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					                Pequannock Township School District

Course Title                                                                                            Grade           Credits
Physics (Honors)                                                                                        11-12           3
Curriculum area: Science
New course X Revision of existing course
Course pre-requisites or co-requisites:
Basic algebra and geometry

Table of contents
I. Course Description: ........................................................................................................ 3
III. Course Philosophy / Statement of Purpose: ................................................................. 4
IV. Curriculum Map............................................................................................................ 5
V. Course Curriculum Goals: ............................................................................................ 9
VI. Semester Division of Units / Topics: ......................................................................... 10
VII. Scope and Sequence ................................................................................................. 11
Unit 1 - Introduction to motion and forces ....................................................................... 12
Unit 2 - Kinematics ........................................................................................................... 16
Unit 3 - Newtonian Dynamics .......................................................................................... 19
Unit 4 - Circular motion .................................................................................................... 22
Unit 5 - Impulse and linear momentum ............................................................................ 25
Unit 6 - Work and energy ................................................................................................. 28
Unit 7 - Static equilibrium ................................................................................................ 31
Unit 8 - Gases.................................................................................................................... 33
Unit 9 - Fluids at rest ........................................................................................................ 35
Unit 10 - Fluids in motion ................................................................................................. 37
Unit 11 - Thermodynamics ............................................................................................... 39
Unit 12 - Electric charge ................................................................................................... 41
Unit 13 - Electric fields ..................................................................................................... 43
Unit 14 - DC circuits ......................................................................................................... 45
Unit 15 - Magnetic forces and magnetic fields ................................................................. 47
Unit 16 - Electromagnetic induction (H) .......................................................................... 49
Unit 17 - Vibrations .......................................................................................................... 51
Unit 18 - Mechanical waves ............................................................................................. 53
Unit 19 - Reflection and refraction ................................................................................... 55
PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006                                                                         Page 2 of 79
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Unit 20 - Geometrical optics ............................................................................................. 57
VII. Scope and Sequence ................................................................................................. 59
Unit 21 - Wave optics ....................................................................................................... 60
VIII. Supplementary Components .................................................................................... 62
Project: I-DVD or Video ................................................................................................... 63
Project: Scientist biography .............................................................................................. 64
Project: Poster or web ad to advertise a simple or compound machine............................ 65
Project: Hollywood Physics .............................................................................................. 66
Project: Physics in the world............................................................................................. 67
IX. Course Assessment / Evaluation of Students: ............................................................ 68
X. Resource Information:.................................................................................................. 70
XI: New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards: ..................................................... 76
XII. Course Revision Notes: ............................................................................................ 79




Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                                                          2
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006                                        Page 3 of 79
Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato


                                       I. Course Description:
Students actively construct a conceptual and quantitative understanding of the
fundamentals of physics. Working from the own observations, they will create and test
ideas that can explain the essential aspects of mechanics, microscopic energy,
electromagnetism, geometric optics, and wave optics. As well as understanding the
physical basis of many real-world phenomena, students will build communication and
reasoning skills while acquiring scientific abilities that are useful in any field.

Developed by:
Afaf Maarouf, Charles Crosby, Chris D'Amato

Implementation date:
September 2006

Previous revision dates:
This is the first version.




Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                     3
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006                                               Page 4 of 79
Maarouf, Crosby, D'Amato


               III. Course Philosophy / Statement of Purpose:
Curriculum content is determined by NJCCCS standards, with an emphasis on content
and learning methods that will help students build reasoning ability and scientific skills
that will be useful in any field.
Each new learning goal is related to something students already know or can see for
themselves in the classroom. Students are guided to build new concepts for themselves,
and required to accept or discard new ideas based on tests that they make themselves.
At all times, the study of physics is connected to the real world as closely as possible.
Resources in the classroom provide opportunities for hands-on interaction or a live
experience. Principles of physics are used to explain real-world observations, and the
scientific skills that students acquire are related to activities they will perform in their life
outside class.
Students are assessed based on their ability to demonstrate conceptual understanding of
physics principles, and their ability to work together and communicate their work.




Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                            4
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
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                                          IV. Curriculum Map

      Unit                             Contents                                                  Days
1     Introduction to                  Using reference frames                                    10
      motion and forces                Creating and interpreting motion diagrams
                                       Find the direction of change in motion
                                       Understanding the physics definition of the word
                                       "force"
                                       Creating and interpreting free-body diagrams
                                       Create an experiment to test Newton's first law
2     Kinematics                       Using coordinate systems                                  12
                                       Construct the quantity of velocity
                                       Construct the quantity of acceleration
                                       Creating and interpreting graphs of position, velocity,
                                       and acceleration vs clock reading
                                       Construct expressions x(t) and v(t) for motion with
                                       uniform acceleration
3     Newtonian                        Contact forces and forces at a distance                   15
      Dynamics                         Newton's Second Law
                                       Newton's Third Law
                                       The normal force
                                       Static and kinetic (H) friction
4     Circular motion                  Objects in circular motion                                6
                                       Tangent and radial directions
                                       How to estimate the acceleration of an object in two-
                                       dimensional motion
                                       Direction of acceleration for an object in circular
                                       motion
                                       Magnitude of acceleration for an object in circular
                                       motion
                                       Orbiting bodies as objects in circular motion
                                       Universal gravitation producing a centrally-directed
                                       acceleration




Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                                   5
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006                                                      Page 6 of 79
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      Unit                             Contents                                                  Days
5     Impulse and linear               Observe collisions, throws, and catches: what pattern     5
      momentum                         can be seen?
                                       Use this pattern to make an idea and test the idea
                                       Use this idea to reason about the everyday world
                                       Develop the quantities of impulse and momentum
                                       Define the idea of a system and its environment
                                       Develop a quantitative statement of the impulse-
                                       momentum principle
                                       Test the impulse-momentum principle with
                                       quantitative experiments
                                       Learn about the history of the ideas of impulse and
                                       momentum
                                       Use the impulse-momentum principle to solve
                                       problems
6     Work and energy                  Observe processes involving objects that are lifted,      10
                                       pushed, or stretched: what pattern can be seen?
                                       Use this pattern to make an idea and test the idea
                                       Use this idea to reason about the everyday world
                                       Develop the quantities of kinetic energy, gravitational
                                       potential energy, and elastic potential energy
                                       Define the idea of a system and its environment
                                       Develop a quantitative statement of the impulse-
                                       momentum principle
                                       Test the impulse-momentum principle with
                                       quantitative experiments
                                       Learn about the history of the ideas of impulse and
                                       momentum
                                       Use the impulse-momentum principle to solve
                                       problems
7     Static equilibrium               Center of mass                                            10
                                       Lever arm of a force
                                       Torque and net torque
                                       Conditions of equilibrium
8     Gases                            Kinetic molecular theory                                  10
                                       Ideal gas model
                                       Derivation of ideal gas equation of state
                                       Graphs of P, V, and T
                                       History of discovery in matter

Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                                   6
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June 2006
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      Unit                             Contents                                                   Days
9     Fluids at rest                   Density review (optional)                                  5
                                       Pressure magnitude
                                       Pressure direction
                                       Derivation of the buoyant force exerted by a fluid on
                                       an object suspended in it
10 Fluids in motion                    Observe and find patterns to build the idea that a fluid   4
                                       exerts less force when it is moving
                                       Fluid flow rate
                                       Conservation of energy in moving fluids
                                       Fluid dynamics bar charts
11 Thermodynamics                      Microscopic explanation of heating                         8
                                       Generalized work-energy principle extended to
                                       including heating
                                       First law of thermodynamics
                                       Graphs of heating vs temperature
12 Electric charge                     Interactions of simple charged objects                     7
                                       Behavior of conducting materials and insulating
                                       materials
                                       Coulomb's law of electrostatic force
                                       Electrostatic potential energy
                                       Generalized work-energy principle extended to
                                       include electrostatic potential energy
13 Electric fields                     Concept of field applied to gravitation and                8
                                       electrostatic interaction
                                       E field vectors
                                       Electrostatic potential V
                                       Equipotential lines
                                       Potential difference (voltage)
14 DC circuits                         Movement of charge in conductors                           8
                                       Water-in-pipes analogy
                                       Moving-crowd analogy
                                       Electric circuit symbols and notation
                                       Using instruments to measure current and potential
                                       difference




Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                                    7
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June 2006
PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006                                                    Page 8 of 79
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      Unit                             Contents                                               Days
15 Magnetic forces                     Interactions of magnetic objects with other magnetic   6
   and magnetic fields                 objects
                                       Interactions of magnetic objects with moving
                                       electrically charged objects
                                       Magnetic field
                                       Right-hand rule
                                       Interactions of electrons and magnetic field
16 Electromagnetic                     Conditions required to induce a current in a loop      5
   induction (H)                       Direction of induced current (stretch)
17 Vibrations                          Simple harmonic motion                                 6
                                       Period and amplitude
                                       Conservation of energy in simple harmonic motion
18 Mechanical waves                    Wavelength, frequency, and speed                       8
                                       Displacement vs time graphs
                                       Longitudinal and transverse waves
                                       Wave superposition
                                       Doppler shift
19 Reflection and                      How we see                                             8
   refraction                          Light ray model
                                       Emitted and reflected light
                                       Particle model of light
                                       Wave model of light
                                       Snell's law
20 Geometrical optics                  Virtual and real images                                10
                                       Ray diagrams
                                       Thin-lens equation
21 Wave optics                         Huygens' wavelet model of light                        9
                                       Young's double-slit experiment




Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                                 8
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June 2006
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                                V. Course Curriculum Goals:
         Unit                                  NJCCCS
1        Introduction to motion and forces     5.1.A2, 5.1.B1, 5.1.B2, 5.3.B1, 5.7.A1,
                                               5.7.A2
2        Kinematics                            5.1.A2, 5.1.A4, 5.3.A1, 5.3.B1, 5.3.C1,
                                               5.3.D1, 5.7.A1
3        Newtonian Dynamics                    5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.1.A3, 5.1.B1, 5.1.B2,
                                               5.1.C1, 5.2.B1, 5.2.B2, 5.2.B3, 5.3.A1,
                                               5.3.B1, 5.3.C1, 5.3.D1, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2
4        Circular motion                       5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.1.A3, 5.1.B2, 5.2.A1,
                                               5.2.B1, 5.2.B2, 5.2.B3, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1,
                                               5.7.A1, 5.7.A2, 5.7.A3
5        Impulse and linear momentum           5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.1.A3, 5.1.B2, 5.2.A1,
                                               5.3.A1, 5.3.B1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2
6        Work and energy                       5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.1.B1, 5.1.B2, 5.2.A1,
                                               5.2.B2, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.3.D1, 5.7.B2,
                                               5.7.B3
7        Static equilibrium                    5.1.B2, 5.1.C1, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.A1
8        Gases                                 5.1.A.4, 5.3.C.1, 5.3.D.1, 5.7.A.4
9        Fluids at rest                        5.3.C.1, 5.7.A.1, 5.7.A.2
10       Fluids in motion                      5.3.C.1, 5.3.D.1, 5.7.B.2
11       Thermodynamics                        5.3.C.1, 5.7.B.1, 5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.3
12       Electric charge                       5.3.C.1, 5.3.D.1, 5.7.A.4, 5.7.A.8, 5.7.B.1
13       Electric fields                       5.3.C.1, 5.3.D.1, 5.7.A.4, 5.7.A.6
14       DC circuits                           5.1.A.1, 5.1.B.1, 5.3.C.1, 5.3.D.1
15       Magnetic forces and magnetic fields   5.7.A.6, 5.7.A.8
16       Electromagnetic induction             5.7.A.6, 5.7.A.8
17       Vibrations                            5.3.C.1, 5.7.A.1, 5.7.B.2
18       Mechanical waves                      5.1.A.2, 5.3.C.1
19       Reflection and refraction             5.3.C.1, 5.7.B.4
20       Geometrical optics                    5.1.B.1, 5.1.B.2, 5.3.C.1
21       Wave optics                           5.3.B.1, 5.3.C.1




Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                      9
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
PTHS Draft Science Curriculum 2006                                   Page 10 of 79
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                       VI. Semester Division of Units / Topics:
Approximate timeline to the start of each unit
      Unit                                       Days        Start week
1     Introduction to motion and forces          10          1
2     Kinematics                                 12          3
3     Newtonian Dynamics                         15          5
4     Circular motion                            6           8
5     Static equilibrium                         5           10
6     Impulse and linear momentum                5           11
7     Work and energy                            10          12
8     Gases                                      10          14
9     Fluids at rest                             5           16
10 Fluids in motion                              4           17
11 Thermodynamics                                8           17
12 Electric charge                               7           19
13 Electric fields                               8           20
14 DC circuits                                   8           22
15 Magnetic forces and magnetic fields           6           24
16 Electromagnetic induction                     5           25
17 Vibrations                                    6           26
18 Mechanical waves                              8           27
19 Reflection and refraction                     8           29
20 Geometrical optics                            10          30
21 Wave optics                                   9           32
      Target: 160 planned days                   165 total




Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                             10
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June 2006
PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT                               Page 11 of 79
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                                       VII. Scope and Sequence




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                         11
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June 2006
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Unit 1 - Introduction to motion and forces
Unit Learning Objectives
Learn that different observers see the same motion differently
Learn that a force describes an interaction between two objects (a force is not an entity
that becomes part of an object)
Understand that an unbalanced interaction causes an object's motion to change; the
change in motion, not the motion itself, is in the same direction as the unbalanced force
Learn to use a motion diagram to qualitatively represent the motion of an object
Learn to use a free-body diagram to qualitatively represent the forces being exerted by
other objects on an object of interest
Learn to represent the same situation using words, pictures, and diagrams
Understand the difference between making an observation, finding a pattern in
observations, and making a prediction based on observations

Unit Content
Using reference frames
Creating and interpreting motion diagrams
Find the direction of change in motion
Understanding the physics definition of the word "force"
Creating and interpreting free-body diagrams
Create an experiment to test Newton's first law

Unit Student Proficiencies
Describe the motion of an object as seen by different observers, using words, pictures,
and motion diagrams; describe the state of an observer who would see an object moving
as described. (5.1.A2, 5.7.A1)
Use a motion diagram to qualitatively represent an object's motion, showing the direction
of motion and the direction of the change in motion, with correct relative magnitudes of
each (5.1.B2, 5.3.B1, 5.7.A1)
Use words and pictures to describe the motion of an object represented by a motion
diagram (5.1.A2, 5.7.A1)
Identify the direction and relative magnitude of the change in motion of an object
described in words, pictures, or a motion diagram (5.7.A1)
Use a free-body diagram to represent the forces exerted on an object by other objects.
Identify the objects exerting forces on an object of interest, and indicate the direction and
relative magnitudes of these forces. (5.1.B1, 5.3.B1, 5.7.A1)


Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                        12
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June 2006
PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT                                            Page 13 of 79
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Identify the direction and relative magnitude of the net unbalanced interactions with an
object of interest, given words, pictures, or a free-body diagram (5.1.A2, 5.7.A1)
Use words and pictures to describe the interactions of an object represented by a free-
body diagram (5.1.B2, 5.7.A1)
Match the direction of the net unbalanced interaction with the direction of the change in
motion of objects described in words, pictures, motion diagrams, and free-body diagrams
(5.1.A2, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2)
State a prediction that would test an idea. (5.1.B1, 5.1.B2)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Activity: imagine a scenario with multiple observers each moving in a different way.
describe the motion of each observer from the point of view of another using motion
diagrams.
Activity: You may find that you and your parents reach completely different conclusions
about exactly the same situation. Can you use the concept of "frame of reference" to
explain this phenomenon?
Class activity: A bowling ball rolls across the floor. A bowling ball rolls across the floor
while the teacher exerts a force in the same direction of motion, using a meter stick. A
bowling ball rolls across the floor while the teacher exerts a force opposite the direction
of motion, using a meter stick. Describe the motion of the bowling ball using motion
diagrams and free-body diagrams.
Activity: Students observe a constant-velocity cart and a stationary action figure, then
describe what the cart appears to be doing from the perspective of the action figure.
Students then observe the figure on a separate constant-velocity cart and again describe
what the action figure sees.
Classroom activity: Testing experiment. Predict what will happen to the motion of an air
puck after the instructor exerts a force on it.
Lab: create an experiment to test the idea that an object always moves in the direction of
the net force exerted on it.
Project: Why did Galileo get in trouble?
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Advanced oral and written communication skills
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Students enter this unit with a number of unexamined but strongly-held beliefs, generally
corresponding to an Aristotelian view of motion:
          An object requires an impetus (often termed "force") in order to move. In the
          absence of an impetus, the object will stop moving.
          The object carries an impetus along with it, and stops when the impetus runs out.
          An object is not necessarily be moving if there is a force or impetus exerted on it.

Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                        13
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June 2006
PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT                                         Page 14 of 79
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Students also have some syntactic and procedural difficulties to face in this unit. The
word "force" is generally used in many contexts that are incompatible with its meaning in
physics. As used by a new student, the term includes concepts that may become intertia,
momentum, and velocity.
In class we will never use the word "force" in a way that suggests it could be a quantity
or an entity capable of existing separately from an interaction between two objects
interacting with one another.
Instead of writing or speaking of "the force of A" we will be careful to use the form "the
force that A exerts on B."
Students have difficulty separating systems from each other and from the environment.
The meaning of "system" and "environment" should be established early in the unit, at
least in a basic form. The best way to teach these concepts is to use them, regularly and
repeatedly, in a simple context until their use and meaning begins to be comfortable for
the students.
Typical student conceptions about forces:
          Only the things touching exert forces.
          Force of motion on anything that is moving.
          No force unless motion.
          Force is a willful or teleological influence.
          Force is a property of material out of which object is made.
          Surfaces can't exert sideways forces.
          Passive objects can't exert forces.

Technology Infusion:
Vernier force probes with LabPro software can be used in many ways in this unit.
Web page: Observing motion http://chrisdamato.com/class/hw1004/
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3

Instructional Resources:
Rolling carts
Constant velocity carts
Action figure
Battery and spring-powered toy cars
Various small balls
Bowling ball
Meter sticks


Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                        14
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June 2006
PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT     Page 15 of 79
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Strings, pulleys, blocks, ringstands
Air puck
Ping Pong ball
Spring scales

Unit Notes:




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction               15
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June 2006
PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT                                           Page 16 of 79
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Unit 2 - Kinematics
Unit Learning Objectives
Learn to differentiate concepts of position, velocity, and acceleration.
Learn to use precise language (including coordinate systems) to describe motion
quantitatively
Learn that the quantity of velocity characterizes the rate of change of an object's position
while acceleration characterizes the rate of change of the object's velocity
Learn to extract information from descriptions in words, graphs, tables, and mathematics

Unit Content
Using coordinate systems
Construct the quantity of velocity
Construct the quantity of acceleration
Creating and interpreting graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration vs clock reading
Construct expressions x(t) and v(t) for motion with uniform acceleration

Unit Student Proficiencies
Choose coordinate axes to solve problems involving motion (5.3.A1, 5.3.B1, 5.3.C1,
5.3.D1, 5.7.A1)
Represent observed motion in words, with a sketch, motion diagram, graphs, and
mathematically (5.1.A2, 5.7.A1)
Describe motion in words, pictures, and motion diagrams from tables of numeric data
(5.1.A2, 5.7.A1)
Translate motion described in graphs of position, velocity, and/or acceleration versus
clock reading to and from other representations (5.1.A2, 5.3.D1, 5.7.A1)
Translate motion with uniform acceleration described in mathematics to and from other
representations. (5.1.A2, 5.1.A4, 5.3.D1, 5.7.A1)
Translate motion described in tables of position data to and from other representations.
(5.1.A2, 5.7.A1)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Activity: Have students place a dot on a piece of paper at the location of the front wheel
of a constant-velocity cart at each tick of a metronome. Use these “motion maps” to
create x vs. t graphs. Then, use the motion maps again to create v vs. t graphs.
Activity: Have students place a dot on a piece of paper at the location of the front wheel
of a Matchbox car as it goes down a shallow incline at each tick of a metronome. Use
these “motion maps” to create x vs. t graphs. Then, use the motion maps again to create v
vs. t graphs and again to create a vs. t graphs.
Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                       16
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT                                           Page 17 of 79
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Homework: Give students a sheet with x vs. t graphs, v vs. t graphs and a vs. t graphs.
Give the students one of the three graphs and have them fill in the other two.
Activity: Learn how to test an idea. How would you test the idea, "This is a good used car
for me to buy."?
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
How to describe and interpret motion using words, sketches, and motion diagrams
How to tell the direction of change in motion
Algebra skills appropriate to grade level
How to create and interpret a graph in two dimensions
How to state a prediction that would test an idea
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Students have an undifferentiated view of the idea of "motion", with no clear distinctions
between position, velocity, and acceleration.
Position and velocity are often confused, as are velocity and acceleration. Example: ask a
student about the acceleration of an object at a turning point, like a pendulum at the end
of its arc. Many students are certain the acceleration of the object is zero at this point.
Students may associate a positive quantity to be in the up or right direction, and a
negative quantity to be in the down or left direction. Remind them to include coordinate
axes in all problems that require them.
Although many students can draw a graph without too much trouble, there are many
common difficulties in interpreting graphs:
Students do not know that a graph of A vs B has A is on the vertical axis.
Many students think that the slope of a straight line graph is y / x using any point on the
graph, rather than y / x
Many students don't recognize that a graph has units, or how to determine the units
Many students will interpret the graph literally; in other words, a line at 45 degrees will
always have a slope of 1 regardless of units
Students need help understanding the initial and final states of a situation. For example,
in a problem that starts "A ball is thrown at 20 m/s…" the student may often try to
include the throw although a physicist knows the problem starts when the ball has left the
thrower's hand.

