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STANDARDS OF FOOD HYGIENE

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					                               SAFE FOOD AND WATER
        FOOD HAZARDS - 3 types of food hazards:


        BIOLOGICAL – Responsible for 99% of all food- and waterborne diseases
        producing food poisoning or food intoxication.
        Can be due to:
                         Bacteria (germs) or their toxins - cholera, typhoid, E. coli, etc.
                         Virus - hepatitis A, polio, rotavirus, etc.
                         Parasites - amoeba, ascaris, giardia, etc.
        CHEMICAL
        Chemicals, heavy metals, pesticides, herbicides
        PHYSICAL
        Glass, nails, wood, plastic

OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-1
Revised Sept. 2003
                         Fecal Transmission of Food- and
                              Waterborne Diseases




                                       BACTERIA
                               germs                   germs




                               HANDS

        The fecal-oral cycle: Germs go from hands to the mouth, through the
        intestines, excreted in the feces (bowel movement) and back on the hands
        when a person wipes him- or herself after a bowel movement.
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                               What do germs need to grow ?

        1-FOOD AND WATER - High protein foods (meat, poultry, dairy
          products, etc.) are dangerous foods. Germs cannot grow on dry
          foods. If water is added bacterial growth explodes.


        2-WARMTH - THE DANGER ZONE = +5°C (+40°F) to +63°C (+145°F)


        3-TIME - Some bacteria divide every 10 minutes!



                                   +            +

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                               The " Dangerous Foods "
     Those foods where bacteria multiply quickly.
     Those which are not cooked before being served.
                      Precooked, ready to eat foods - Cooked meat, poulty, hot dogs
                      Milk, cream, dairy products
                      Raw eggs and products made from eggs (mayonnaise, ice cream)
                      Shellfish and seafood
     Hot and humid climates are more dangerous than cold and dry ones because the
     heat and moisture cause foods to spoil more rapidly.
     Restaurants and hotels are usually safer than street markets and local food
     vendors.




OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-4
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                               Symptoms of Food Intoxication

    DIARRHEA – 4 to 5 watery bowel movements per day.
    Usually develops within 6 hours after eating contaminated food or
    drinking contaminated water and usually lasts 1-2 days. Longer in
    severe cases.


    Symptoms may last up to 7 days
    and also include:
    abdominal cramps
    nausea and vomiting
    bloating, malaise
    Severe food contamination can lead to dysentery and fever above 101°F(38.5°C).


OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-5
Revised Sept. 2003
                               The Geography of Diarrhea
        High Risk Areas: Developing countries of Latin America, Africa, Middle
        East and Asia.




                                                       Diarrhea Risk
                                                       Yellow = Low
                                                       Orange = Medium
                                                       Red = High




        Note: Diarrhea can also be a symptom of malaria!

OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-6
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                      Prevention of Food- and Waterborne
                                    Diseases
         BEFORE LEAVING HOME – Get Vaccinated!
         Vaccinations do not protect against all food- and waterborne diseases but
         provide protection against a certain number of serious illnesses transmitted
         by food and water: hepatitis A, typhoid, polio.


         Even with these vaccinations everyone must follow the advice concerning
         food and water safety.




OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-7
Revised Sept. 2003
                      Prevention of Food- and Waterborne
                                    Diseases

     Always wash hands with hot water + soap + dry thoroughly


    After going to the toilet
    Before handling food and in between handling raw and cooked food
    After combing hair
    After eating                                Wash them!!!
    After blowing your nose
    After smoking
    After handling waste food
    After handling refuse




OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-8
Revised Sept. 2003
                   Food Hygiene in Company Facilities
         FOOD POISONING --> ILLNESS --> DEATH
         One food handler can knock out the entire work force of a rig or
         crew within a few days!




         The location manager, camp boss, crew chief etc. is responsible for:
              - maintaining the standards of food handlers (medically certified
                 and correctly trained)
              - maintaining the standards of food storage and preparation.



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Revised Sept. 2003
                                Food Handlers must:
  Be in good health. If suffering from diarrhea, vomiting or food-borne infections
  they should not handle food.
  Have clean hands.
  Have no infectious diseases. If skin infection, unprotected cut or sore, heavy
  cold, ear or eye discharge, food handlers must be removed from the food chain.


