics/intro.html Applet: Ripple tank http://falstad.com/ripple/ Applet: circuit construction kit at http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet Applet: http://www.chrisdamato.com/wave/applet-ripple.htm Applet: kinematics at http://www.learner.org/exhibits/parkphysics/ Applet: motion simulations including Moving Man at http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet/web-pages/simulations-base.html Applet: Various at NTNU www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/~hwang/ Equipment Resources: Action Figures Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 70 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 71 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Air Puck Aluminum Foil Backpack Filled With Textbooks Ball, Basketball Ball, Bowling Ball Ball, Medium, Hard, About 0.5Kg Ball, Small, Metal Balloons Balls, "Happy And Sad" Bath, Ice And Warm Water Bath Batteries, 9V Battery And Spring-Powered Toy Cars Beaker Bell Jar With Vaccuum Pump Block, 1Kg, With Flat Bottom Block, 500G Blocks, Small, About 30-50G Blocks, Various Mass Blocks, Various Materials Bottles, Soda Pop, Empty Bucket With Rope Tied To Handle Cans, Soda Pop, Empty Cars, Battery Operated, Different Speeds Cart, Dynamics, 1Kg Cathode-Ray Tube Or Oscilliscope Chalk Coil, Wire, With Many Turns Computers Constant Velocity Carts Crate Cup, Metal, Small Or Half Soda Can Curved Mirrors Drinking Straws, Bendy And Straight Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 71 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 72 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Dynamics Carts And Track Electric Candles With Frosted Bulbs Electroscopes Fabric Squares, Felt Fabric Squares, Fur Fabric Squares, Synthetic Fabric Squares, Wool Fan Cart Flasks Foam-Cup Calometers Food Coloring Galvanometers Glass And/Or Plastic Prisms Gloves, Nitrile Or Plastic Graduated Cylinders Index Cards Inline Skates (Optional) Laser Pointers Lastic Squares To Rub Rods With Lenses Lightbulbs On String Magnets, Bar Magnets, Horseshoe Mallet, Croquet Or Similar Mallet, Rubber Medicine Ball Metal Ring Track With Removable Segment Metal Wires Meter Sticks Metronome Motion Detector Probe Neon Test Bulb Nylon Stockings Or Socks Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 72 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 73 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Objects Of Various Mass That Can Be Hung From Meter Sticks Optics Benches Perfume, Strong Ping Pong Ball Ping Pong Ball With Foil Wrap Or Other Metallic Coating Plane Mirrors Plastic Grocery Bag Plastic Saran-Type Wrap Plates, Metal Or Metal-Coated Pressure Sensor Protractors Pulleys Ringstands And Clamps Rods Of Polystyrene, Pvc, Vinyl, Plexiglas, And Metal Rods, Foam Pipe Insulation Tubes Rods, Metal Rods, Vinyl Rods, Wood Rolling Carts Rope Rubber Mallet Rubbing Alcohol Ruler Scale, Platform, Sensitive Sealed Gas Samples With Attached Manometer And/Or Thermometer. Skateboard Slingshot Slingshot-Type Device Slinky Slits And Apertures Small Compasses Soda Cans Source Of Electric Potential Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 73 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 74 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Spring Scale (Newtons) Spring Scales Springs Stopwatch Stopwatches Straws String Strings Strings, Pulleys, Blocks, Ringstands Sugar Packets Or Small Beanbags Switches Swivel Mounts For Rods Syringe Barrel And Plunger Tape Test Tube With Rubber Stopper Thermometers Thermoplastic Surface (Changes Color When Heated) Thin, Flat, Randomly Shaped Pieces Of Plywood With Holes Drilled Around The Edges Thread Or Dental Floss Thumbtacks Track, Metal Low-Friction Trays To Catch Water Tuning Fork Vaccuum Jar With Vaccuum Pump Various Small Balls Watch With Second Hand Water Tank With Clear Sides Wimshurst Generator Wires Wooden Box, Resonant Technology Resources: Instructor computer with Internet access Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 74 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 75 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato Student computers with Internet access Classroom data projector or large-screen high-resolution monitor Vernier probes: Force, motion sensor, temperature, acceleration Vernier LabPro software Off Campus Field Work: To be determined Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 75 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 76 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato XI: New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards 5.1.A Habits of Mind 5.1.A.1 When making decisions, evaluate conclusions, weigh evidence, and recognize that arguments may not have equal merit. 5.1.A.2 Assess the risks and benefits associated with alternative solutions. 5.1.A.3 Engage in collaboration, peer review, and accurate reporting of findings. 5.1.A.4 Explore cases that demonstrate the interdisciplinary nature of the scientific enterprise. 5.1.B Inquiry and Problem Solving 5.1.B.1 Select and use appropriate instrumentation to design and conduct investigations. 