Technology Infusion:
Application: Graphs and Tracks
Dynamics carts with LabPro software can be used in many ways in this unit.
Applet: motion simulations including Moving Man at
http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet/web-pages/simulations-base.html


Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                          17
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT                                   Page 18 of 79
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Applet: kinematics at http://www.learner.org/exhibits/parkphysics/
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3

Instructional Resources:
Rolling carts
Constant velocity carts
Action figure
Battery and spring-powered toy cars
Various small balls
Bowling ball
Meter sticks
Strings, pulleys, blocks, ringstands


Unit Notes:




Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                             18
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT                                            Page 19 of 79
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Unit 3 - Newtonian Dynamics
Unit Learning Objectives
Understand the different types of interactions between objects (the types of force)
Learn the quantitative forms of Newton's second law and understand Newton's third law
Understand how kinematics is used with forces in problem solving
Learn how to apply Newton's second law on inclines, for multiple-connected objects, and
for horizontal and vertical motion
Understand the difference between a relationship and the predicted outcome for an
experiment

Unit Content
Contact forces and forces at a distance
Newton's Second Law
Newton's Third Law
The normal force
Static and kinetic (H) friction

Unit Student Proficiencies
Identify the objects interacting with an object of interest; identify the direction of the
forces resulting from each interaction (5.1.B2, 5.7.A1)
Apply the quantitative form of Newton's second law and use it to solve problems
including problems with kinematics (5.1.B2, 5.2.B1, 5.2.B3, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.A1)
Apply Newton's third law to answer questions about everyday situations (5.1.B2, 5.2.B2,
5.2.B3, 5.3.C1, 5.2.B3)
Identify the magnitude and direction of the force exerted by a surface on an object of
interest (5.3.B1, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2)
Identify the magnitude and direction of the force exerted by friction on an object of
interest (5.3.B1, 5.7.A1)
Solve problems involving objects on inclined surfaces, objects connected by ideal ropes
and pulleys, and objects moving horizontally or vertically (5.1.C1, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1,
5.7.A1, 5.7.A2)
Represent the same situation using words, pictures, motion diagrams, free-body
diagrams, and equations (5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.3.A1, 5.3.D1, 5.7.A1)
Check for consistency among different representations of an object (5.1.A1, 5.1.A2,
5.7.A1)



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Find a pattern in an observation and describe it; use the pattern to produce an idea; test
the idea by using it to predict the outcome of an experiment (5.1.A3, 5.1.B1, 5.1.B2,
5.1.C1, 5.3.B1, 5.1.C1)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Activity: Have a race between a bowling ball and a ping-pong ball. Choose students to
propel the balls, and then inform them they can only propel the balls with their breath.
Have students predict a winner. Run the race, and then have students discuss why they
knew who would win
Activity: Run a string through two straws, then tie the string across the room. Have
students inflate, but not tie, a balloon and tape it to the straw on one side of the room.
Have the students release the balloon.
Activity: Give a spring scale to each of two students. Hook the scales together. Challenge
the students to pull so that the scales have different readings. (Students will think that one
side can pull harder than the other.)
Activity: If you mother wants you to clean your room, she might need to remind you
gently many times. Or she might just yell at you once. How is this similar to something
we have learned?
Discussion: Review the definition of Newton's third law, then pose the following
question: A horse is hitched to a cart. If the force of the horse on the cart is the same as
the force of the cart on the horse, why does the cart move?
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
How to apply and interpret the physics definition of the word "force"
How to create and use coordinate axes in two dimensions
How to create and interpret a free-body diagram
How to create and interpret a motion diagram
How to represent motion using words, pictures, and free-body diagrams
Understand the meaning of Newton's first law
Algebra skills appropriate to grade level
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
The word "force" is generally used in many contexts that are incompatible with its
meaning in physics. As used by a new student, the term includes concepts that may
become intertia, momentum, and velocity.
In class we will never use the word "force" in a way that suggests it could be a quantity
or an entity capable of existing separately from an interaction between two objects
interacting with one another.
Instead of writing or speaking of "the force of A" we will be careful to use the form "the
force that A exerts on B."



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To many students, Newton's third law is nonsensical and/or contrary to common sense.
The formulation "for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction" is usually not
helpful.
A better statement of Newton's third law: If object A exerts a force on object B, object B
exerts a force on object A of the same magnitude in the opposite direction.

Technology Infusion:
Dynamics carts and Vernier probes with LabPro software can be used in many ways in
this unit.
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3


Instructional Resources:
Strings, pulleys, blocks, ringstands
Spring scales

Unit Notes:




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Unit 4 - Circular motion
Unit Learning Objectives
Learn a graphical method of finding the direction of acceleration for two-dimensional
motion
Understand that the net force that other objects exert on an object that is moving in a
circle points toward the center of the circle; this acceleration is due to a change in
direction not a change in speed
                                                      2
Understand why the magnitude of this acceleration is v / r
Learn how to apply Newton's second law for circular motion
Learn how Newton's law of Universal Gravitation accounts for the motion of orbiting
bodies

Unit Content
Objects in circular motion
Tangent and radial directions
How to estimate the acceleration of an object in two-dimensional motion
Direction of acceleration for an object in circular motion
Magnitude of acceleration for an object in circular motion
Orbiting bodies as objects in circular motion
Universal gravitation producing a centrally-directed acceleration

Unit Student Proficiencies
Use concepts of circular motion to reason about everyday experiences (5.1.B2, 5.2.B2,
5.2.B3, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2)
Identify the direction of acceleration and the direction of the net unbalanced interactions
for an object moving in a curved path (5.3.C1, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2)
Identify the resulting motion of an object moving while other objects exert a force on it
directed always toward the same point (5.3.C1, 5.7.A1, 5.7.A2)
Apply the radial form of Newton's second law to solve problems about objects moving in
a circular path (5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.A1)
Represent the same situation using words, pictures, motion diagrams, free-body
diagrams, and equations (5.1.A2)
Check for consistency among different representations (5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.1.A3, 5.3.A1)
Apply the principal of universal gravitation to solve simple problems in astrophysics
(5.2.A1, 5.2.B1, 5.2.B3, 5.3.A1, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.A3)


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Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Demo or classroom activity: you have a ball (or air puck) on the floor, and a croquet
mallet or similar to hit it with. It what direction must you hit it to make it move in a
circular path?
Lab or classroom activity: predict the motion of a battery powered cart when a string is
attached to the front and the other end fixed to a point on the floor.
Predict and test: an object hangs from a string connected to a spring scale. Note the
reading on the spring scale. If the object is set to swinging, will the scale read less or
more when the object is passing the lowest point of its path? Explain your reasoning.
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Major learning goals of units 1-3
How to find the direction of the change in motion
How to create and use coordinate axes in two dimensions
How to create and interpret a free-body diagram
How to create and interpret a motion diagram
How to represent motion using words, pictures, and free-body diagrams
Understand the meaning of Newton's first law
How to apply the quantitative component form of Newton's second law
Algebra skills appropriate to grade level
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Many students do not acquire the concept that curvilinear motion at a constant speed is
associated with an acceleration. The instructor can use the graphical velocity-addition
method to help reinforce this idea.
Typical student conceptions relating to circular motion:
          A particular circular motion is a condition, it does not depend on factors of speed,
          radius, or mass.
          Involves outward and inward balancing forces.
          Circular motion involves outward, centrifugal force.

Technology Infusion:
Vernier force probes with LabPro software can be used in many ways in this unit.
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3
Observation experiment:
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3/experiment.php?topicid=5&exptid=56
Predict and test: http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3/experiment.php?topicid=5&exptid=57


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Instructional Resources:
Various small balls
Bowling ball
Meter sticks
Strings, pulleys, blocks, ringstands
Air puck
Ping Pong ball
Spring scales

Unit Notes:




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Unit 5 - Impulse and linear momentum
Unit Learning Objectives
Learn the physical quantities of momentum and impulse
Understand the idea of conservation and the meaning of initial and final states of a
system
Construct the relationship between the initial and final momentums of a system
Learn to describe physical processes with impulse-momentum bar charts
Understand that the same process can be described with the concept of forces or the
concept of momentums
Learn the meaning of the terms "elastic" and "inelastic" collision

Unit Content
Observe collisions, throws, and catches: what pattern can be seen?
Use this pattern to make an idea and test the idea
Use this idea to reason about the everyday world
Develop the quantities of impulse and momentum
Define the idea of a system and its environment
Develop a quantitative statement of the impulse-momentum principle
Test the impulse-momentum principle with quantitative experiments
Learn about the history of the ideas of impulse and momentum
Use the impulse-momentum principle to solve problems

Unit Student Proficiencies
Use concepts of momentum and impulse to reason about everyday experiences (5.1.B2,
5.2.A1, 5.7.B2)
Use the physical quantities of impulse and momentum, and the concept of conservation,
to solve problems (5.3.A1, 5.3.B1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2)
Choose systems of objects, identify which objects are in the system and whether any
objects external to the system are interacting with the system objects (5.1.A1, 5.1.A3,
5.3.C1, 5.7.B2)
Choose and identify the initial and final states of a system of objects (5.7.B2)
Identify interactions with the system objects by objects external to the system and equate
the quantity of impulse to the quantity of change of total system momentum (5.3.B1,
5.3.C1, 5.7.B2)
Reason and solve problems about the same process using different choices of system
objects (5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2)

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Describe the same process using the concept of forces and the concept of momentums
(5.1.A2, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2)
Represent physical processes with impulse-momentum bar charts, words, pictures, and
equations (5.1.A2, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Activity: observe a video of two people on rollerskates playing catch with a heavy
medicine ball. What do you observe when the ball is thrown or caught? Observe the
direction and magnitude of the interacting objects before and after the throw or catch.
What pattern can account for all the observations you made?
Activity: Play bar chart jeopardy. Given an impulse-momentum bar chart, describe a
situation that is consistant with the chart.
Activity: Play equation jeopardy. Given an expression describing the conservation of
momentum, describe a situation that is consistant with the equation.
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Major learning goals of units 1-4
How to make a prediction that will test an idea
Algebra skills appropriate to grade level
Basic proportional reasoning skills
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Typical student conceptions relating to interactions:
          Effects (such as damage or resulting motion) dictate relative magnitudes of forces
          during interaction.
          Equal force pairs are identified as action and reaction but are on the same object.
          Stronger exerts more force.
          One with more motion exerts more force.
          More active/energetic exerts more force.
          Bigger/heavier exerts more force.