  When handling food, they must:
        Not smoke
        Cover their hair with a hairnet
        Wear protective clothing
        Not wear jewelry (watch, ring, etc.)
        Not spit, sneeze or cough on or near food
        Not touch their mouth, tongue, nose or eyes
OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-10
Revised Sept. 2003
                                Important - In the Kitchen

        Check that:
        • Health and hygiene of food handlers is OK
        • Food handlers wear clean, protective clothing
        • Kitchen and equipment are kept clean
        • Food is kept covered
        • Food handling is reduced: use tongs,trays plates rather than hands
        • Raw and cooked foods are always kept separate
        • Screens are placed on doors and windows to keep out flies and insects
        • Insects, rodents and pets are not allowed in the kitchen area
        • Food is correctly stored and correctly conserved
        • Food quarters are regularly and correctly cleaned
        • Waste and refuse are rapidly removed

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Revised Sept. 2003
                                Cooking Destroys Germs!

        Food must be cooked thoroughly !




        All heat processed foods are bacteria-free.
        Heat processed foods are those which are:
                                 -pasteurized
                                 -sterilized
                                 -canned




OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-12
Revised Sept. 2003
                                         Food Storage

        Food must be correctly stored outside of the DANGER ZONE:
                         storage must be below +5°C (40°F) (refrigerator)
                         or above +63°C (145°F) (bain marie)


        Food must stay as little time as possible during preparation in the DANGER
        ZONE.


        Do not leave foods at room temperature.


        Suitable preservatives, such as salt and sugar, must be used.
        Dried foods must not be allowed to absorb moisture.



OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-13
Revised Sept. 2003
                                   Food Storage
        Dry foods must be stored in a location that is:
                                                          Dry
                                                          Cool
                                                          Well lit
                                                          Correctly ventilated
                                                          Vermin proof
                                                          Clean and tidy


        Foods must be checked upon delivery.


        And stored off the floor on shelves or stainless steel racks.



OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-14
Revised Sept. 2003
                                  Food Storage
        Perishable foods must be placed in the refrigerator.
        Refrigerator should operate at or below 5°C (40°F).
        A thermometer should be placed in the warmest part of the refrigerator and
        checked daily. The refrigerator should be cleaned weekly.


        Frozen foods should be transported and stocked in the freezer at -18°C (0°F).




OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-15
Revised Sept. 2003
        Foods must be refused if:

        They are delivered in damaged or leaking cartons.
        They are delivered in soiled trays.
        They have been infested by insects or rodents.
        They contain cans that are rusty or bady dented.
        They are out of date.




OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-16
Revised Sept. 2003
                                Water and Beverages

      In many countries you should AVOID:

      • tap water
      • ice cubes – Freezing the water does not
        make it safe to drink. Ice cubes are often
        made from tap water.


      Commercially bottled water is usually safe to drink.
      Make sure it is served sealed and you observe the opening.

      When in doubt, use bottled water to also wash teeth.

      Drinks that have been boiled are safe (tea, coffee, soup).

      Bottled or canned drinks (fruit juice, carbonated drinks, etc.) are usually safe.

OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-17
Revised Sept. 2003
                                Safe or " Clean " Water

      Disinfecting water to obtain safe or " clean " water usually requires one or
      more of the following:

      • Filtering
      • Boiling – 1 minute kills all germs
             Boiled water can be used for drinking (let cool), cooking, making ice
             cubes, brushing teeth, washing fruits and vegetables. It must be used
             within 24 hours and then either discarded or reboiled unless it has been
             chemically treated.
      • Chemical treatment – Chlorine, Chlorine + Silver, Iodine
                                                    Boiling – the best technique for the traveler




OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-18
Revised Sept. 2003
                   Treatment of Food- and Waterborne
                                Diseases

      The main problem is diarrhea:
      • Certain foods reduce diarrhea – bananas, rice, applesauce, dry toast (BRAT diet)
      • Replace lost fluids – drink " clean " water or commercial rehydration solutions
      • Antimotility medication (ex: Imodium)

      If diarrhea is severe (more than 8 liquid stools per day) and is associated with
      fever, bloody stools, repeated vomiting and it continues for more than 3 days =>
      SEE A DOCTOR. An antibiotic will usually be prescribed.




OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-19
Revised Sept. 2003
                                For More Information:
        For more information see the Schlumberger TRAVEL GUIDE TO SAFE
        FOOD AND WATER also downloadable from the health hub
        at: www.healthhub.slb.com    (Risk Management/Health Documentation)




OFS-QHSE-Safe Food & Water-20
Revised Sept. 2003

				
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