Prepositions - 2nd type by yurtgc548

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									                                                               Prepositions - 2nd type
                                                                 vEtRumai - 2 (ai)
                                                                §ÅüÚ¨Á - 2 (³)

Usage: The 2nd vEtRumai is used when you apply an action on an object or person. (English does not have any explicit preposition that is used in
this context. Only some pronouns seem to follow Tamil like pattern. For example, "Call him / Call her" - note that we do not say "Call he / Call
she". However, we say "Call Raman / Call it")

Note:
1. In Tamil, the preposition is not written separately. It is invariably merged with the associated object as a suffix.
2. There are rules and conventions that may cause some additional letters to get inserted before the preposition.

±ØÐõ Ó¨È                     Formal                         §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ                      Colloquial                     Meaning
ÁÃõ+³ = ÁÃò¨¾                maram+ai = maraththai          ÁÃò¾                           maraththa
¿¸õ + ³ = ¿¸ò¨¾              ~nagam + ai = ~nagaththai      ¿¸ò¾                           ~nagaththa
ÀÆõ + ³ = ÀÆò¨¾              pazham + ai = pazhaththai      ÀÆò¾                           pazhaththa
                             padam + ai = padaththai                                       padaththa
À¼õ + ³ = À¼ò¨¾                                             À¼ò¾
ÁÃò¨¾ ¿Î                     maraththai ~nadu               ÁÃò¾ ¿Î                        maraththa ~nadu                plant (the) tree
¿¸ò¨¾ ¦ÅðÎ                   ~nagaththai vettu              ¿¸ò¾ ¦ÅðÎ                      ~nagaththa vettu               cut (the) nail
ÀÆò¨¾ ¯Ã¢                    pazhaththai uri                ÀÆò¾ ¯Ã¢                       pazhaththa uri                 peel (the) fruit
À¼ò¨¾ Á¡ðÎ                   padaththai mAttu               À¼ò¾ Á¡ðÎ                      padaththa mAttu                hang (the) picture


¸¡÷ + ³ = ¸¡¨Ã               kAr + ai = kArai               ¸¡Ã                            kAra
§¾÷ + ³ = §¾¨Ã               thEr + ai = thErai             §¾Ã                            thEra
¦ÀÂ÷ + ³ = ¦À¨à             peyar + ai = peyarai           §Àà                            pEra
                             thayir + ai = thayirai                                        thayira
¾Â¢÷ + ³ = ¾Â¢¨Ã                                            ¾Â¢Ã
¸¡¨Ã µðÎ                     kArai Ottu                     ¸¡Ã µðÎ                        kAra Ottu                      drive (the) car
§¾¨Ã 
Ø                      thErai izhu                    §¾Ã 
Ø                         thEra izhu                     pull (the) chariot
¦À¨Ãî ¦º¡ø                  peyaraic col                   §ÀÃî ¦º¡øÖ                     pErac collu                    tell (the) name
¾Â¢¨Ãì ÌÊ                    thayiraik kudi                 ¾Â¢Ã ÌÊ                        thayira kudi                   drink (the) yogurt



Last Updated: 27-May-03     Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                                          1
±ØÐõ Ó¨È                   Formal                         §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ      Colloquial         Meaning
Á¡Î + ³ = Á¡ð¨¼            mAdu + ai = mAttai             Á¡ð¼           mAtta
ÜÎ + ³ = Ü𨼠             kUdu + ai = kUttai             Üð¼            kUtta
ţΠ+ ³ = ţ𨼠           vIdu + ai = vIttai             Å£ð¼           vItta
                           kAdu + ai = kAttai                            kAtta
¸¡Î + ³ = ¸¡ð¨¼                                           ¸¡ð¼
Á¡ð¨¼ì ¸ðÎ                 mAttaik kattu                  Á¡ð¼ ¸ðÎ       mAtta kattu        tie (the) cow
Üð¨¼ô À¡÷                  kUttaip pAr                    Üð¼ À¡÷        kUtta pAr          look (at the) nest
Å£ð¨¼ì ¸ðÎ                 vIttaik kattu                  ţ𼠸ðÎ       vItta kattu        build (the) house
¸¡ð¨¼ì ¸¡ôÀ¡üÚ             kAttaik kAppAtRu               ¸¡ð¼ ¸¡ôÀ¡òÐ   kAtta kAppAththu   save/protect (the) forest


ÒÄ¢ + ³ = ÒÄ¢¨Â            puli + ai = puliyai            ÒĢ           puliya
н¢ + ³ = н¢¨Â            thuNi + ai = thuNiyai          н¢Â           thuNiya
Å¢¨Ä + ³ = Å¢¨Ä¨Â          vilai + ai = vilaiyai          ¦ÅÄ           velaya
                           kadalai + ai = kadalaiyai                     kadalaya
¸¼¨Ä+³= ¸¼¨Ä¨Â                                            ¸¼ÄÂ
                           vadai + ai = vadaiyai                         vadaya
Ũ¼ + ³ = Ũ¼¨Â                                           żÂ
ÒÄ¢¨Âô À¢Ê                 puliyaip pidi                  ÒĢ À¢Ê       puliya pidi        catch (the) tiger
н¢¨Â ÁÊ                   thuNiyai madi                  н¢Â ÁÊ        thuNiya madi       fold (the) clothes
Å¢¨Ä¨Âì §¸û                vilaiyaik kEL                  ¦ÅÄ §¸û       velaya kEL         ask (the) price
¸¼¨Ä¨Âì ¸Ê                 kadalaiyaik kadi               ¸¼Ä ¸Ê        kadalaya kadi      bite (the) peanut
Ũ¼¨Âò ¾¢ý                 vadaiyaith thin                ż ¾¢ýÛ       vadaya thinnu      eat (the) vadai


§ÀîÍ + ³ = §À           pEccu + ai = pEccai            §Àîº           pEcca
À¡ðÎ + ³ = À¡ð¨¼           pAttu + ai = pAttai            À¡ð¼           pAtta
ÀÕôÒ + ³ = ÀÕô¨À           paruppu + ai = paruppai        ÀÕôÀ           paruppa


