Toddlers

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					    Toddlers




Physical Development
             Growth
    Slows after 1st year

    Heredity affects height more

    Environment-genes influence
     weight, but environment
     influences it more

    After 2 yrs-slower but steadier
    1.   2-3” per year

    2.   6 lbs per year, till age,11 for girls, 13
         for boys
   Head=1/4 total
    height (adults is
    1/10)

   Posture becomes
    straighter-easier to
    walk


                  After   2, full set of baby teeth
                        (20 of them)
                           Large Muscles

   Arms & legs

   Walking-frustrated, fearful, lighter
    before heavier, girls before boys

   Arms out-hard to balance with
    large head or if distracted
                 Small Muscles
   Hands & fingers

   1st year-can hold with
    thumb & index finger

   By 2 years, some show
    hand preference-still
    switch a lot till 6-7
                Chapter 12
        Intellectual Development
   Eager & curious

   12-18 months-Piaget-learn by
    discovering new ways to solve
    problems
   Exploring-”little scientists”, getting into
    everything, repeat actions

   Actions involve working toward a goal;
    pulling, rolling, shaking objects
   18-24 months-
    beginning of thought

   Think about what
    they do before they
    do it

   They can begin to
    figure it out mentally
    before testing it out
    physically
    – For Example: a puzzle
   Also show thinking by imitating
    – For example: feeding a doll, putting on
      make-up
   Children also use thinking to reach a goal
    – For example: using a step stool
   Hiding games, thinking about where an
    adult would hide it
   They continue to
    use their senses
    to learn about
    shape, size, color,
    texture
    – (red ball, big dog)
         Thinking & Language
 Must associate word with object
 (milk compared to juice) and must
 recall the word

 Parentese-high-pitched   style of
 speaking, face children, shorter
 sentences & speak in a sing song
 fashion
 Spoken language develops at a
 faster rate than any other time

 Adultsneed to pronounce words
 correctly-don’t force children to
 repeat a word again & again; stress

 Wiring   to learn language is very
 active
   Number of words children know is related to
    how much parents & others speak to them

   12-18 months-1 Word sentences
    1. “Up,” “Mommy,” “Hurt”
    2. 19 months-2 or more words


   Fastest growth at 30 months
    Rate of talking is
     influenced by:
1.   Hearing
2.   Interest in speaking
3.   Mental abilities
4.   Gender
5.   Need to speak
6.   An interesting
     environment
Social & Emotional Development
          Chapter 13
                How other’s react to
                 toddlers, affects how
                 they see & understand
                 themselves

                Self-esteem-feeling good
                 about yourself & what
                 you can do
 Drivefor independence: aware of
 how they look, what belongs (&
 doesn’t) belong to them, what they
 can & can not do
   More aware of
    other’s feelings
    toward them
    1. This lays the
       foundation for pride,
       shame, guilt &
       jealousy


   More aware they can
    affect others
    1. + affection
    2. - defiance
               Erikson’s Theory
          1st stage 0-1 yr.
              TRUST vs MISTRUST



   2nd stage 1-3 yrs. AUTONOMY vs SHAME &
    DOUBT

   Autonomy-feeling of being able to do by
    yourself
   Toddlers want to be
    INDEPENDENT-may
    misjudge skills is., break
    things or get hurt or not
    understand possible
    results
 Adults need to set limits, but this may
  lead some children to become defiant
 Consistently criticizing or
  overprotecting leads to shame & doubt
    To Do:
1.   Have safe choices; offer 2
     alternatives, and you need to honor
     their choice
2.   Step in & redirect, before they get
     hurt
3.   Having more than 1 care giver can
     help them with socializing
       Emotions
    Can’t separate
     what’s real from
     pretend
1.   Emotions caused
     by imagination
     are just as real
       Fears-develop more rapidly
      after 2 yrs; know more to fear
1.   Act out in play

2.   Never tease or push into scary situations

3.   Avoid TV if under 2; 2 & older, 2 hrs. or less
    Anxiety
1.   Separation
     anxiety
2.   Night fears
 Anger

1. Temper  tantrums
2. Often appear in 2nd yr.

3. Meant to attract attention, so ignore
   them

				
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