Technology Infusion:
Dynamics carts and Vernier probes with LabPro software can be used in many ways in
this unit.
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3

Instructional Resources:
Dynamics carts
Blocks of various mass

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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                        26
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Various small balls
Bowling ball
Meter sticks
Strings, pulleys, blocks, ringstands
Air puck
Ping Pong ball

Unit Notes:




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Unit 6 - Work and energy
Unit Learning Objectives
Learn to identify a system and the initial and final states of a physical process
Learn to describe physical processes with energy bar charts
Understand the concept of work and how work is related to the concepts of dynamics
Learn about different kinds of energy and how to describe them mathematically
Understand energy transformations within a system and changes in system energy caused
by interactions with objects outside the system
Build the concept of the internal energy of an object or system of objects
Apply concepts of work and energy to real-life situations

Unit Content
Observe processes involving objects that are lifted, pushed, or stretched: what pattern can
be seen?
Use this pattern to make an idea and test the idea
Use this idea to reason about the everyday world
Develop the quantities of kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and elastic
potential energy
Define the idea of a system and its environment
Develop a quantitative statement of the work-energy principle
Test the work-energy principle with quantitative experiments
Learn about the history of the ideas of work and energy
Use the work-energy principle to solve problems
Understand that the quantity of power is a term for the rate at which the energy of a
system changes (H)

Unit Student Proficiencies
Use concepts of work and energy to reason about everyday experiences (5.1.B2, 5.2.A1,
5.2.B2, 5.7.B2)
Use the physical quantities of work and energy, and the concept of conservation, to solve
problems (5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2)
Choose systems of objects, identify which objects are in the system and whether any
objects external to the system are interacting with the system objects (5.1.A1, 5.7.B2)
Choose and identify the initial and final states of a system of objects (5.1.B1, 5.7.B2)



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Identify interactions with the system objects by objects external to the system and equate
the quantity of work to the quantity of change of total system energy (5.3.A1, 5.7.B2,
5.7.B3)
Reason and solve problems about the same process using different choices of system
objects (5.1.A2, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.7.B2, 5.7.B3)
Describe the same process using the concepts of impulse/momentum and the concepts of
work/energy (5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.7.B2)
Describe physical processes with energy bar charts, words, pictures, and mathematics.
Translate among these representations (5.1.A2, 5.3.A1, 5.3.C1, 5.3.D1, 5.7.B2)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Demo: Lifting a block gives it the ability to smash chalk. Giving movement to a cart
gives it the ability to smash chalk. Stretching a rubber band gives it the ability to smash
chalk. What is the pattern?
Lab: measure the gravitational potential energy of a steel ball at the top of a ramp, and
predict its speed at the bottom.
Activity: Play bar chart jeopardy. Given a work-energy bar chart, describe a situation that
is consistant with the chart.
Activity: Play equation jeopardy. Given an expression describing the conservation of
energy, describe a situation that is consistant with the equation.
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Major learning goals of units 1-5
How to represent physical processes with bar charts
How to find a mathematical pattern in a table of data
How to select a system of objects, separate the system objects from their environment,
and describe their initial and final states.
Understand the idea of conservation of a quantity within a system
How to reason and solve problems about the same physical process using different
choices of system objects
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Typical student difficulties with the idea of Work:
          Work is proportional to (or undifferentiated from) a time interval during which
          force is applied (without control of other variables).
          Work is proportional to (or undifferentiated from) distance through which the
          force is applied (without control of other variables).
          Work is undifferentiated from (or proportional to) force.




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Technology Infusion:
Dynamics carts and Vernier probes with LabPro software can be used in many ways in
this unit.
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3

Instructional Resources:
Chalk
Dynamics cart and track
Springs
Slingshot-type device
Blocks
"Happy and sad" balls

Unit Notes:




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Unit 7 - Static equilibrium
Unit Learning Objectives
Learn what the center of mass of an object is and how to find its location experimentally
Understand the difference between a particle model and a rigid-body model of an object
Learn how to find the lever arm for a force
Understand the conditions under which a force produces a torque
Learn the two conditions for static equilibrium of a rigid body (H)

Unit Content
Center of mass
Lever arm of a force
Torque and net torque
Conditions of equilibrium

Unit Student Proficiencies
Find the center of mass of a rigid body (5.1.C1, 5.7.A1)
Use the concept of torque to reason about everyday experiences (5.1.B2, 5.7.A1)
Identify the interactions that cause a torque on a rigid body (5.7.A1)
Reason quantitatively about the net torque on a rigid body (5.3.C1, 5.7.A1)
Solve simple problems concerning the net torque on a rigid body (5.3.A1, 5.7.A1)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Lab: how can you suspend a meter stick with blocks attached so that it remains level?
Classroom activity: Support a 1kg block using a meter stick and one hand. What do you
feel when you hold the meter stick at the 0cm end and hang the block at 20cm? What
about when you hang the block at 100cm?
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Major learning goals of units 1-4
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Most students at this level have a hard time understanding that the angle between the
force and the lever arm is important to determine the torque exerted on an object.

Technology Infusion:
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3
Vernier force probes with LabPro software can be used in many way in this unit.

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Instructional Resources:
Meter sticks
Objects of various mass that can be hung from meter sticks
Ringstands and clamps
Spring scales

Unit Notes:




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June 2006
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Unit 8 - Gases
Unit Learning Objectives
Understand that matter consists of particles that are in continuous random motion
Learn that an ideal gas is a simplified model in which the particles are considered point
particles that obey Newton's laws
Learn that the pressure of an ideal gas is due to the collisions of the particles with the
walls of their container, and depends of the frequency of the collisions and on the forces
that the particles exert on the walls during each collision
Learn to represent gas processes by using graphs, and to describe the same processes by
using microscopic and macroscopic quantities
Learn how to devise multiple explanations of the same phenomenon

Unit Content
Kinetic molecular theory
Ideal gas model
Derivation of ideal gas equation of state
Graphs of P, V, and T
History of discovery in matter

Unit Student Proficiencies
Reason about everyday observations using the kinetic molecular theory of gases (5.1.A.4,
5.7.A.4)
Reason about gas processes using the ideal gas model, describing and explaining
macroscopically and microscopically (5.3.C.1)
Use words and pictures to describe gas processes represented by V vs T, P vs T, and P vs
V graphs (5.3.D.1)
Extract information about gas processes from V vs T, P vs T, and P vs V graphs and
describe the process using words and pictures (5.3.D.1)
Describe and explain the differences between observable behaviors of gases and liquids
(5.1.A.4)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Lab: what happens to alcohol when it disappears from a piece of paper? Where did it go?
Why? Develop and test explanations.
Activity: Predict what will happen to a drop of food coloring placed carefully at the top
of a glass of water.



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Activity: A bottle of strong perfume is opened at the front of the room. Have students
raise their hands when they can smell it. How can you explain the order in which the
hands went up?
Lab: predict and test what will happen to a flaccid sealed balloon when it's placed in a
sealed contained and some of the air is removed from the container.
Activity: Hide a small amount of water in an empty soda can and heat the can. Quickly
invert the can into a pan of cold water. Have students describe their observations and
reason about the can’s behavior. (Instructor describes the can as being full of air.)
Lab: Change the temperature of an isochoric sample of gas and record how the pressure
varies. Do your observations suggest any conclusion about the lowest possible
temperature the gas can attain? What is that temperature?
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Major learning goals of units 1-3 and 5-6
How to formulate an idea based on observations, and how to make a prediction that will
test the idea
Understand the idea of conservation of momentum and the impulse-momentum principle
Understand the idea of conservation of energy and the generalized work-energy principle
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Many students do not have a well developed concept of volume: Volume is size, amount
of stuff, or quantity of objects, undifferentiated from mass, weight, area, etc.

Technology Infusion:
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3
Applet: NetLogo Gas lab "Gas in a box" at
http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/run.cgi?GasLabGasinaBox.907.608

Instructional Resources:
Bell jar with vaccuum pump
Balloons
Flasks
Sealed gas samples with attached manometer and/or thermometer.
Ice bath and wam water bath the accommodate the above

Unit Notes:




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Unit 9 - Fluids at rest
Unit Learning Objectives
Understand why fluids exert forces in all directions, and why this pressure varies with the
depth in the fluid
Understand why fluids exert a net upward force termed "buoyancy" on any object
submerged in them
Learn that the upward force that a fluid exerts on a submerged object depends on the
density of the fluid and the submerged volume of the object, not on the density of the
object

Unit Content
Density review (optional)
Pressure magnitude
Pressure direction
Derivation of the buoyant force exerted by a fluid on an object suspended in it

Unit Student Proficiencies
Distinguish the concept of density from the concepts of mass, volume, and viscosity
(5.3.C.1)
Reason qualitatively about processes concerning fluids and submerged objects (5.7.A.1,
5.7.A.2)
Calculate the magnitude of the upward force exerted by a fluid on a submerged object
(5.3.C.1)
Solve simple dynamics problems involving the upward force exerted by a fluid on a
submerged object (5.3.C.1)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Demonstration: a can of regular cola sinks in a tank of water, while a can of diet cola
floats. Why?
Activity: Tie an inflated balloon to each end of a wooden dowel so that the dowel is
balanced. Pop one balloon. Have students observe the dowel and describe reasons for the
change in balance.
Activity: Fix the neck of a balloon over the neck of a flask. Warm the flask. Record
observations. Cool it in an ice bath. Record observations. Explain observations in terms
of microscopic behavior of gas particles.
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Major learning goals of units 1-3, 5-6, 8
Understand how to use the concept of density to reason quantitatively about substances

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How to use the kinetic molecular theory of matter to reason about physical processes
How to apply the ideal gas model to reason about physical processes
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Many students, despite repeated exposures, do not have a concept of "density" as
distinguished from volume or mass.
Typical student conceptions about floating:
          Focus on weight relative to surrounding medium. Things float if heavier than
          water and sink if lighter.
          Object floats if it has a large area on the bottom (in contact with the medium on
          which it floats.
          Things sink if they have holes in them.
          Materials float if they are "floating materials" in that medium.
          Things float if they are made to float.