§À ¿¢ÚòÐ                pEccai ~niRuththu              §Àîº ¿¢ÚòÐ     pEcca ~niRuththu   stop (the) talk
À¡ð¨¼ô À¡Î                 pAttaip pAdu                   À¡ð¼ À¡Î       pAtta pAdu         sing (the) song
ÀÕô¨Àî º¡ôÀ¢Î              paruppaic cAppidu              ÀÕôÀ º¡ôÒÎ     paruppa sAppudu    eat (the) lentils



Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                 2
±ØÐõ Ó¨È                   Formal                         §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ       Colloquial            Meaning
§º¡Ú + ³ = §º¡ü¨È          sORu + ai = sOtRai             §º¡ò¾           sOththa
¸Â¢Ú + ³ = ¸Â¢ü¨È          kayiRu + ai = kayitRai         ¸Âò¾            kayaththa
§ºÚ + ³ = §ºü¨È            sERu + ai = sEtRai             §ºò¾            sEththa
                           kiNaRu + ai = kiNatRai                         keNaththa
¸¢½Ú + ³ =                                                ¦¸½ò¾
¸¢½ü¨È
§º¡ü¨Èô À¢¨º               sOtRaip pisai                  §º¡ò¾ ¦Àº       sOththa pesa          mix (the) rice
¸Â¢ü¨È 
Ø                  kayitRai izhu                  ¸Âò¾ 
Ø         kayaththa izhu        pull (the) rope
§ºü¨È Á¢¾¢ì¸¡§¾            sEtRai midhikkAdhE             §ºò¾ Á¢¾¢ì¸¡¾   sEththa midhikkAdha   do not step on the mud
¸¢½ü¨È ¦ÅðÎ                kiNatRai vettu                 ¦¸½ò¾ ¦ÅðÎ      keNaththa vettu       dig (the) well


2 ±ØòÐ Å¡÷ò¨¾              2 ezhuththu vArththai
ÌÈ¢ø + (ñ, ö, ø, û)        kuRil + (N, y, l, L)
¸ñ + ³ = ¸ñ¨½              kaN + ai = kaNNai              ¸ñ½             kaNNa
¦Àñ + ³ = ¦Àñ¨½            peN + ai = peNNai              ¦Àñ½            peNNa
¦¿ö + ³ = ¦¿ö¨Â            ~ney + ai = ~neyyai            ¦¿ö            ~neyya
                           kal + ai = kallai                              kalla
¸ø + ³ = ¸ø¨Ä                                             ¸øÄ
                           kaL + ai = kaLLai                              kaLLa
¸û + ³ = ¸û¨Ç                                             ¸ûÇ
¸ñ¨½ò ¾¢È                  kaNNaith thiRa                 ¸ñ½ ¦¾È         kaNNa theRa           open (the) eye
¦Àñ¨½ì ÜôÀ¢Î               peNNaik kUppidu                ¦Àñ¨½ì ÜôÀ¢Î    peNNaik kUppidu       call (the) woman
¦¿ö¨Âì ¸Ä                  ~neyyaik kala                  ¦¿ö ¸Ä         ~neyya kala           mix (the) ghee
¸ø¨Ä ¿¸÷òÐ                 kallai ~nagarththu             ¸øÄ ¿¸òÐ        kalla ~nagaththu      move (the) stone
Àø¨Äò §¾ö                  pallaith thEy                  ÀøÄ §¾ö         palla thEy            brush (the) teeth
¸û¨Çì ÌÊ측§¾              kaLLaik kudikkAdhE             ¸ûÇ ÌÊ측§¾     kaLLa kudikkAdhE      do not drink wine


(3+ ±ØòÐ Å¡÷ò¨¾            (3+ ezhuththu vArththai / 2
/ 2 ±ØòÐ Å¡÷ò¨¾            ezhuththu vArththai
¦¿Êø) + (ñ, ö, ø,          ~nedil) + (N, y, l, L)
û)

Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                  3
±ØÐõ Ó¨È                    Formal                        §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ        Colloquial                    Meaning
«Ãñ + ³ = «Ã¨½              araN + ai = araNai            «Ã½              araNa
Á¸û + ³ = Á¸¨Ç              magaL + ai = magaLai          Á¸Ç              magaLa
¯Ãø + ³ = ¯Ã¨Ä              ural + ai = uralai            ¯ÃÄ              urala
                            kAy + ai = kAyai                               kAya
¸¡ö + ³ = ¸¡¨Â                                            ¸¡Â
                            pAl + ai = pAlai                               pAla
À¡ø + ³ = À¡¨Ä              kAl + ai = kAlai              À¡Ä              kAla
¸¡ø + ³ = ¸¡¨Ä              rAman + ai = rAmanai          ¸¡Ä              rAmana
áÁý + ³ = áÁ¨É                                          áÁÉ
«Ã¨½ì ¸ðÎ                   araNaik kattu                 «Ã½ ¸ðÎ          araNa kattu                   build (the) fort
Á¸¨Çì ÜôÀ¢Î                 magaLaik kUppidu              Á¸Ç ÜôÒÎ         magaLa kUppudu                call (the) daughter
¯Ã¨Äò àìÌ                   uralaith thUkku               ¯ÃÄ àìÌ          urala thUkku                  lift (the) mortar
¸¡¨Â ¿ÚìÌ                   kAyai ~naRukku                ¸¡Â ¿ÚìÌ         kAya ~naRukku                 cut (the) vegetable
À¡¨Äì ÌÊ                    pAlaik kudi                   À¡Ä ÌÊ           pAla kudi                     drink (the) milk
¸¡¨Ä Á¼ìÌ                   kAlai madakku                 ¸¡Ä Á¼ìÌ         kAla madakku                  bend (the) leg
áÁ¨Éì ÜôÀ¢Î                rAmanaik kUppidu              áÁÉ ÜôÒÎ        rAmana kUppudu                call Raman

Word List
ÁÃõ                 maram               1. n. tree                À¡ðÎ      pAttu           n. song/poem
                                        2. n. wood
¿Î                  ~nadu               1. v. plant (a tree)      À¡Î       pAdu            v. sing
                                        2. adj. center; middle
¿¸õ                 ~nagam              n. (finger/toe) nail      ÀÕôÒ      paruppu         n. lentils
¦ÅðÎ                vettu               1. v. cut;                º¡ôÀ¢Î    sAppidu         v. eat
                                        2. dig (i.e. 'cut' the
                                        earth)
ÀÆõ                 pazham              n. fruit                  §º¡Ú      sORu            n. cooked rice
¯Ã¢                 uri                 1. v. peel                À¢¨º      pisai           v. knead; mix
                                        2. n. skin (archaic)
À¼õ                 padam               n. picture                ¸Â¢Ú      kayiRu          n. rope
Á¡ðÎ                mAttu               1. v. hang (a picture);   §ºÚ       sERu            n. mud
                                        2. v. hook up

Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                        4
µðÎ                 Ottu                 1. v. drive               Á¢¾¢      midhi         v. step on
                                         2. v. shoo away
§¾÷                 thEr                 n. chariot                ¸¢½Ú      kiNaRu        n. (open) well

Ø                  izhu                 v. pull                   ¦ÅðÎ      vettu         v. cut; dig
¦ÀÂ÷                peyar                n. name                   À¡ø       pAl           n. milk
¦º¡ø                sol                  1. v. say                 ÜôÀ¢Î     kUppidu       v. call
                                         2. n. word
¾Â¢÷                thayir               n. yogurt                 ¸ñ        kaN           n. eye
ÌÊ                  kudi                 1. v. drink               ¾¢È       thiRa         v. open
                                         2. n. citizen/subject
Á¡Î                 mAdu                 n. cow/cattle             ¦Àñ       peN           n. woman; girl
¸ðÎ                 kattu                1. v. tie (rope, etc.);   ¦¿ö       ~ney          n. ghee
                                         2. v. build
                                         3. n. bundle
ÜÎ                  kUdu                 1. n. nest                ¸Ä        kala          v. mix
                                         2. v. assemble together
À¡÷                 pAr                  1. v. see; look           ¸ø        kal           1. n. stone
                                         2. n. world                                       2. v. learn
ţΠ                vIdu                 1. n. house               ¿¸÷òÐ     ~nagarththu   v. move; shift
                                         2. n. nirvana/mOksham
¸¡Î                 kAdu                 n. forest                 Àø        pal           n. tooth
¸¡ôÀ¡üÚ             kAppAtRu             v. save; protect          §¾ö       thEy          1. v. brush; rub
                                                                                           2. v. diminish / wear
                                                                                           out
ÒÄ¢                 puli                 n. tiger                  ¸û        kaL           n. wine
À¢Ê                 pidi                 1. v. catch               ÌÊ측§¾   kudikkAdhE    v. do not drink
                                         2. v. like
                                         3. n. a measure of
                                         quantity (handful)
                                         4. n. female elephant
                                         (archaic)




Last Updated: 27-May-03    Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                           5
н¢                 thuNi                 1. n. clothes            «Ãñ    araN      n. fort
                                          2. n. cloth
                                          3. v. act bravely; act
                                          decisively
                                          4. v. cut (archaic)
ÁÊ                  madi                  1. n. fold               ¸ðÎ    kattu     1. v. build
                                          2. v. die                                 2. v. tie
                                                                                    3. n. bundle;
                                                                                    4. n. bandage;
Å¢¨Ä                vilai                 n. price                 Á¸û    magaL     n. daughter
§¸û                 kEL                   1. v. ask                ¯Ãø    ural      n. mortar
                                          2. v. listen
¸¼¨Ä                kadalai               n. peanut                àìÌ    thUkku    1. v. lift; raise
                                                                                    2. n. a vessel with a
                                                                                    carrying handle
                                                                                    3. n. hanging noose
¸Ê                  kadi                  v. bite                  ¸¡ö    kAy       1. n. vegetable
                                                                                    2. n. game piece
Ũ¼                 vadai                 n. vadai                 ¸¡ø    kAl       1. n. leg; foot
                                                                                    2. n. quarter
¾¢ý                 thin                  v. eat                   Á¼ìÌ   madakku   v. bend; fold
§ÀîÍ                pEccu                 n. talk/speech




Last Updated: 27-May-03     Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                   6
                                                            Prepositions - 3rd type (by, with)
                                                             vEtRumai - 3 (Al, Odu, udan)
                                                           §ÅüÚ¨Á - 3 (¬ø, µÎ, ¯¼ý)

Usage: The 3rd vEtRumai is used when you do something using or with an object / person.
English                                                               Some examples
This is usually 'by / using'
Sometimes, "with" is used in English.                                 "Eat with a spoon" = "eat using a spoon".
                                                                      "Eat with us" = "eat together".

Note:
3. In Tamil, the preposition is not written separately. It is invariably merged with the associated object/person as a suffix.
4. There are rules and conventions that may cause some additional letters to get inserted before the preposition.

±ØÐõ Ó¨È                     Formal                           §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ                    Colloquial                    Meaning
¿                           Al                               €                           Ala                           by (i.e. by using something)

                                                                                                                         (Sometimes in English, we
                                                                                                                         use 'with' in this context)
µÎ                           Odu                              µ¼                           Oda                           with (i.e. together);

                                                                                                                         (other meanings: run; roof
                                                                                                                         tile, etc)
¯¼ý                          udan                             µ¼                           Oda                           along with; together;

                                                                                                                         (other meanings:
                                                                                                                         as soon as; immediately;
                                                                                                                         etc)
ÁÃõ + ¬ø = ÁÃò¾¡ø
                maram + Al = maraththAl                       ÁÃò¾¡Ä                       maraththAla                   by the tree; by wood;
¿¸õ+¬ø = ¿¸ò¾¡ø ~nagam+Al = ~nagaththAl                       ¿¸ò¾¡Ä                       ~nagaththAla                  by the (finger) nail
                             pazham+Odu = pazhaththOdu                                     pazhaththOda                  with the fruit
ÀÆõ+µÎ = ÀÆò§¾¡Î                                              ÀÆò§¾¡¼
                             padam + udan = padaththudan                                   padaththOda                   with the picture
À¼õ + ¯¼ý = À¼òмý                                            À¼ò§¾¡¼
ÁÃò¾¡ø ¿¡ü¸¡Ä¢               maraththAl ~nARkAli sey          ÁÃò¾¡Ä ¿¡ü¸¡Ä¢               maraththAla ~nARkAli sey make (the) chair with wood
¦ºö                                                           ¦ºö

Last Updated: 27-May-03     Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                                               7
±ØÐõ Ó¨È                   Formal                         §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ          Colloquial                  Meaning

