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					           Symbolic Interactionism and
                Social Identity

The Self
   1. Perception of one’s identity: Who Am I?
   2. Formed through interaction with others.
   3. Stages of development.
   4. The Generalized Other.
   5. Constantly changing.
      a. Socialization.
      b. Anticipatory socialization.
   6. Socialization and Internalization
      a. We are to some extent who others tell us we are!
      b. Positive self image and position within the social
         structure.
            Social Identity and Sexuality

Social Identity Theory: Who Am I?
   1.   Categorization: Status in social structure.
   2.   Identification: Self.
   3.   Comparison: Referent others.
   4.   Social: Normative expectations for behavior.

Ideology: Who Should I Be?
   1.   Gender role expectations.
   2.   Age effects.
   3.   Cohort effects.
   4.   Period effects.
         Social Identity and Sexuality

Gender Role Theory: What is a Man, a Woman?

  1. Shared expectations about behavior.
     • Men: Agentic (Task Oriented).
     • Women: Communal (Social Oriented).

  2. When men and women interact, they reinforce
     these shared expectations.
          Social Identity and Sexuality

Expectations States Theory: Who rules?

1. In American society, men are defined as leaders and
   men are expected to behave as leaders.

2. Apart from leadership skills, men take on the role of
   leaders to conform to expectations that they do so.

Example: Social trumps self.
           Cultural Lag and Masculinity
                   Aaron Lipman, 1962

Socialization
   •   We learn the common value system of society. We
       “learn” to be male and female.
   •   In an information age, the functioning of society
       depends mainly upon intellectual skills.
   •   Intellectual skills are the most highly rewarded
       monetarily.
   •   Men are socialized to be leaders.
   •   Therefore, men should place high value on
       intellectual skills.
           Cultural Lag and Masculinity
                    Aaron Lipman, 1962

Socialization
   •   High school boys do not place high value on
       intellectual skills, preferring instead to be thought
       of as athletic or popular.
   •   Functionally, our normative expectations for
       masculinity lag behind the needs of society.
   •   Young men in urban societies, not having as much
       opportunity to exhibit traits of traditional
       masculinity as their rural counterparts, substitute
       new ways of exhibiting physical traits.
           Cultural Lag and Masculinity
                    Aaron Lipman, 1962

Socialization
   •   Urban men exhibit “toughness,” “courage,”
       “mechanical skills,” and so forth as a way of
       linking masculinity with physical attributes.
   •   Contemporary society demands that masculinity
       be redefined from the physical to the intellectual.
   •   We need new, positive, urban-oriented values that
       articulate the needs of both the culture and the
       young man.
              Masculinity
Is Masculinity Linked with Acts of Violence?


              Pathology


              Misogyny             Violence



               Brutality
                   Masculinity
     Is Masculinity Linked with Acts of Violence?


                   Pathology


Masculinity        Misogyny             Violence



                    Brutality

				
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posted:12/25/2011
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