Technology Infusion:
Vernier pressure probes and LabPro software can be used in many ways in this unit
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3

Instructional Resources:
Plastic water bottles with pushpins
Trays to catch water
Flasks
Balloons

Unit Notes:




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June 2006
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Unit 10 - Fluids in motion
Unit Learning Objectives
Understand the idea of fluid flow rate
Understand that the pressure a fluid exerts against a surface decreases as the speed of the
fluid across the surface increases
Understand the quantitative relationship among physical quantities in a moving fluid
(Bernoulli's principal)
Learn to represent fluid dynamics processes using a fluid dynamics bar chart

Unit Content
Observe and find patterns to build the idea that a fluid exerts less force when it is moving
Fluid flow rate
Conservation of energy in moving fluids
Fluid dynamics bar charts

Unit Student Proficiencies
Use the concept of Bernoulli's principle to reason about everyday observations (5.7.B.2)
Apply the quantitative definition of fluid flow rate to solve simple problems (5.3.C.1)
Use a fluid dynamics bar chart to represent physical processes that are described in words
and pictures (5.3.D.1)
Use words and pictures to represent physical situations that are described in a fluid
dynamics bar chart (5.3.D.1)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Class activity: fold an index card into a ┌─┐ shape and set it on the desk. Blow under the
card. What happens?
Class activity: hold a piece of paper by two corners. Blow over the top of it. What
happens?
Lab: Predict and test what will happen when you blow between two light bulbs
suspended by strings, or two soda cans balanced on straws that allow them to move
together or apart with little friction.
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Major learning goals of units 1-3, 5-6, 8-9
How to represent physical processes using bar charts




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Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Understanding that the quantities in Bernoulli's equation express a conservation of energy
is easier if students have built an understanding of the units involved:
[Pressure]=[Energy]/[Volume]

Technology Infusion:
Web page: qualitative observation experiment
http://chrisdamato.com/class/?page_id=536
Web page: advanced quantitative testing experiment: http://chrisdamato.com/class/demo-
tech/fluid-dynamics/video-experiment/
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3

Instructional Resources:
Soda Cans
Straws
Lightbulbs on string

Unit Notes:




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Unit 11 - Thermodynamics
Unit Learning Objectives
Understand and distinguish between concepts of heating (thermal energy transfer) and
thermal energy
Understand and distinguish between concepts of thermal energy and temperature
Learn to reason qualitatively about thermodynamic processes
Learn to represent thermodynamics processes using thermodynamics bar charts, words,
sketches, graphs, and mathematics
Learn to use the first law of thermodynamics quantitatively in problem solving

Unit Content
Microscopic explanation of heating
Generalized work-energy principle extended to including heating
First law of thermodynamics
Graphs of heating vs temperature

Unit Student Proficiencies
Use concepts of thermodynamics to reason about everyday experiences (5.7.B.1, 5.7.B.2)
Use the first law of thermodynamics to reason about physical processes macroscopically
and microscopically (5.7.B.1, 5.7.B.2)
Distinguish between processes that can be explained with the generalized work-energy
principle and processes that must be explained using the concept of heating (5.7.B.1,
5.7.B.2, 5.7.B.3)
Solve simple problems using the first law of thermodynamics (5.3.C.1)
Reason about physical processes using a graph of heating vs temperature (5.3.C.1)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Demo: A test tube is sealed with a stopper and heated. The stopper pops out. Why?
Class activity: Rub two pieces of paper together. Why did the papers become hot?
Project: Heating was once considered to be the flow of an invisible fluid called
"phlogiston." How did the phlogiston theory explain combustion and heat from
mechanical friction? What could phlogiston explain successfully? Why did scientists
eventually abandon the phlogiston theory?
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
How to use the kinetic molecular theory of matter to reason about physical processes
Algebra skills appropriate to grade level

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Ability to interpret graphs in two dimensions
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
The common meanings of the term "heat" are confusing to beginning students of physics.
As used colloquially, the term includes concepts related to temperature, thermal energy,
and thermal energy transfer.
We will use the term "heating" to indicate the transfer of thermal energy, and avoid the
use of the term "heat" in favor of more specific meaning.

Technology Infusion:
Vernier temperature probes and LabPro software can be used in many ways in this unit.

Instructional Resources:
Foam-cup calometers
Graduated cylinders
Thermometers
Blocks of various materials

Unit Notes:




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                       40
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June 2006
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Unit 12 - Electric charge
Unit Learning Objectives
Understand that electric interaction is a new kind of interaction
Understand that there are two types of electric charge, positive and negative, and that
neutral objects contain equal amounts of positive and negative charge
Understand how charged objects of both types interact with other charged objects of both
types
Understand that some types of electrically charged particles can move freely inside
certain materials, and in other materials the movement of charged particles is limited
Understand that preexisting knowledge of forces and energy applies to processes
involving electrically charged objects

Unit Content
Interactions of simple charged objects
Behavior of conducting materials and insulating materials
Coulomb's law of electrostatic force
Electrostatic potential energy
Generalized work-energy principle extended to include electrostatic potential energy

Unit Student Proficiencies
Dintinguish electric interactions from magnetic and other types of interactions (5.7.A.8)
Apply knowledge of electric charges, conductors, and insulators to reason about real-life
processes (5.7.A.4)
Use concepts of electric charges, conductors, and insulators to explain observation and
predict results of new experiments (5.7.A.4)
Use the quantity of electrostatic force to solve simple problems (5.3.C.1)
Use free-body diagrams and energy bar charts to reason about phenomena involving
electrically charged objects (5.3.D.1)
Explain the observed behavior of materials that are insulators and materials that are
conductors (5.7.A.4)
Explain how to charge a neutral conductor by induction (5.7.B.1)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Lab: Rub a foam rod with felt and suspend it horizontally from a string. Observe its
behavior when you bring other rubbed objects into its vicinity.
Classroom activity: Stick some Scotch™ tape to the desk and peel it off quickly. Observe
how it interacts with another similar strip.

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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                      41
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Lab: Hang a small ball of aluminum foil from a string. Predict what will happen when
you slowly bring a charged object toward it, then touch it. Repeat experiment using a
styrofoam packing peanut.
Project: Research paper on a scientist who contributed to the study of electricity. Include
a bio, a description of their major contributions, and how their work helped another
scientist build off of that work. Sign-up sheet limits students per scientist.
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Advanced oral and written communication skills
Major learning goals from units 1,4,5,6,11
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Students think of charge as an object rather than a property of an object. We will avoid
reinforcing this idea by using the term "charged object" instead of "charge."
Students don't understand the meaning of charged and neutral objects at the atomic level.
Typical student conceptions about electric charge:
          Concepts of charged objects and magnetized objects are not differentiated
          Neutral objects do not interact with charged objects
          If two objects attract, they must have opposite charges
          Insulators cannot be charged
          Students do not recognize charge conservation

Technology Infusion:
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3

Instructional Resources:
rods of polystyrene, PVC, vinyl, plexiglas, and metal
swivel mounts for rods
fur, felt, and plastic squares to rub rods with
aluminum foil
thread or dental floss
electroscopes
bar magnets

Unit Notes:




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                       42
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June 2006
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Unit 13 - Electric fields
Unit Learning Objectives
Understand that electric charge interactions can be explained with the electric field model
Understand that an electric field is a real entity created by charged objects in space

Learn the operational definition of the physical quantities electric field E and the electric
potential V

Unit Content
Concept of field applied to gravitation and electrostatic interaction
E field vectors
Electrostatic potential V
Equipotential lines
Potential difference (voltage)

Unit Student Proficiencies
Reason about electric fields using the concepts of source charge and test charge (5.7.A.4)
Describe the similarities and differences between the concept of a gravitational field and
an electrical field (5.7.A.6)
Use the quantity of electrostatic potential energy to solve simple problems (5.3.C.1)
Draw electric field lines for simple arrangements of test charges (5.3.D.1)
Draw equipotential lines for simple arrangements of test charges (5.3.D.1)
Reason about electric energy situations using energy bar charts (5.3.D.1)
Apply knowledge of electric field quantities to solve simple problems (5.3.C.1)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Classroom activity: Think of a mechanism by which the Earth can exert a force on distant
objects
Class or homework: How is this topographical map like an electric field diagram? What
do the lines represent?
Demo or lab: An electroscope deflects when a charged object is brought near its bulb. But
when the bulb is covered by a half soda can, this behavior is not observed. How can you
explain this?
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
How to use concepts of electric charges, conductors, and insulators to explain
observations and predict results of new experiments


Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                      43
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How to use the quantity of electrostatic force to solve simple problems
Major learning goals of units 1,3,5,6,11
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Students often have difficulty with the concept of a test charge. They don't realize that a
field exists independently of the test charge, and that the test charge is merely measuring
the field.

Technology Infusion:
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3
Applet: Charges and Fields at http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet

Instructional Resources:
rods of polystyrene, PVC, vinyl, plexiglas, and metal
swivel mounts for rods
fur, felt, and plastic squares to rub rods with
aluminum foil
thread or dental floss
electroscopes
bar magnets

Unit Notes:




Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                     44
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
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Unit 14 - DC circuits
Unit Learning Objectives
Understand how phenomena occurring in electric circuits are described by physical
quantities such as potential difference ("voltage"), electric current, electric resistance, and
electric power
Learn analogies that describe aspects of DC circuit behavior, what they describe best and
where they break down
Understand that a battery is not a source of constant current, but more like a source of
constant potential difference (voltage)
Learn to describe processes in an electric circuit using Kirchhoff's loop rule and the
junction rule (H)
Learn to measure electric current, voltage, and resistance

Unit Content
Movement of charge in conductors
Water-in-pipes analogy
Moving-crowd analogy
Electric circuit symbols and notation
Using instruments to measure current and potential difference

Unit Student Proficiencies
Use analogies to explain processes occuring in electric circuits and to provide
microscopic explanations for these processes (5.1.A.1)
Use a circuit diagram to build an electric circuit (5.1.B.1)
Represent the changes in potential in an electric circuit graphically (5.3.D.1)
Calculate the equivalent resistance of a combination of resistors (5.3.C.1)
Apply mathematical relationships to solve problems involving DC circuits with sources
of electric potential and resistors (5.3.C.1)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Classroom activity: connect a charged electroscope to an uncharged electroscope using a
length of metal wire. Observe and explain what happens.
Classroom activity: Connect a charged electroscope to an uncharged electroscope using a
neon lightbulb. Observe and explain what happens. Why does the flash of light only last
for an instant?
Demonstration: An aluminum foil ball suspended between the poles of a Wimshurst
generator bounces back and forth between the poles. Why does this happen?

