VIEWS: 34 PAGES: 26 POSTED ON: 9/8/2009
TRENDS IN DIABETES PREVALENCE The number of people with diabetes has increased frighteningly during the past 20 years. According to WHO – the number of people worldwide with diabetes increased from 30 million in 1985 to 171 million in 2000. We are currently standing at 16% above the predicted global rate of diabetes for the year 2010 – where will we be by then? A new frightening statistic: by the year 2025 diabetes could be the only noncpmmunicable disease to cause a negative growth rate!! WHO has predicted that the global diabetes prevalence in adults will reach 6.4% by 2030, representing a 60% increase since 1995 and a 39% rise from 2000 to 2030. Type 2 – previously known as “adult onset” diabetes – now found in children as young as 6 years. REASON FOR THIS is the change in diet and lack of exercise. Obesity due to bad eating habits and lack of exercise. Westernised diet causing major problems! Diabetes Action 0842280993 DIABETES FACTS & FIGURES •There are as many •Every 10 seconds a people dying of diabetes complications as there are of AIDS person dies from diabetesrelated causes. develop diabetes. At least 50% of all people with diabetes are unaware of their condition. In some countries this figure may reach 80%. Diabetes is the fourth leading cause of global death by disease. •Every 10 seconds two people •Every 3 seconds a lower limb is amputated worldwide. Diabetes Action 0842280993 At least 50% of all people with diabetes are unaware of their condition. In some countries this figure may reach 80%. . DIABETES FACTS & FIGURES Up to 80% of type 2 diabetes is preventable by adopting a healthy diet and increasing physical activity •Diabetes is the largest cause of kidney failure and blindness •People with type 2 diabetes are twice as likely to have a heart attack or stroke Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in diabetes, accounting for some 55% of all diabetes fatalities All damage caused by elevated blood glucose levels is not reversible People with Diabetes face the certainty of premature death. Diabetes Action 0842280993 DIABETES FACTS & FIGURES 95% of Diabetics are type 2 Diabetics 90% of the complications are in type 2 diabetics. There is a recommendation to commence Type 2 patients on insulin sooner to alleviate the risk of complications. People with Type 1 diabetes are as much at risk, but better control is obtained by utilising insulin. There is, as yet, no known cure for type 1 or type 2 Diabetes If in doubt have yourself checked!! Diabetes Action 0842280993 WHAT IS DIABETES? Diabetes is a condition in which the body is unable to use sugar correctly. Our body cells need to provide energy for living – just as a car needs petrol! Our fuel comes from the food we eat, which is digested in the stomach and flows into the blood stream as glucose, a form of sugar; To get into the body cells, the glucose needs the assistance of a hormone, called INSULIN. Normally the pancreas makes the insulin which carries the glucose in the blood into the cells. In diabetes the pancreas fails to supply enough insulin, or the insulin does not work properly. When the body cannot utilise the glucose in the food, sugar levels start rising and medical intervention is necessary. Diabetes Action 0842280993 Diabetes Action Type 1 Occurs when the pancreas stops producing insulin. It usually starts in young people and may occur very suddenly. As Insulin is a hormone it must be injected Type 2 Is caused when the insulin which the pancreas produces is either not sufficient or does not work properly. Many people with Type 2 Diabetes are undiagnosed and it is during this time that the complications start. MANAGING YOUR DIABETES The goal of diabetes management is to bring your blood sugar levels to between 5.5 & 7.00 mm/l. There is no such thing as a „diabetic diet‟ – only a healthy way of living. This is why the „team‟ of dietician, diabetic educator, ophthalmologist, podiatrist and psychologist are vital. Diabetes Action 0842280993 Main symptoms of Diabetes Diabetes Action 0842280993 DIABETES IN CHILDREN The alarming increase in the development of Diabetes in Children is due mainly to obesity and lack of exercise amongst our children. Take-aways, unhealthy foods and drinks, lack of exercise are some of the major contributing factors. Commence a healthy eating plan as soon as possible. We are very much an “add water and mix” society and we are „poisoning‟ our children. There is no such thing as a Diabetic DIET just a HEALTHY way of living. 