ó¾ ¿¡ü¸¡Ä¢                i~ndha ~nARkAli                
ó¾ ¿¡ü¸¡Ä¢        i~ndha ~nARkAli             this chair was made by
¸ñ½É¡ø                     kaNNanAl seyyappattadhu        ¸ñ½É¡Ä             kaNNanAla                   Kannan
¦ºöÂôÀð¼Ð                                                 ¦ºöÂôÀð¼Ð          seyyappattadhu
¿¸ò¾¡ø ¸¢ûǢɡý            ~nagaththAl kiLLinAn           ¿¸ò¾¡Ä ¸¢ûǢɡý    ~nagaththAla kiLLinAn       (he) pinched with (his) nails
ÀÆò§¾¡Î Åó¾¡÷              pazhaththOdu va~ndhAr          ÀÆò§¾¡¼ Åó¾¡÷      pazhaththOda va~ndhAr       he/she (respect) came with
                                                                                                         fruit
À¼òмý ÅÕ§Åý               padaththudan varuvEn           À¼ò§¾¡¼ ÅÕ§Åý      padaththOda varuvEn         (I) will come with the
                                                                                                         picture

°÷ + ¯¼ý = °Õ¼ý            Ur + udan = Urudan             °§Ã¡¼              UrOda                       with the town
À¡ø + µÎ = À¡§Ä¡Î          pAl + Odu = PAlOdu             À¡§Ä¡¼             PalOda                      with milk
                           vAL + Al = vALAl                                  vALAla                      by the sword
Å¡û + ¬ø = Å¡Ç¡ø                                          Å¡Ç¡Ä

°Õ¼ý À¨¸ì¸¡§¾              Urudan pagaikkAdhE             °§Ã¡¼ À¨¸ì¸¡¾      UrOda pagaikkAdha           do not fight with the town
À¡§Ä¡Î ¾Â¢¨Ãì              pAlOdu thayiraik kalakku       À¡§Ä¡¼ ¾Â¢Ã ¸ÄìÌ   pAlOda thayira kalakku      mix yogurt with milk
¸ÄìÌ
Å¡Ç¡ø ¦ÅðÎ                 vALAl vettu                    Å¡Ç¡Ä ¦ÅðÎ         vALAla vettu                cut with the sword


ÌÈÎ + ¬ø = ÌÈð¼¡ø          kuRadu + Al = kuRattAl         ÌÈð¼¡Ä             kuRattAla                   by the pliers
ţΠ+ µÎ = ţ𧼡Π        vIdu + Odu = vIttOdu           ţ𧼡¼            vIttOda                     with the house
ÌÈð¼¡ø ¬½¢¨Âô              kuRattAl ANiyaip               ÌÈð¼¡Ä ¬½¢Â        kuRattAla ANiya             pull the nail with the pliers
À¢ÎíÌ                      pidu~nggu                      À¢ÎíÌ              pidu~nggu
ţ𧼡Π
Õ                 vIttOdu iru                    ţ𧼡¼ 
Õ         vIttOda iru                 stay with the house


¸ò¾¢ + ¬ø = ¸ò¾¢Â¡ø        kaththi + Al = kaththiyAl      ¸ò¾¢Â¡Ä            kaththiyAla                 by the knife
ÅñÊ + µÎ = Åñʧ¡Π        vaNdi + Odu = vaNdiyOdu        Åñʧ¡¼            vaNdiyOda                   with the cart
¸ò¾¢Â¡ø ¦Åð¼               kaththiyAl vetta mudiyum       ¸ò¾¢Â¡Ä ¦Åð¼       kaththiyAla vetta mudiyum   (one/we) can cut with knife
ÓÊÔõ                                                      ÓÊÔõ


Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                                  8
±ØÐõ Ó¨È                   Formal                         §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ          Colloquial                Meaning
Åñʧ¡Π¸¡Õõ               vaNdiyOdu kArum                Åñʧ¡¼ ¸¡Õõ       vaNdiyOda kArum           the car also came with the
Åó¾Ð                       va~ndhadhu                     ÅóòÐ               va~nththu                 cart


§ÀîÍ + ¬ø = §Àø         pEccu + Al = pEccAl       §Àîº¡Ä                  pEccAla                   by talk
¾ðÎ + µÎ = ¾ð§¼¡Î          thattu + Odu = thattOdu   ¾ð§¼¡¼                  thattOda                  with plate
¦ÅðÊô §Àø               vettip pEccAl enna lAbam? ¦ÅðÊô §Àîº¡Ä            vettip pEccAla enna       What is the benefit
±ýÉ Ä¡Àõ?                                            ±ýÉ Ä¡Àõ?               lAbam?                    (obtained) by useless talk?
¾ð§¼¡Î ¾¡                  thattOdu thA              ¾ð§¼¡¼ ¾¡               thattOda thA              (you) give with the plate

¸Â¢Ú + ¬ø = ¸Â¢üÈ¡ø        kayiRu + Al = kayitRAl         ¸Âò¾¡Ä             kayaththAla               by the rope
§º¡Ú + µÎ = §º¡ü§È¡Î       sORu + Odu = sOtROdu           §º¡ü§È¡¼           sOtROda                   with the (cooked) rice
§º¡ü§È¡Î ¯ô¨Àì             sOtROdu uppaik kala            §º¡ò¾ ¯ôÀì ¸Ä      sOththa uppak kala        mix salt with (cooked) rice
¸Ä
¸Â¢üÈ¡ø ¸ðÎ                kayitRAl kattu                 ¸Âò¾¡Ä ¸ðÎ         kayaththAla kattu         tie with (the) rope


¸ñ+¬ø = ¸ñ½¡ø              kaN + Al = kaNNAl         ¸ñ½¡Ä                   kaNNAla                   by the eye
¦ºí¸ø + ¬ø =               se~nggal+Al = se~nggallAl ¦ºí¸øÄ¡Ä                se~nggallAla              by the brick
                           pal + Al = pallAl                                 pallAla                   by the tooth/teeth
¦ºí¸øÄ¡ø                                             ÀøÄ¡Ä
Àø + ¬ø = ÀøÄ¡ø
¸ñ½¡ø                      kaNNAl pArkkiROm               ¸ñ½¡Ä À¡ì¸§È¡õ     kaNNAla pAkkaROm          we see with eyes
À¡÷츢§È¡õ
¦ºí¸øÄ¡ø ţΠ              se~nggallAl vIdu kattu         ¦ºí¸øÄ¡Ä Å£Î ¸ðÎ   se~nggallAla vIdu kattu   build (the) house with
¸ðÎ                                                                                                    bricks
ÀøÄ¡ø ¸Êì¸                 pallAl kadikka mudiyum         ÀøÄ¡Ä ¸Êì¸         pallAla kadikka mudiyum   (one/we) can bite with teeth
ÓÊÔõ                                                      ÓÊÔõ
(«¨¾) ±ýÉ¡ø                (adhai) ennAl thUkka           («¾) ±ýÉ¡Ä àì¸     (adha) ennAla thUkka      (it) can not be lifted by me.
àì¸ ÓÊ¡Р                 mudiyAdhu                      ÓÊ¡Р             mudiyAdhu                 (i.e. I can not lift (it)).