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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                        45
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Lab: is a battery a source of constant current or constant potential difference?
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Use the quantity of electrostatic potential energy to solve simple problems
Reason about electric energy situations using energy bar charts
Major learning goals of unit 12, 13
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Typical student conceptions about DC circuits:
          First resistor gets its electricity, next gets less, etc. (sequential mental model;
          attenuation mental model; downstream sequential reasoning). (down stream
          change does not affect up or side stream).
          The more devices, the more current (devices 'draw' electric current).
          Flow always divides equally at a branching.
          Current proportional to potential difference regardless of resistance.

Technology Infusion:
Applet: circuit construction kit at http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3

Instructional Resources:
Electroscopes
Foam rods, vinyl rods
Felt, fur, plastic sheets
Thread or dental floss
Galvanometers

Unit Notes:




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                            46
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June 2006
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Unit 15 - Magnetic forces and magnetic fields
Unit Learning Objectives
Understand that a magnetic field interacts with moving electrically charged objects and
with wires carrying electric currents
Understand the difference between sources of a magnetic field and test objects in a
magnetic field
Learn to describe magnetic interactions quantitatively

Unit Content
Interactions of magnetic objects with other magnetic objects
Interactions of magnetic objects with moving electrically charged objects
Magnetic field
Right-hand rule
Interactions of electrons and magnetic field

Unit Student Proficiencies
Explain why we believe that magnetic interactions are different from electrostatic
interactions
Find the direction of the magnetic field created by a current-carrying wire at any given
point (5.7.A.6)
Use the concepts of magnetic fields and magnetic interactions to reason about everyday
observations (5.7.A.8)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Classroom activity: interaction of a compass and a current-carrying wire
Demo or classroom activity: interaction of a bar magnet and the dot on an oscilloscope
Demo: Demonstrate magnetic field lines using a magnet and iron filings
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Advanced oral and written communication skills
Major learning goals of unit 12
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Unlike electric field lines, magnetic field lines have no ends. On the outside of the
magnet the field lines run from north to south pole, then from south to north pole on the
inside of the magnet. This is why you can never have one magnetic pole.
Many students believe that a positively charged object repels the north pole of a magnet
and attracts the south pole.

Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                       47
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
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Technology Infusion:
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3

Instructional Resources:
Source of electric potential
Wires
Small compasses

Unit Notes:




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                            48
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
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Unit 16 - Electromagnetic induction (H)
Unit Learning Objectives
Learn under what conditions a current is induced in a coil
Learn how to determine the direction of an induced current using Lenz's law

Unit Content
Conditions required to induce a current in a loop
Direction of induced current (stretch)

Unit Student Proficiencies
Apply the knowledge of magnetic field and magnetic force to determine the direction of
an induced current (5.7.A.6)
Use the concept of electromagnetic induction to reason about everyday observations
(5.7.A.8)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Lab or classroom activity: Experiment with coil, magnet, and galvanometer. List the
conditions necessary to induce a current in a coil.
Lab: predict the direction that the galvanometer needle will deflect when a bar magnet is
passed through a coil
Project: explain how a galvanometer works
Project: build an electric motor
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Advanced oral and written communication skills
Major learning goals of unit 14, 15
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Most students have a hard time with the idea that only a moving charge can create a
magnetic field, and that only a changing magnetic field can induce an electric current.

Technology Infusion:
Applet: Faraday's Electromagnetic Lab at http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet

Instructional Resources:
Coils
Galvanometers
Bar magnets


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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                      49
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Unit Notes:




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June 2006
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Unit 17 - Vibrations
Unit Learning Objectives
Learn the difference between vibrational motion and linear and circular motion
Learn the new vibrational quantities period and amplitude
Learn to write mathematical descriptions of period, velocity, and acceleration of a
vibrating object as functions or time
Learn to write mathematical descriptions of the changing energy of a vibrational system

Unit Content
Simple harmonic motion
Period and amplitude
Conservation of energy in simple harmonic motion

Unit Student Proficiencies
Read kinematics graphs describing the vibrational motion of an object and extract
information about the initial position, amplitude, and period of vibration (5.3.C.1,
5.7.A.1)
Use motion diagrams, free-body diagrams, and energy bar charts to describe and explain
vibrational motion (5.7.B.2)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Lab: Period of a pendulum. Does the mass of the hanging object affect the period? Does
the initial displacement of the object? Does the length of the string?
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Major learning goals of units 1, 3, 6
Algebra skills appropriate to grade level
Basic knowledge of sine and cosine functions
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Most students will have difficulty with trigonometry in general, including the use or
radians and the fact that radians are dimensionless.
This unit requires a lot of vocabulary.

Technology Infusion:
Video activities: Rutgers Physics Teacher Technology Resources at
http://paer.rutgers.edu/pt3
Vernier probes and LabPro software can be used for several class activities and labs in
this unit.

Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                      51
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June 2006
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Instructional Resources:
Ringstands
Springs
Strings
Small heavy blocks
Stopwatches

Unit Notes:




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction               52
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT                                          Page 53 of 79
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Unit 18 - Mechanical waves
Unit Learning Objectives
Understand that the frequency of a wave is determined by its source, the speed of a wave
depends on the properties of the medium through which it travels, and the wavelength is
determined by both the frequency and the speed of the wave
Understand how waves from more than one source add to make waves of smaller or
larger amplitude, depending on the location where the waves meet
Learn to apply these wave concepts to beats, standing waves on strings, and standing
waves in pipes (H)
Learn that the relative velocities of the sources of waves and of the observers affect the
frequency of the observed waves

Unit Content
Wavelength, frequency, and speed
Displacement vs time graphs
Longitudinal and transverse waves
Wave superposition
Doppler shift

Unit Student Proficiencies
Reason qualitatively about the behavior of mechanical waves, using the concepts of
wavelength, frequency, and speed (5.1.A.2)
Apply the mathematical relationship between the wavelength, frequency, and speed of a
mechanical wave (5.3.C.1)
Apply the principle of wave superposition to reason about physical phenomena (5.3.C.1)
Apply the relative velocities of source and observer to reason about the characteristics of
observed waves (5.1.A.2)
Apply wave ideas to describe and explain everyday processes (5.1.A.2)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Lab: Does a larger pulse move faster along a slinky? Do pulses of higher frequency move
faster along a slinky? Do longitudinal slinky-waves move faster than transverse slinky-
waves? What does affect the speed of a pulse along a slinky?
Activity: Use a Slinky on the floor to create a longitudinal and a transverse pulse.
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
How to use the vibrational quantities period and amplitude


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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                         53
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June 2006
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How to write mathematical descriptions of period, velocity, and acceleration of a
vibrating object as functions or time
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Students often have difficulty believing that the speed of a mechanical wave is
independent of its amplitude or frequency.
Make sure that when students represent waves graphically, they pay attention to labelling
the axes. If the axes are displacement vs time, the graph is showing the vibrational
motion of one part of the medium as time passes. If the graph shows displacement vs
position, it is a snapshot of the mechanical wave at a moment in time.

Technology Infusion:
Applets: Various at NTNU www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/~hwang/
Vernier probes and LabPro software can be used for several class activities and labs in
this unit.

Instructional Resources:
Slinky
Rope
Stopwatches

Unit Notes:




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                      54
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
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Unit 19 - Reflection and refraction
Unit Learning Objectives
Understand that we see objects by light emitted from or reflected off their surfaces and
into our eyes
Understand that each point of a light-emitting object sends light in all directions
Understand that light travels in straight lines only in the same medium
Understand how a particle model of light can explain some aspects of light propagation
Understand how a wave model of light can explain other aspects of light propagation

Unit Content
How we see
Light ray model
Emitted and reflected light
Particle model of light
Wave model of light
Snell's law

Unit Student Proficiencies
Represent light phenomena using a ray diagram (5.7.B.4)
Describe light phenomena using the particle model and using the wave model (5.7.B.4)
Apply the geometrical relationship between an incoming light ray and the reflected light
ray (5.3.C.1)
Apply the mathematical relationship between an incoming light ray and a refracted light
ray (5.3.C.1)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Activity: Can you see anything in a completely darkened room? Even if you wait a long
time for your eyes to adjust?
Activity: Use a laser pointer to test the idea that light propates in a straight line.
Discussion: Why can't you see a laser beam in clear air? Why can you see it when it
passes through chalk dust or some?
Lab or Activity: Use a ray diagram to predict what you will see with a pinhole aperture
between an electric candle bulb and a screen.
Lab: At desks with laser pointer, plane mirror, and a target. Use ray diagrams to predict
where the laser must be aimed to reflect off the mirror and hit the target.


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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                        55
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Demo: If you have the right kind of glass microscope slide, you can submerge it in
Wesson brand vegatable oil and it will disappear. Ask students how they can explain this
observation.
Project: How did people explain vision in antiquity?
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Advanced oral and written communication skills
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Explain that laser pointers use a very narrow beam of light, and that regular light sources
do not radiate this way.
Students usually think that each point on an object only radiates (or reflects) light in one
direction.
Students often have difficulty using a protractor. Remind them that an angle is always
between two lines. Remind them to identify the two lines before they try to measure the
angle.

Technology Infusion:
Video: Light Fantastic, BBC & Schaffer, Simon. 2004. Episode 1.
Demo: Observe the way light travels through a fiber-optic cable. How can you explain
these observations?

Instructional Resources:
Water tank with clear sides
Glass and/or plastic prisms
Plane mirrors
Electric candles with frosted bulbs
Laser pointers
Protractors

Unit Notes:




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                       56
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June 2006
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Unit 20 - Geometrical optics
Unit Learning Objectives
Understand how plane mirrors, curved mirrors, and lenses form images of objects
Understand the difference between a real image and a virtual image
Understand the process through which the lens equation and curved mirror equation are
derived

Unit Content
Virtual and real images
Ray diagrams
Thin-lens equation

Unit Student Proficiencies
Describe mathematically the location of an object and its image (5.3.C.1)
Be able to find the focal length of a curved mirror or lens experimentally using two
different methods (5.1.B.2)
Be able to predict where an image formed by a mirror or a lens will appear, and then
perform an experiment to test the prediction (5.1.B.1, 5.1.B.2)
Use ray diagrams to reason qualitatively about objects and images (5.1.B.1, 5.1.B.2)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Lab: Test the idea that the image in a plane mirror is formed on the surface of the mirror
Project: Students make a periscope, a pinhole camera, or a model of an eye or camera.
Provide accurate ray diagrams and a description of the critical parts and what is important
about them.
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
Understand that we see objects by light emitted from or reflected off their surfaces and
into our eyes
Understand that each point of a light-emitting object sends light in all directions
Understand that light travels in straight lines only in the same medium
Geometry and algebra skills appropriate to grade level
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Many people think that if they stay in a completely dark room long enough, eventually
they will be able to see objects in the room.
Students do not start with a clear distinction between the concepts of light and vision.