5 fruits and veges a day!! Sugar not the enemy but FAT – especially hidden fat!! Become a „label‟ detective!! Diabetes Action 0842280993 Pancreatic Beta Cell Function Diabetes Action 0842280993 Blood Glucose Diabetes Action 0842280993 DIABETES COMPLICATIONS Short term – acute complications Hypoglycemia (or low blood sugar) When the blood sugar falls too low a person can no longer function normally. Symptoms include irritability, confusion, shakiness, extreme hunger, numbness in arms and hands, slurred speech. It can be treated in the early stages by eating/drinking a simple sugar. If left untreated, this condition can become severe and lead to unconsciousness. Ketoacidosis A severe, VERY dangerous condition caused by lack of insulin. It is marked by very high blood glucose levels and ketones in the urine. Ketones are the toxic acids produced when the body breaks down fat for fuel. It occurs almost exclusively in Type 1 diabetics and requires immediate medical attention. Diabetes Action 0842280993 DIABETES COMPLICATIONS (2) LONG TERM COMPLICATIONS HYPERGLYCAEMIA (high blood sugar > 9mmol/l Living with high blood glucose levels for a long period of time can cause serious damage to the vital parts of your body: this is because the large and small blood vessels and the nerve endings become damaged. If unchecked the problems caused can lead to blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, strokes and amputations. Eye damage: (Retinopathy). Have your eyes investigated by an OPTHALMOLOGIST – Type 1 every year, and Type 2 immediately you are diagnosed and every year thereafter; Kidney damage: (Nephropathy) can be detected by testing the urine for protein (microalbuminurea). All people with diabetes should have this test EVERY year. Diabetes Action 0842280993 DIABETES COMPLICATIONS (3) Vascular damage: The main arteries become stiff, choked and stressed. Blood pressure increases and the heart becomes stressed and circulation to the hands and feet becomes compromised. Check for BP levels and ensure your exercises increase blood flow. Heart Attacks and Strokes: One of the most devastating complications. Nerve damage: (Neuropathy): This leads to loss of sensation in the feet and they become particularly vulnerable to wounds and infection – often leading to amputation. Sexual dysfunction: Nerve damage can also affect sexual health, causing impotence in men and inability to achieve an orgasm in women. Difficulty falling pregnant. Infections: are common as high blood glucose inhibits the action of the white blood cells – the body‟s main germ fighters. Diabetes Action 0842280993 Foot lesions Diabetes Action 0842280993 Infections Diabetes Action 0842280993 Stroke Stroke Diabetes Action 0842280993 MEDICATION Type 1 Insulin is injected. The reason being that it is a protein and would be destroyed by the digestive juices if taken orally. Very fine needles are used and there is little discomfort. The aim is to balance your insulin with your meal plan and exercise programme to mimic the work of the normal pancreas, as closely as possible. Type 2 If diet and exercise fail to bring your glucose levels down, your doctor may prescribe diabetes tablets, which can act in 3 ways. They may stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin; they may make the insulin you already have work better; or they may slow down digestion. When neither pills, nor diet and exercise bring down your glucose levels to acceptable levels, it may be necessary to start using Insulin. Diabetes Action 0842280993 REGULAR TESTING Blood sugar levels should be tested regularly – preferably EVERY day; Day 1: on rising Day 2: 2 hours after breakfast Day 3: before lunch Day 4: 2 hours after lunch Day 5: before dinner Day 6: 2 hours after dinner Day 7: Random test between midnight & 05h00 A HbA1c should be conducted at least every SIX Months. A cholesterol test should also be conducted regularly as should you Blood Pressure. Diabetes Action 0842280993 UNite for diabetes Diabetes is a silent killer that kills one person every 10 seconds Diabetes is a global problem with devastating human, social and economic impact. Today more than 200 million people worldwide are living with diabetes. This number is increasing by 6 million people every year. The growing pandemic is set to overwhelm healthcare resources in every country and in many is disabling or killing people of working age. To do nothing is no longer an option. We have the cost effective strategies to prevent or delay the onset of diabetes complications. It is time for Government to act; The time is right for a United National Resolution on Diabetes. The United Nations General Assembly has today (20/12/2006) passed a landmark Resolution recognizing the global threat of the diabetes epidemic. For the first time, governments have acknowledged that a non-infectious disease poses as serious a threat to world health as infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; This United Nations Resolution on Diabetes will focus the attention of the world on the need for urgent action that goes beyond the scope of government departments responsible for healthcare. Workable solutions will require wholeof-government implementation and the attention of the global community of the United Nations; Diabetes Action 0842280993 The Diabetes Team Endocrine specialist Dietician Diabetic Nurse Educator Diabetes Action Psychologist Ophthalmologist Podiatrist Diabetes Action 0842280993 Diabetes Action – our role We are a Diabetes Support Group The annual membership of Diabetes Action is R240.00 p.a. which includes a monthly newsletter. Notices and articles of general interest are sent to members regularly. A database is kept to remind all members to attend to their vital health checks. Notification of Support Groups. No Government figures available! So it is essential to develop some kind of register. We offer a basic course in „coping with your Diabetes‟ for the newly diagnosed diabetic and their family, as well as any person whose Diabetes is not under control!! R300.00 for 2 hour appointment. We refer our members to other relevant members of the Diabetes team. Diabetes Action 0842280993 PRIVATE vs. STATE STATE A state patient does not see the doctor at every visit; Strips are not always available; Glucometers are not given out – the patient has to purchase a Glucometer (Cost implication). The nursing staff are not trained diabetic nurse educators; The dietician is not always available and the diets are outdated; There is no referral to a, podiatrist, ophthalmologist, psychologist Complications – such as strokes, heart attacks, amputations, kidney failure and blindness then have to be borne by the state. PRIVATE Non Medical Aid Similar to the State patient. Cannot afford the cost of medication, Glucometers & strips Does not visit vital supplementary doctors, e.g. podiatrist, dietician, ophthalmologist, psychologist When complications set in has to become a patient of a State hospital MEDICAL AID The best position to be in, but only about 15%-20% are in this fortunate position. Many patients exceed their limits and then become as above. Diabetes Action 0842280993 COST IMPLICATIONS Diabetes Action/ PATIENT & STATE Patients get referred by their GP‟s, state hospitals and clinics, to Diabetes Action offices; Cost to Diabetes Action is not borne by anyone; fund raising required; No concessions to Diabetes Action on the prices of Glucometers or strips for state or non-medical aid patients; Patient is not referred to the correct medical personnel – hence they become a badly controlled person with diabetes with all the inherent complications. Our appeal to you, is to assist us to educate the thousands of people with diabetes, especially the children & adolescents. Create awareness and educate. Allow for proper treatment and training in your budget! Diabetes is already impacting on the population and will, in future, impact even more with the HIV/Aids patients whose immune system is compromised. Diabetes Action 0842280993 A person with diabetes should consult with the following medical personnel: A doctor/specialist at least once every 6 months A Podiatrist at least once a year A Dietician, on diagnosis and annually thereafter A Diabetes Nurse Educator on diagnosis and thereafter as often as is necessary. To see an Ophthalmologist at least once a year To have regular BP, Cholesterol and HbA1c testing. Purchase a Glucometer – VITAL FOR CONTROL Diabetes Action 0842280993 DIABETES AND HIV/AIDS DUE TO THE COMPROMISE OF DIABETES ON THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM – HIV/Aids PATIENTS ON ANTI-RETROVITALS ARE AT RISK OF DEVELOPING TYPE 1 DIABETES!! Diabetes Action 0842280993 THANK YOU In human and economic terms, diabetes is one of our most costly diseases and threatens to become the greatest public health problem of the modern era. For every 1% a person’s HbA1C IS LOWERED the following results occur: Deaths are reduced by 21% Heart attacks are reduced by 14% Microvascular Complications by 37% (kidneys & eyes) Peripheral vascular disorders 43% LET US FIGHT TOGETHER FOR A BETTER WORLD FOR OUR PEOPLE SUFFERING WITH DIABETES. THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS MILD DIABETES! Diabetes Action 0842280993
"TRENDS IN DIABETES PREVALENCE"