Word List
Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                                9
¿¡ü¸¡Ä¢             ~nARkAli            n. chair                     ÅñÊ     vaNdi      n. cart
¦ºö                 sey                 v. do; make;                 ¦ÅðÊ    vetti      adj. useless
¸¢ûÙ                kiLLu               v. pinch                     §ÀîÍ    pEccu      n. talk; speech;
°÷                  Ur                  n. town / place where        ±ýÉ     enna       what
                                        people live together;
À¨¸                 pagai               1. v. fight;                 Ä¡Àõ    lAbam      n. benefit; profit;
                                        2. n. enmity
À¡ø                 pAl                 n. milk                      ¸¡Î     kAdu       forest
¸ÄìÌ                kalakku             v. mix                       ¾ðÎ     thattu     1. n. plate;
                                                                                        2. n. shelf
                                                                                        3. v. tap; knock;
                                                                                        4. v. clap;
Å¡û                 vAL                 1. n. sword                  ¾¡      thA        v. give
                                        2. adj. shiny (archaic)
ÌÈÎ                 kuRadu              n. pliers                    ¯ôÒ     uppu       1. n. salt;
                                                                                        2. v. bloat; become big
¬½¢                 ANi                 n. nail (fastener - not      ¸Ä      kala       v. mix
                                        finger nail)
À¢ÎíÌ               pidu~nggu           v. pull                      ¸ðÎ     kattu      1. v. build
                                                                                        2. v. tie
                                                                                        3. n. bundle;
                                                                                        4. n. bandage;

Õ                  iru                 v. stay; be;                 ¸ñ      kaN        n. eye
¸ò¾¢                kaththi             n. knife                     À¡÷     pAr        1. v. see;
                                                                                        2. n. world
ÓÊÔõ                mudiyum             adv. can; it is possible     ¦ºí¸ø   se~nggal   n. brick
ÓÊ¡Р              mudiyAdhu           adv. can not be; it is not
                                        possible




Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                           10
                                                               Prepositions - 4th type
                                                                vEtRumai - 4 (ku)
                                                                §ÅüÚ¨Á - 4 (Ì)

Usage: The 4th vEtRumai is used when you do something to an object/person.
English                                                                   Some examples
This is usually 'to'                                                      "Go to Madras"
However, in English, there are some instances where 'for' is used.        "A sheath is needed for the sword" = "The sword needs a sheath"
Also, there are some instances where no preposition is explicitly used in "Water the plant" means "pour water to the plant".
English.                                                                  "Paint the wall" means "apply paint to the wall".
                                                                          "Raman wants a banana"

Note:
5. In Tamil, the preposition is not written separately. It is invariably merged with the associated object/person as a suffix.
6. There are rules and conventions that may cause some additional letters to get inserted before the preposition.

±ØÐõ Ó¨È                     Formal                         §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ                      Colloquial                    Meaning
Ì                            ku                             Ì                              ku                            to; for;
ÁÃõ+Ì = ÁÃòÐìÌ               maram+ku = maraththukku        ÁÃòÐìÌ                         maraththukku                  to the tree; to wood;
¿¸õ+Ì = ¿¸òÐìÌ               ~nagam+ku = ~nagaththukku      ¿¸òÐìÌ                         ~nagaththukku                 to the (finger) nail
                             padam + ku = padaththukku                                     padaththukku                  to the picture
À¼õ + Ì = À¼òÐìÌ                                            À¼òÐìÌ
ÁÃòÐìÌ ¿£÷ ŢΠ              maraththukku ~nIr vidu         ÁÃòÐìÌ ¾ñ½¢ ŢΠ               maraththukku thaNNi vidu      pour water to the tree (i.e.
                                                                                                                         water the tree)
¿¸òÐìÌ ¿¢Èõ                  ~nagaththukku ~niRam           ¿¸òÐìÌ ¦¿Èõ                    ~nagaththukku ~neRam          she painted color to the nail
⺢ɡû                       pUsinAL                        ⺢ɡ                          pUsinA                        (i.e. she put nail polish on
                                                                                                                         her nails)
À¼òÐìÌ ºð¼õ                  padaththukku sattam pOda       À¼òÐìÌ ºð¼õ                    padaththukku sattam           (we) need to put (a) frame
§À¡¼ §ÅñÎõ                   vENdum                         §À¡¼Ïõ                         pOdaNum                       to the picture
                                                                                                                         (i.e. we need to frame the
                                                                                                                         picture)




Last Updated: 27-May-03     Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                                                11
±ØÐõ Ó¨È                   Formal                         §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ       Colloquial               Meaning
°÷ + Ì = °ÕìÌ              Ur + ku = Urukku               °ÕìÌ            Urukku                   to / for the town
À¡ø + Ì = À¡ÖìÌ            pAl + ku = PAlukku             À¡ÖìÌ           PAlukku                  to / for milk
                           vAL + ku = vALukku                             vALukku                  to / for the sword
Å¡û + Ì = Å¡ÙìÌ                                           Å¡ÙìÌ

°ÕìÌô §À¡                  Urukkup pO                     °ÕìÌô §À¡       Urukkup pO               go to town
À¡ÖìÌî º÷츨à              pAlukkuc carkkarai             À¡ÖìÌ ºì¸¨Ã     pAlukku sakkarai vENum   need sugar for milk
§ÅñÎõ                      vENdum                         §ÅÏõ                                     (i.e. milk needs sugar)
Å¡ÙìÌ ¯¨È                  vALukku uRai thEvai            Å¡ÙìÌ ´È §¾Å    vALukku oRa thEva        sheath needed for sword
§¾¨Å                                                                                               (i.e. sword needs a sheath)