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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                       57
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June 2006
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Students often think light is only radiated from objects like lightbulbs and candles.
Students often have difficulty with the idea that light is also radiated from non-luminous
objects.
Students often do not understand that light is a physical entity that exists separately from
its source and effects.
Students often think of light "running down" after a certain distance.
Make sure that students understand that each point on an object radiates light in all
directions.
Students often think that an image is on the surface of a mirror -- even though if pressed
they can't say exactly what they mean by that.

Technology Infusion:
Video: Light Fantastic, BBC & Schaffer, Simon. 2004. Episode 2.
Applet: Optics bench at http://webphysics.davidson.edu/Applets/Optics/intro.html
Applets: Various at NTNU www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/~hwang/

Instructional Resources:
Water tank with clear sides
Glass and/or plastic prisms
Plane mirrors
Electric candles with frosted bulbs
Laser pointers
Curved mirrors
Lenses
Optics benches
Protractors

Unit Notes:




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                      58
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June 2006
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                                       VII. Scope and Sequence




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                         59
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June 2006
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Unit 21 - Wave optics
Unit Learning Objectives
Understand the different characters of the particle and wave model of light propagation
Understand Huygens' principle and how it can be used to explain how light propagates
through small openings

Unit Content
Huygens' wavelet model of light
Young's double-slit experiment

Unit Student Proficiencies
Describe interference and diffraction patterns quantitatively (5.3.B.1)
Represent light phenomena using wave fronts, ray diagrams, and mathematics (5.3.C.1)

Unit Specific Instructional Strategies for Teachers
Lab: Calculate the separation between two small slits by observing how a laser beam
passes through them.
What students must know before this unit in order to succeed
How to describe light phenomena using the particle model and using the wave model
Algebra skills appropriate to grade level
Common student difficulties, conceptions, or facets of knowledge
Huygens' principle is helpful if students can understand how it is used.
Remind students of the relation between the ray and wavefront models of light
propagation: rays are perpendicular to wavefronts, and rays point in the same direction
that the wave travels.
Students should be encouraged to understand that sometimes light acts like a wave and
sometimes it acts like a particle, but it is neither wave nor particle. Instead, it is
something different which has no analogy in our normal experience.
Don't confuse n, the integer in the diffraction equations, with the n for a material's index
of refraction. Make sure students know n=0 is for the central band in refraction.

Technology Infusion:
Applet: http://www.chrisdamato.com/wave/applet-ripple.htm
Applet: Ripple tank http://falstad.com/ripple/
Video: Light Fantastic, BBC & Schaffer, Simon. 2004. Episode 4.




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Instructional Resources:
Laser pointers
Slits and apertures
Optics benches

Unit Notes:




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                            VIII. Supplementary Components




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Project: I-DVD or Video
Choose a topic to teach. Develop an anticipatory set, objectives, instructions,
closure, and suggest an assessment.
Component Learning Objectives:
Give students hands-on experience in setting goals for learning objectives.

Component Student Proficiencies:
Give students hands-on experience in setting goals for proficiencies.

Component Specific Instructional Strategies:
Give students hands-on experience in setting goals for instructional strategies.
Invest their learning experience through the year.

Technology Infusion:
Student will choose a form of technology for the project.

Notes:




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Project: Scientist biography
full biography
laws or work
Application of his work
quotes if any
Component Learning Objectives:
Addresses the following NJCCCS items:
5.2.B.1    Examine the lives and contributions of important scientists who
           effected major breakthroughs in our understanding of the natural and
           designed world.
5.2.B.2        Discuss significant technological achievements in which science has
               played an important part as well as technological advances that have
               contributed directly to the advancement of scientific knowledge.
5.2.B.3        Describe the historical origin of important scientific developments
               such as atomic theory, genetics, plate tectonics, etc., showing how
               scientific theories develop, are tested, and can be replaced or modified
               in light of new information and improved investigative techniques.

Component Student Proficiencies:
Students will be able to explain how the life and work of one or more scientists relates to
the work by other scientists before and after.
Students will build an understanding of the collaborative (and competitive) nature of
scientific progress.
Students will express their understanding of the importance of the work of the scientist in
real life.

Component Specific Instructional Strategies:
Students work together in small groups to do research, create a project, and make a
presentation.

Technology Infusion:
Students may use technology of their choice in making a presentation, including
audiovisual materials or online presentation materials.
Research will include online resources.

Notes:




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Project: Poster or web ad to advertise a simple or compound machine
The reason for the choice of the machine
history of the machine
information and description of the machine
application and use of the machine
Component Learning Objectives:
Students will learn about the operation of a simple machine and practice scientific
communication skills.

Component Student Proficiencies:
At the completion of this project, students will be able to describe the importance and
operation of a simple machine, based on physical principles.

Component Specific Instructional Strategies:
Students will work hands-on with tools and materials to learn about a simple or
compound machine.
Students will use publishing tools to create a presentation in the form of an
advertisement. They will adapt new learning and present it in a familiar form.

Technology Infusion:
Students may use publishing or web technology of their choice.

Notes:




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June 2006
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Project: Hollywood Physics
Students prepare a presentation on good and bad physics seen in a selection from
mainstream movie or TV media

Component Learning Objectives:
Learn to identify and criticize the use of physics in the media
Examine emerging research in physics

Component Student Proficiencies:
At the conclusion of this unit the students will be able to:
Identify physics concepts used in media. (5.1.A4, 5.1.B2, 5.2.A1)
Use concepts of physics to reason about the correctness of what they see in the media
(5.1.A1, 5.1.A2, 5.2.A1, 5.1.B2, 5.2.A1)
 Examine current research to determine whether theories should be modified (5.1.A1,
5.1.A3, 5.2.B3, 5.4.A1, 5.4.B1)

Component Specific Instructional Strategies:
cooperative learning
small-group instruction
critical thinking
active learning
addressing learning styles

Technology Infusion:
Examples of Television and Movie physics
Internet searching and research

Notes:




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Project: Physics in the world
Component Learning Objectives:
Learn to identify the presence of physics in everyday life
Examine the life and labors of a physicist

Component Student Proficiencies:
At the conclusion of this unit the students will be able to:
Discuss the life of a physicist and how he or she was impacted by the era. (5.1.A4,
5.2.A1, 5.2.B1)
Discuss one invention or idea of a physicist and the effect of that invention or idea.
(5.1.A3, 5.2.A2, 5.2.B2, 5.2.B3, 5.4.A1, 5.4.B1)
 Identify any new problems that arose as a result of the invention or idea (5.1.A2, 5.1.A4,
5.1.B2, 5.4.A1, 5.4.B1, 5.4.C1)

Component Specific Instructional Strategies:
cooperative learning
critical thinking
active learning
addressing learning styles

Technology Infusion:
Internet searching and research

Notes:
        This project has students research the life of a physicist, their ideas and the impact
of their ideas. Students will also research how the era affected the life, research and ideas
of the physicist as well as how his or her research and ideas affected the era. Students will
also examine what new directions opened as a result of their physicist’s research.




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June 2006
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               IX. Course Assessment / Evaluation of Students
Marking Period Grades
The marking period grade for each student will be calculated by the average achievement
level in each of the categories below, weighted as indicated


Homework                                      30
Exams                                         40
Lab                                           15
Project                                       15
                                              100%
At the option of the instructor, students will have the option to improve their grades by
attending extra help sessions outside class, and demonstrating their mastery in a manner
satisfactory to the instructor.
Semester Grades
The marking period grade for each student will be calculated by the average achievement
level in each of the categories below, weighted as indicated:
Marking period grades                         30
Midterm or final exam                         20
                                              100%


Final Course Grade
The marking period grade for each student will be calculated by the average of semester
grades.

Representive rubrics for evaluation of student work
Rubric for Work-Energy bar chart
A work-energy bar chart is typical of the representations that students will use as
formative assessments to build physical concepts, and also as summative assessments to
demonstrate their mastery of these concepts.
The rubric is intended to be useful as a guide to teacher evaluation, but the rubric must
also clearly describe what the student needs to do to be successful.
Several features of the work-energy bar chart must be mastered in order for students to
show complete command of this representation.
This rubric can be used with few modifications for impulse-momentum bar charts, and
bar charts used in thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, and electrostatics.


Sample rubic: Work-energy bar chart
Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                      68
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT                                                              Page 69 of 79
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Aspect              Below expectations             Meets expectations             Above expectations
Initial and         The choice of initial and      The initial and final states   The initial and final states
final states        final states may not be        are chosen appropriately       of system are described
                    useful to solve the            in order to solve the          clearly in words and
                    problem.                       problem.                       sketch.
                    The initial and final states   The initial and final states
                    are mentioned but the          both clearly indicate an
                    precise time and state of      instant of time and the
                    the system objects are not     state of all system objects
                    clear.                         at that time
Objects in          The choice of objects in       The objects in the system      The objects in the system
system              the system may not be          are chosen appropriately       are selected to create the
                    useful to solve the            in order to solve the          most straightforward
                    problem.                       problem.                       problem, and described
                                                                                  clearly in words and
                    Some system objects are        Each object in the system
                                                                                  sketch.
                    not clearly identified.        is identified. Each object
                    Some system objects may        can be treated as a point
                    be incorrectly combined        particle or simple body.
                    or incorrectly
                                                   The boundary or
                    differentiated. It is not
                                                   distinction between the
                    clear which objects are in
                                                   system objects and the
                    the system and which are
                                                   environment is clear.
                    in the environment.
Work                An action by the               The work done on the           The system and
                    environment on the             system by objects in the       environment are chosen
                    system is not described as     environment causes a           so as to make the work-
                    work. Or, an interaction       change in the total energy     energy principle easy to
                    between system objects is      of the system objects.         apply.
                    described as work.
                                                   The change in the
                    Or, an inconsistency           system's total energy is
                    between selection of           equal to the work in
                    system objects and             magnitude and sign.
                    description of work
                    makes the intention
                    unclear.
Change in           total system energy before     total system energy before     total system energy before
total energy        + work ≠ total system          + work = total system          + work = total system
                    energy after                   energy after                   energy after, and relative
                                                                                  magnitudes of energies
                                                                                  and work are plausible




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                                             69
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June 2006
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                                       X. Resource Information
Textbook:
Physics Principles and Problems Glencoe Science 2005