5.1.B.2 Show that experimental results can lead to new questions and further investigations. 5.1.C. Safety 5.1.C.1 Understand, evaluate and practice safe procedures for conducting science investigations. 5.2.A Cultural Contributions 5.2.A.1 Recognize the role of the scientific community in responding to changing social and political conditions and how scientific and technological achievement effect historical events. 5.2.B Historical Perspectives 5.2.B.1 Examine the lives and contributions of important scientists who effected major breakthroughs in our understanding of the natural and designed world. 5.2.B.2 Discuss significant technological achievements in which science has played an important part as well as technological advances that have contributed directly to the advancement of scientific knowledge. 5.2.B.3 Describe the historical origin of important scientific developments such as atomic theory, genetics, plate tectonics, etc., showing how scientific theories develop, are tested, and can be replaced or modified in light of new information and improved investigative techniques. 5.3.A Numerical Operations 5.3.A.1 Reinforce indicators from previous grade level. 5.3.B Geometry and Measurement 5.3.B.1 When performing mathematical operations with measured quantities, express answers to reflect the degree of precision and accuracy of the input data. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 76 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 77 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato 5.3.C Patterns and Algebra 5.3.C.1 Apply mathematical models that describe physical phenomena to predict real world events. 5.3.D Data Analysis and Probability 5.3.D.1 Construct and interpret graphs of data to represent inverse and non- linear relationships, and statistical distributions. 5.4.A Science and Technology 5.4.A.1 Know that scientific inquiry is driven by the desire to understand the natural world and seeks to answer questions that may or may not directly influence humans, while technology is driven by the need to meet human needs and solve human problems. 5.4.B Nature of Technology 5.4.B.1 Assess the impacts of introducing a new technology in terms of alternative solutions, costs, tradeoffs, risks, benefits and environmental impact. 5.4.C Technological Design 5.4.C.1 Plan, develop, and implement a proposal to solve an authentic, technological problem. 5.7.A Motion and Forces 5.7.A.1 Apply the mathematical relationship between the mass of an object, the net force exerted on it, and the resulting acceleration. 5.7.A.2 Explain that whenever one object exerts a force on another, an equal and opposite force is exerted on the first object. 5.7.A.3 Recognize gravity as a universal force of attraction between masses and that the force is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. 5.7.A.4 Recognize that electrically charged bodies can attract or repel each other with a force that depends upon the size and nature of the charges and the distance between them and know that electric forces play an important role in explaining the structure and properties of matter. 5.7.A.5 Know that there are strong forces that hold the nucleus of an atom together and that significant amounts of energy can be released in nuclear reactions (fission, fusion, and nuclear decay) when these binding forces are disrupted. 5.7.A.6 Explain how electromagnetic, gravitational, and nuclear forces can be used to produce energy by causing chemical, physical, or nuclear changes and relate the amount of energy produced to the nature and relative strength of the force. 5.7.A.7 Demonstrate that moving electric charges can produce magnetic forces and moving magnets can produce electric forces Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 77 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 78 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato 5.7.A.8 Recognize that magnetic and electrical forces are different aspects of a single electromagnetic force. 5.7.B Energy Transformations 5.7.B.1 Explain how the various forms of energy (heat, electricity, sound, light) move through materials and identify the factors that affect that movement. 5.7.B.2 Explain that while energy can be transformed from one form to another, the total energy of a closed system is constant. 5.7.B.3 Recognize that whenever mechanical energy is transformed, some heat is dissipated and is therefore unavailable for use. 5.7.B.4 Explain the nature of electromagnetic radiation and compare the components of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to gamma rays. Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 78 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006 PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT Page 79 of 79 Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato XII. Course Revision Notes Pequannock Township School District Office of Curriculum and Instruction 79 Rosalie Winning, Director June 2006

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