§¾¡Î+Ì = §¾¡ðÎìÌ           thOdu + ku = thOttukku         §¾¡ðÎìÌ         thOttukku                to / for the ear ring
ţΠ+ Ì = Å£ðÎìÌ           vIdu + ku = vIttukku           Å£ðÎìÌ          vIttukku                 to / for the house
§¾¡ðÎìÌò ¾í¸õ              thOttukkuth tha~nggam          §¾¡ðÎìÌò ¾í¸õ   thOttukkuth tha~nggam    need gold for the ear ring
§ÅñÎõ                      vENdum                         §ÅÏõ            vENum
Å£ðÎìÌ Ü¨Ã ¯ñÎ             vIttukku kUrai uNdu            Å£ðÎìÌ Üà ¯ñÎ   vIttukku kUra uNdu       there is roof to the house
                                                                                                   (i.e. the house has roof)

¸ò¾¢ + Ì = ¸ò¾¢ìÌ          kaththi + ku = kaththikku      ¸ò¾¢ìÌ          kaththikku               to / for the knife
ÅñÊ + Ì = ÅñÊìÌ            vaNdi + ku = vaNdikku          ÅñÊìÌ           vaNdikku                 to / for the cart
¸ò¾¢ìÌì Ü÷¨Á               kaththikkuk kUrmai             ¸ò¾¢ìÌì Ü÷¨Á    kaththikkuk kUrmai       sharpness needed for the
§ÅñÎõ                      vENdum                         §ÅÏõ            vENum                    knife. (i.e. the knife needs
                                                                                                   sharpness)
ÅñÊìÌ Á¡Î                  vaNdikku mAdu illai            ÅñÊìÌ Á¡Î 
øÄ   vaNdikku mAdu illa       there is no bull for the cart

ø¨Ä

§ÀîÍ + Ì = §ÀîÍìÌ          pEccu + ku = pEccukku          §ÀîÍìÌ          pEccukku                 to / for talk
¾ðÎ + Ì = ¾ðÎìÌ            thattu + ku = thattukku        ¾ðÎìÌ           thattukku                to / for plate
±ý §ÀîÍìÌ ¿øÄ              en pEccukku ~nalla             ±ý §ÀîÍìÌ ¿øÄ   en pEccukku ~nalla       there was great applause for
¨¸¾ð¼ø                     kaidhattal                     ¨¸¾ð¼ø          kaidhattal               my speech


Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                            12
±ØÐõ Ó¨È                    Formal                         §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ        Colloquial                       Meaning
¾ðÎìÌ ±ýÉ                   thattukku enna vilai?          ¾ðÎìÌ ±ýÉ ¦ÅÄ?   thattukku enna vela?             what is the price for the
Å¢¨Ä?                                                                                                        plate?


¸Â¢Ú + Ì = ¸Â¢üÚìÌ          kayiRu + ku = kayitRukku       ¸Â¢üÚìÌ          kayitRukku                       to / for the rope
§º¡Ú + Ì = §º¡üÚìÌ          sORu + ku = sOtRukku           §º¡üÚìÌ          sOtRukku                         to / for the (cooked) rice
§º¡üÚìÌô Àïºõ               sOtRukkup pa~njjam             §º¡òÐìÌô Àïºõ    sOththukkup pa~njjam             scarcity exists for food (i.e.
                                                                                                             food is scarce)
¸Â¢üÚìÌ ±ýÉ                 kayitRukku enna kuRai?         ¸ÂòÐìÌ ±ýÉ       kayaththukku enna koRa?          what shortcoming exists for
̨È?                                                       ¦¸¡È?                                             the rope? (i.e. what is wrong
                                                                                                             with this rope?)

¸ñ + Ì = ¸ñÏìÌ              kaN + ku = kaNNukku            ¸ñÏìÌ            kaNNukku                         to / for the eye
¸ñÏìÌ ÁÕóÐ                  kaNNukku maru~ndhu             ¸ñÏìÌ ÁÕóРŢΠ  kaNNukku maru~ndhu               pour medicine to the eye
ŢΠ                        vidu                                            vidu



Word List
¿£÷                 ~nIr                 1. n. water             Ü÷¨Á        kUrmai                n. sharpness
                                         2. n. you (respect)
                                         (archaic)
ŢΠ                vidu                 1. v. pour;             Á¡Î         mAdu                  1. n. cattle / cow / bull
                                         2. v. leave;                                              2. n. wealth (archaic)
                                         3. v. release
¸¢ûÙ                kiLLu                v. pinch                
ø¨Ä        illai                 v. there is no / it does
                                                                                                   not have
¿¢Èõ                ~niRam               n. color                ¿øÄ         ~nalla                adj. good
âÍ                  pUsu                 v. apply by spreading   ¨¸          kai                   n. hand
                                         (paint, etc)
ºð¼õ                sattam               1. n. frame;            ¨¸¾ð¼ø      kaidhattal            n. applause
                                         2. n. law;



Last Updated: 27-May-03    Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                                  13
§À¡Î                pOdu                 1. v. put;              Å¢¨Ä   vilai       n. price
                                         2. v. drop;
                                         3. v. to make (noise,
                                         etc.)
§À¡                 pO                   v. go                   Àïºõ   pa~njjam    n. scarcity; famine;
º÷츨à              sarkkarai            n. sugar                Ì¨È    kuRai       1. n. shortcoming;
                                                                                    2. n. flaw; defect;
                                                                                    3. v. to reduce /
                                                                                    decrease
¯¨È                 uRai                 1. n. cover; sheath;    ÁÕóÐ   maru~ndhu   1. n. medicine;
                                         2. v. freeze                               2. n. immortal nectar
                                         3. v. live/stay                            (archaic)
§¾¨Å                thEvai               n. need / want
§¾¡Î                thOdu                n. ear ring
¾í¸õ                tha~nggam            n. gold
ܨà                kUrai                n. roof
¯ñÎ                 uNdu                 v. there is / it has




Last Updated: 27-May-03    Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                    14
                                                        Prepositions - 5th type
                                           vEtRumai - 5 (il, in, ai vida, inindRu, iliru~ndhu)
                                        §ÅüÚ¨Á - 5 (
ø, 
ý, ³ Å¢¼, 
É¢ýÚ, 
Ä¢ÕóÐ)

