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Food Borne Diseases

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					                                                             Food Borne Diseases

    1) Identify the risk factors associated with food borne disease outbreaks
           a. Human demographics and behavior
                     i. Growing older
                    ii. More immuno-compromised
                   iii. Kids are too clean
           b. Eating habits
                     i. Increased consumption of fresh fruits
                    ii. More food eaten outside the home
                   iii. Lack of education
           c. Changes in industry
                     i. Wal-Mart Effect, Big Business
                    ii. Greater technology to detect contaminants
           d. Changes in travel and commerce
                     i. Only 3% of foods coming into the country are actually checked!
                    ii. Ethnic groups in U.S.
                   iii. More international travel
           e. Microbial adaptation
                     i. Resistance
           f. Economic development and land use
                     i. Run-off
                    ii. Longer harvesting time for oysters

*Most outbreaks are due to improper handling of food*
1) improper temp
2) inadequate cooking
3) poor hygiene
4) dirty equipment
5) unsafe food sources

*Factors essential for disease to occur*
1) presence of bacteria
2) source of contamination
3) medium for bacterial growth
4) proper environment
5) consumption of sufficient quantity


    2) Identify control measures to prevent food borne disease outbreaks.

            a. Early ID and removal from market

            b. Correction of improper handling in home and food establishments

            c. Inhibit growth by setting proper temps and pH levels

            d. Inactivate pathogens with cooking, pasteurization, chemical sterilization

            e. Prevent contamination with proper hygiene, clean equipment, clean ingredients

            f.   ID and treat human carriers

            g. Control chemical residues

            h. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System (HACCP)

                     i. Determine the food safety hazards reasonably likely to occur and ID the preventive measures the plant can apply to
                        control the hazards
   3) Identify etiologic agents of food borne disease outbreaks based on the epidemiology of the outbreak (clinical signs, implicated foods, etc.)


Name             Etiologic Agents    Reservoir       Disease (Clinical        Diagnosis/Detection Epidemiology        Food         Control
                                     Hosts           Signs, Incubation                                                Transmission
                                                     Period)
Salmonella       2400 serovars       GIT,            8-72 hrs                 Culture, serotype      Fecal-oral       Raw foods,
                                     mammary         fever, malaise,          Not detectable in      transmission     unclean
                                     glands, eggs    headache, generally      food                                    foods, dirty
                                                     self limiting                                                    equipment,
                                                                                                                      poor hygiene
Staphylococcal   Enterotoxin         Humans,         30 min-8 hr.             Culture or presence  Human                              Proper
                                     cattle          nausea, vomiting,        of toxin             contamination                      refrigerator
                                     mammary         diarrhea, hypotension                         of food, low                       temps
                                     glands                                                        pH, toxin
                                                                                                   produced as
                                                                                                   organism
                                                                                                   grows
Clostridium      Toxin formed in     Soil, water,    8-24 hours, watery       Culture              Multiplies in                      Adequate heat
perfringens      host and food       GIT in          diarrhea, gas, cramps                         anaerobic                          to inactivate
                                     mammals                                                       environment                        spores and
                                                                                                   and GIT                            toxin
Botulism         Exotoxins in        Soil, water,    2hr-8 days               ID toxin in serum or Improper                           Proper
                 food or host        GIT in          impaired vision,         stool                canning,                           canning
                                     animals and     difficulty in                                 storage,                           techniques
                                     fish            swallowing and                                honey;
                                                     speech, LONG                                  hermetically
                                                     recovery                                      sealed cans
                                                                                                   bulge,
                                                                                                   malodorous
Camplylobacter C. jejuni          Cattle,        2-5 days, reactive     Culture               low infectious   Raw milk,   Cleanliness,
                                  poultry,       arthritis, Hemolytic                         dose,            poultry     proper
                                  shellfish      uremia, Guillain-                            microwaving                  cooking and
                                                 Barre Syndrome                               does not kill                pasteurization,
                                                                                                                           prevent cross
                                                                                                                           contamination

E. Coli                           Cattle        60 deaths per year,     Culture of stool or   Improperly       GIT of      Feed lower
                                  slaughter age enteritis, blood in     food product          cooked meat,     almost      concentrate
                                  or older      feces, acute renal                            dirty veggies,   anything    diets to
                                                failure in females                            person to                    ruminants,
                                                                                              person                       pasteurize,
                                                                                              transmission,                cook meat
                                                                                              petting zoos                 thoroughly,
                                                                                                                           hygiene
Listeriosis     L.                Milk,          3-47 days, 500                               In silage,                   Pasteurization
                monocytogenes     veggies,       deaths/yr, children                          replicates in                and proper
                                  poultry,       and                                          fridge,                      cooking
                                  processed      immunocompromised,                           antacids
                                  meat           chills, fever,                               increase risk,
                                                 septicemia, abortion
Vibrio          V.               Shellfish       4hr-4days,           Culture seafood         Raw or                       Cook
                parahaemolyticus                                                              improperly                   thoroughly,
                                                                                              cooked                       fridge directly
                                                                                              shellfish                    after cooking
                                                                                              harvested
                                                                                              from warm
                                                                                              waters
Vibrio          V. vulnificus     Shellfish,     Liver disease or       Culture, 5-10%        Raw or                       Tetracyclines,
                                  marine         immunocompromised      shellfish on market   contaminated                 proper
                                  environment,   at risk, septicemia    are infected                                       cooking and
                                  raw fish       may develop                                                               cold storage
Scromboid    Histamine like    Histamine release         Proteus and       Proper
toxicity     substance         type reaction             Klebsiela on      refrigeration
                                                         musculature       immediately
                                                         of fish
Paralytic    Dinoflagellate,   .5- 2 hours, Paralytic,   Shellfish that    Avoid
Shellfish    Red Tide          erythematous,             have              shellfish from
Poisoning                      gastrointestinal,         developed         Florida coast
                               respiratory               dinoflagellates   and Gulf of
                                                                           Mexico
Ciguatoxin   Dinoflagellate    GI, burning or            Toxin collects    Cooking does
                               prickling sensation,      in fish higher    NOT
                               ataxia, death from        in the food       inactivate
                               respiratory paralysis     chain             toxin

				
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