Instructor resources:
The Physics Active Learning Guide. Alan van Heuvelen and Eugenia Etkina. Addison
Wesley, 2006
Five easy lessons: Strategies for successful physics teaching. Randall D. Knight, Addison
Wesley, 2004
Alan Van Heuvelen, "Learning to Think Like a Physicist," Am. J. Phys. 59, 888-897
(1991)
Scientific Abilities Project, Rutgers University Graduate School of Education. Eugenia
Etkina, Alan Van Heuvelen, Suzanne Brahmia, David Brookes, Chris D'Amato; Michael
Gentile, Anna Karelina, Marina Miner- Bolotin, Sahana Murthy, David Rosengrant,
Maria Ruibal-Vilassenor, Aaron Warren, Xueli Zou.
http://paer.rutgers.edu/ScientificAbilities/Introduction/default.aspx
Minstrell, J. Facets of Students Knowledge and Relevant Instruction. In: Duit, R.,
Goldberg, F., and Niedderer, H. (Eds.), Proceedings of an International Workshop -
Research in Physics Learning: Theoretical Issues and Empirical Studies. Kiel, Germany:
The Institute for Science Education (IPN), 1982, pp. 110-128.
http://depts.washington.edu/huntlab/diagnoser/facet.html

Online/software Resources:
Applet: Charges and Fields at http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet
Applet: Faraday's Electromagnetic Lab at http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet
Applet: NetLogo Gas lab "Gas in a box" at
http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/run.cgi?GasLabGasinaBox.907.608
Applet: Optics bench at http://webphysics.davidson.edu/Applets/Optics/intro.html
Applet: Ripple tank http://falstad.com/ripple/
Applet: circuit construction kit at http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet
Applet: http://www.chrisdamato.com/wave/applet-ripple.htm
Applet: kinematics at http://www.learner.org/exhibits/parkphysics/
Applet: motion simulations including Moving Man at
http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phet/web-pages/simulations-base.html
Applet: Various at NTNU www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/~hwang/

Equipment Resources:
Action Figures

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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                   70
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June 2006
PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT         Page 71 of 79
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Air Puck
Aluminum Foil
Backpack Filled With Textbooks
Ball, Basketball
Ball, Bowling Ball
Ball, Medium, Hard, About 0.5Kg
Ball, Small, Metal
Balloons
Balls, "Happy And Sad"
Bath, Ice And Warm Water Bath
Batteries, 9V
Battery And Spring-Powered Toy Cars
Beaker
Bell Jar With Vaccuum Pump
Block, 1Kg, With Flat Bottom
Block, 500G
Blocks, Small, About 30-50G
Blocks, Various Mass
Blocks, Various Materials
Bottles, Soda Pop, Empty
Bucket With Rope Tied To Handle
Cans, Soda Pop, Empty
Cars, Battery Operated, Different Speeds
Cart, Dynamics, 1Kg
Cathode-Ray Tube Or Oscilliscope
Chalk
Coil, Wire, With Many Turns
Computers
Constant Velocity Carts
Crate
Cup, Metal, Small Or Half Soda Can
Curved Mirrors
Drinking Straws, Bendy And Straight
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June 2006
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Dynamics Carts And Track
Electric Candles With Frosted Bulbs
Electroscopes
Fabric Squares, Felt
Fabric Squares, Fur
Fabric Squares, Synthetic
Fabric Squares, Wool
Fan Cart
Flasks
Foam-Cup Calometers
Food Coloring
Galvanometers
Glass And/Or Plastic Prisms
Gloves, Nitrile Or Plastic
Graduated Cylinders
Index Cards
Inline Skates (Optional)
Laser Pointers
Lastic Squares To Rub Rods With
Lenses
Lightbulbs On String
Magnets, Bar
Magnets, Horseshoe
Mallet, Croquet Or Similar
Mallet, Rubber
Medicine Ball
Metal Ring Track With Removable Segment
Metal Wires
Meter Sticks
Metronome
Motion Detector Probe
Neon Test Bulb
Nylon Stockings Or Socks
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June 2006
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Objects Of Various Mass That Can Be Hung From Meter Sticks
Optics Benches
Perfume, Strong
Ping Pong Ball
Ping Pong Ball With Foil Wrap Or Other Metallic Coating
Plane Mirrors
Plastic Grocery Bag
Plastic Saran-Type Wrap
Plates, Metal Or Metal-Coated
Pressure Sensor
Protractors
Pulleys
Ringstands And Clamps
Rods Of Polystyrene, Pvc, Vinyl, Plexiglas, And Metal
Rods, Foam Pipe Insulation Tubes
Rods, Metal
Rods, Vinyl
Rods, Wood
Rolling Carts
Rope
Rubber Mallet
Rubbing Alcohol
Ruler
Scale, Platform, Sensitive
Sealed Gas Samples With Attached Manometer And/Or Thermometer.
Skateboard
Slingshot
Slingshot-Type Device
Slinky
Slits And Apertures
Small Compasses
Soda Cans
Source Of Electric Potential
Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                         73
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June 2006
PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT                                 Page 74 of 79
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Spring Scale (Newtons)
Spring Scales
Springs
Stopwatch
Stopwatches
Straws
String
Strings
Strings, Pulleys, Blocks, Ringstands
Sugar Packets Or Small Beanbags
Switches
Swivel Mounts For Rods
Syringe Barrel And Plunger
Tape
Test Tube With Rubber Stopper
Thermometers
Thermoplastic Surface (Changes Color When Heated)
Thin, Flat, Randomly Shaped Pieces Of Plywood With Holes Drilled Around The Edges
Thread Or Dental Floss
Thumbtacks
Track, Metal Low-Friction
Trays To Catch Water
Tuning Fork
Vaccuum Jar With Vaccuum Pump
Various Small Balls
Watch With Second Hand
Water Tank With Clear Sides
Wimshurst Generator
Wires
Wooden Box, Resonant

Technology Resources:
Instructor computer with Internet access

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June 2006
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Student computers with Internet access
Classroom data projector or large-screen high-resolution monitor
Vernier probes: Force, motion sensor, temperature, acceleration
Vernier LabPro software

Off Campus Field Work:
To be determined




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                           75
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June 2006
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         XI: New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards
5.1.A          Habits of Mind
5.1.A.1        When making decisions, evaluate conclusions, weigh evidence, and
               recognize that arguments may not have equal merit.
5.1.A.2        Assess the risks and benefits associated with alternative solutions.
5.1.A.3        Engage in collaboration, peer review, and accurate reporting of
               findings.
5.1.A.4        Explore cases that demonstrate the interdisciplinary nature of the
               scientific enterprise.
5.1.B          Inquiry and Problem Solving
5.1.B.1        Select and use appropriate instrumentation to design and conduct
               investigations.
5.1.B.2        Show that experimental results can lead to new questions and further
               investigations.
5.1.C.         Safety
5.1.C.1        Understand, evaluate and practice safe procedures for conducting
               science investigations.
5.2.A          Cultural Contributions
5.2.A.1        Recognize the role of the scientific community in responding to
               changing social and political conditions and how scientific and
               technological achievement effect historical events.
5.2.B          Historical Perspectives
5.2.B.1        Examine the lives and contributions of important scientists who
               effected major breakthroughs in our understanding of the natural and
               designed world.
5.2.B.2        Discuss significant technological achievements in which science has
               played an important part as well as technological advances that have
               contributed directly to the advancement of scientific knowledge.
5.2.B.3        Describe the historical origin of important scientific developments
               such as atomic theory, genetics, plate tectonics, etc., showing how
               scientific theories develop, are tested, and can be replaced or modified
               in light of new information and improved investigative techniques.
5.3.A          Numerical Operations
5.3.A.1        Reinforce indicators from previous grade level.
5.3.B          Geometry and Measurement
5.3.B.1        When performing mathematical operations with measured quantities,
               express answers to reflect the degree of precision and accuracy of the
               input data.




Pequannock Township School District
Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                       76
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
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5.3.C          Patterns and Algebra
5.3.C.1        Apply mathematical models that describe physical phenomena to
               predict real world events.
5.3.D          Data Analysis and Probability
5.3.D.1        Construct and interpret graphs of data to represent inverse and non-
               linear relationships, and statistical distributions.
5.4.A          Science and Technology
5.4.A.1        Know that scientific inquiry is driven by the desire to understand the
               natural world and seeks to answer questions that may or may not
               directly influence humans, while technology is driven by the need to
               meet human needs and solve human problems.
5.4.B          Nature of Technology
5.4.B.1        Assess the impacts of introducing a new technology in terms of
               alternative solutions, costs, tradeoffs, risks, benefits and environmental
               impact.
5.4.C          Technological Design
5.4.C.1        Plan, develop, and implement a proposal to solve an authentic,
               technological problem.
5.7.A          Motion and Forces
5.7.A.1        Apply the mathematical relationship between the mass of an object,
               the net force exerted on it, and the resulting acceleration.
5.7.A.2        Explain that whenever one object exerts a force on another, an equal
               and opposite force is exerted on the first object.
5.7.A.3        Recognize gravity as a universal force of attraction between masses
               and that the force is proportional to the masses and inversely
               proportional to the square of the distance between them.
5.7.A.4        Recognize that electrically charged bodies can attract or repel each
               other with a force that depends upon the size and nature of the charges
               and the distance between them and know that electric forces play an
               important role in explaining the structure and properties of matter.
5.7.A.5        Know that there are strong forces that hold the nucleus of an atom
               together and that significant amounts of energy can be released in
               nuclear reactions (fission, fusion, and nuclear decay) when these
               binding forces are disrupted.
5.7.A.6        Explain how electromagnetic, gravitational, and nuclear forces can be
               used to produce energy by causing chemical, physical, or nuclear
               changes and relate the amount of energy produced to the nature and
               relative strength of the force.
5.7.A.7        Demonstrate that moving electric charges can produce magnetic forces
               and moving magnets can produce electric forces



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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                        77
Rosalie Winning, Director
June 2006
PTHS Physics Curriculum 2006 DRAFT                                              Page 78 of 79
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5.7.A.8        Recognize that magnetic and electrical forces are different aspects of a
               single electromagnetic force.
5.7.B          Energy Transformations
5.7.B.1        Explain how the various forms of energy (heat, electricity, sound,
               light) move through materials and identify the factors that affect that
               movement.
5.7.B.2        Explain that while energy can be transformed from one form to
               another, the total energy of a closed system is constant.
5.7.B.3        Recognize that whenever mechanical energy is transformed, some heat
               is dissipated and is therefore unavailable for use.
5.7.B.4        Explain the nature of electromagnetic radiation and compare the
               components of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to
               gamma rays.




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                                        78
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June 2006
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                                   XII. Course Revision Notes




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Office of Curriculum and Instruction                                        79
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June 2006

				
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