Usage: The 5th vEtRumai is used when you compare something to another. It is also used when something is separated from another.
English                                                              Some examples
than
from

Note:
                                                                 ³ Å¢¼).
7. The preposition for comparison in current usage is "ai vida" (³ Å¢¼
                                                                
Ä¢ÕóÐ).
                                                                
Ä¢ÕóÐ
8. The preposition for 'from' in current usage is "iliru~ndhu" (
Ä¢ÕóÐ

±ØÐõ Ó¨È                   Formal                         §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ                  Colloquial                   Meaning

ø, 
ý                     il, in                         
ø, 
ý                     il, in                       than (comparison)

Ä¢ÕóÐ                     iliru~ndhu                     ¯§ÄóÐ                      ulE~ndhu                     from
³ Å¢¼                      ai vida                        « Å¢¼                      a vida                       than (comparison)
¸¢Õ‰½É¢ý                   kirushNanin periyavan          ¸¢Õ‰½É¢ý ¦ÀâÂÅý           kirushNanin periyavan        Raman is older than
¦ÀâÂÅý áÁý               rAman                          áÁý                       rAman                        Krishnan
¸¢Õ‰½¨É Å¢¼ô               kirushNanai vidap              ¸¢Õ‰½É Å¢¼                 kirushNana vida periyavan    Raman is older than
¦ÀâÂÅý áÁý               periyavan rAman                ¦ÀâÂÅý áÁý               rAman                        Krishnan
â¨É¢ý ÅÄ¢ÂÐ               pUnaiyin valiyadhu ~nAy        â¨É¢ý ÅÄ¢ÂÐ ¿¡ö           pUnaiyin valiyadhu ~nAy      (the) dog is stronger than
¿¡ö                                                                                                               (the) cat
â¨É¨Â Å¢¼ ÅÄ¢ÂÐ            pUnaiyai vida valiyadhu        â¨É Ţ¼ ÅÄ¢ÂÐ             pUnaiya vida valiyadhu       (the) dog is stronger than
¿¡ö                        ~nAy                           ¿¡ö                        ~nAy                         (the) cat


ÁÃõ+ 
Ä¢ÕóÐ =              maram+ iliru~ndhu =            ÁÃòЧÄóÐ                   maraththulE~ndhu             from the tree
ÁÃò¾¢Ä¢ÕóÐ                 maraththiliru~ndhu
ÁÃò¾¢Ä¢ÕóÐ ¸£§Æ            maraththiliru~ndhu kIzhE       ÁÃòЧÄóÐ ¸£Æ               maraththulE~ndhu kIzha       get down from the tree

ÈíÌ                       iRa~nggu                       ±ÈíÌ                       eRa~nggu


Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                                        15
±ØÐõ Ó¨È                   Formal                         §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ         Colloquial                Meaning
°÷ + 
Ä¢ÕóÐ =              Ur + iliru~ndhu =              °÷§ÄóÐ            UrlE~ndhu                 from the town
°Ã¢Ä¢ÕóÐ                   Uriliru~ndhu                   À¡ø§ÄóÐ           PAllE~ndhu                from milk
À¡ø + 
Ä¢ÕóÐ =             pAl + iliru~ndhu =
                           PAliliru~ndhu
À¡Ä¢Ä¢ÕóÐ
°Ã¢Ä¢ÕóÐ À¡ðÊ              Uriliru~ndhu pAtti             °÷§ÄóÐ À¡ðÊ       UrlE~ndhu pAtti va~ndhA   Grandma came from (her)
Åó¾¡÷                      va~ndhAr                       Åó¾¡                                        town.
À¡Ä¢Ä¢ÕóÐ                  pAliliru~ndhu veNNey           À¡ø§ÄóÐ ¦Åñ½      pAllE~ndhu veNNa          (we) get butter from milk
¦Åñ¦½ö                     kidaikkum                      ¦¸¨¼ìÌõ           kedaikkum
¸¢¨¼ìÌõ

§¾¡Î + 
Ä¢ÕóÐ =            thOdu + iliru~ndhu =           §¾¡ðΧÄóÐ         thOttulE~ndhu             from the earring
§¾¡ðÊÄ¢ÕóÐ                 thOttiliru~ndhu                Å£ðΧÄóÐ          vIttulE~ndhu              from the house
ţΠ+ 
Ä¢ÕóÐ =             vIdu + iliru~ndhu =
                           vIttiliru~ndhu
Å£ðÊÄ¢ÕóÐ
§¾¡ðÊÄ¢ÕóÐ Á½¢             thOttiliru~ndhu maNi           §¾¡ðΧÄóÐ Á½¢     thOttulE~ndhu maNi        the gem fell from the
Å¢Øó¾Ð                     vizhu~ndhadhu                  Å¢ØóòÐ            vizhu~nththu              earring
Å£ðÊÄ¢ÕóÐ §¸¡Â¢ø           vIttiliru~ndhu kOyil ARu       Å£ðΧÄóÐ §¸¡Å¢ø   vIttulE~ndhu kOvil ARu    the temple is six miles from
¬Ú ¨Áø                     mail                           ¬Ú ¨Áø            mail                      the house


ÅñÊ + 
Ä¢ÕóÐ =             vaNdi + iliru~ndhu =           Åñ˧ÄóÐ           vaNdIlE~ndhu              from the cart
ÅñÊ¢ĢÕóÐ                 vaNdiyiliru~ndhu
ÅñÊ¢ĢÕóÐ                 vaNdiyiliru~ndhu mAttai        Åñ˧ÄóÐ Á¡ð¼      vaNdIlE~ndhu mAtta avu    untie the bull from the cart
Á¡ð¨¼ «Å¢ú                 avizh                          «×

§ÀîÍ + 
Ä¢ÕóÐ =            pEccu + iliru~ndhu =           §ÀîͧÄóÐ          pEcculE~ndhu              from the speech
§ÀĢÕóÐ                 pEcciliru~ndhu                 ¾ðΧÄóÐ           thattulE~ndhu             from the plate
¾ðÎ + 
Ä¢ÕóÐ =             thattu + iliru~ndhu =
                           thattiliru~ndhu
¾ðÊÄ¢ÕóÐ

Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                              16
±ØÐõ Ó¨È                    Formal                        §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ       Colloquial                     Meaning
«Å÷ §ÀĢÕóÐ              avar pEcciliru~ndhu enna      «Å÷ §ÀîͧÄóÐ    avar pEcculE~ndhu enna         What did you learn from
±ýÉ                         theri~ndhukoNdAy?             ±ýÉ ¦¾Ã¢ïÍñ¼?   theri~njjuNda?                 his/her (respect) speech?
¦¾Ã¢óЦ¸¡ñ¼¡ö?
¾ðÊÄ¢ÕóÐ                    thattiliru~ndhu parukkai      ¾ðΧÄóÐ ÀÕì¸    thattulE~ndhu parukka          (a) morsel of rice fell down
ÀÕ쨸 ¸£§Æ                  kIzhE vizhu~ndhadhu           ¸£Æ Å¢ØóòÐ      kIzha vizhu~nththu             from the plate
Å¢Øó¾Ð

¸¢½Ú + 
Ä¢ÕóÐ =             kiNaRu + iliru~ndhu =         ¸¢½òЧÄóÐ       kiNaththulE~ndhu               from the well
¸¢½üȢĢÕóÐ                 kiNatRiliru~ndhu
¸¢½üȢĢÕóÐ                 kiNatRiliru~ndhu              ¸¢½òЧÄóÐ       kiNaththulE~ndhu               draw and pour water from
¾ñ½£¨Ã 
¨È                  thaNNIrai iRai                ¾ñ½¢Â ±È        thaNNiya eRa                   the well


¸ñ + 
Ä¢ÕóÐ =               kaN + iliru~ndhu =            ¸ñϧÄóÐ         kaNNulE~ndhu                   from the eye
¸ñ½¢Ä¢ÕóÐ                   kaNNiliru~ndhu
¸ñ½¢Ä¢ÕóÐ                   kaNNiliru~ndhu kaNNIr         ¸ñϧÄóÐ ¸ñ½£÷   kaNNulE~ndhu kaNNIr            tears flow from the eye
¸ñ½£÷ ÅÆ¢¸¢ÈÐ               vazhigiRadhu                  ÅÆ¢ÂÈÐ          vazhiyaRadhu

Word List
¸£§Æ                kIzhE                below;               §¸¡Â¢ø       kOyil             n. temple

ÈíÌ                iRa~nggu             v. get down; climb   «Å¢ú         avizh             v. untie
                                         down
À¡ðÊ                pAtti                n. grandmother       ÀÕ쨸        parukkai          n. morsel of rice
¦Åñ¦½ö              veNNey               n. butter            ¸¢½Ú         kiNaRu            n. (water) well
Á½¢                 maNi                 1. n. jewel; gem     
¨È          iRai              1. v. draw and pour;
                                         2. n. hour / time                                   bale out;
                                                                                             2. n. lord / god
Å¢Ø                 vizhu                v. fall              ¸ñ½£÷        kaNNIr            n. tears




Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                                 17
                                                          Prepositions - 6th type
                                                  vEtRumai - 6 (adhu, Adhu, a, udaiya)
                                                §ÅüÚ¨Á - 6 («Ð, ¬Ð, «, ¯¨¼Â
                                                                 «Ð,                 ¯¨¼Â)
               th
Usage: The 6 vEtRumai is used to indicate possession / ownership / association.
English                                                                Some examples
of                                                                     height of that tree
----'s (mine, his, etc)                                                that tree's height

Note:
                                                                                                ¯¨¼Â, 
Û¨¼Â).
9. The preposition for possession/ownership in current spoken usage is "udaiya" and "inudaiya" (¯¨¼Â, 
Û¨¼Â

±ØÐõ Ó¨È                   Formal                         §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ                Colloquial             Meaning
«Ð (
ÉÐ)                   adhu (inadhu)                  adhu (inadhu)            adhu (inadhu)          of (indicates ownership and
                                                                                                          possessiveness) - singular
«                          a                              a                        a                      of (indicates ownership and
                                                                                                          possessiveness) - plural
¯¨¼Â (
Û¨¼Â)               udaiya (inudaiya)              udaiya (inudaiya)        udaiya (inudaiya)      of
                                                                                                          (indicates ownership and
                                                                                                          possessiveness)
ÁÃõ+ ¯¨¼Â =                maram+ udaiya =                                                                tree's
ÁÃò¾¢Û¨¼Â                  maraththinudaiya
«ó¾ ÁÃò¾¢Û¨¼Â              a~ndha maraththinudaiya        a~ndha maraththOda       a~ndha maraththOda     what is the height of that
¯ÂÃõ ±ýÉ?                  uyaram enna?                   oyaram enna?             oyaram enna?           tree?


À¡ø+ ¯¨¼Â =                pAl+ udaiya = PAlinudaiya PAlOda                        PAlOda                 milk's
À¡Ä¢Û¨¼Â
À¡Ä¢Û¨¼Â ¿¢Èõ              PAlinudaiya ~niRam             PAlOda ~neRam veLLai     PAlOda ~neRam veLLai   milk's color is white
¦Åñ¨Á                      veNmai

Ð ±ýÛ¨¼Â ¨À               idhu ennudaiya pai             idhu ennOda pai          idhu ennOda pai        this is my bag


Å£Î+¯¨¼Â =                 vIdu+udaiya = vIttinudaiya     vIttOda                  vIttOda                house's
Å£ðÊÛ¨¼Â

Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                                 18
±ØÐõ Ó¨È                   Formal                         §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ                 Colloquial                      Meaning
Å£ðÊÛ¨¼Â ±ñ                vIttinudaiya eN enna?          vIttOda eN enna?          vIttOda eN enna?                what is the house's number?
±ýÉ?

ÅñÊ¢ۨ¼Â «îÍ              vaNdiyinudaiya accu            vaNdiyOda accu            vaNdiyOda accu                  the cart's axle broke
ÓÈ¢ó¾Ð                     muRi~ndhadhu                   muRi~njjudhu              muRi~njjudhu


«ÅÛ¨¼Â §ÀîÍ ºÃ¢ avanudaiya pEccu sari illai               avanOda pEccu sari illa   avanOda pEccu sari illa         his speech is not proper

ø¨Ä
«Å÷¸Ù¨¼Â ţΠ   avargaLudaiya vIdu                        ava~nggaLOda vIdu         ava~nggaLOda vIdu               their house is large
¦ÀâÂÐ          periyadhu                                 perusu                    perusu


±ýÛ¨¼Â ¦ÀÂ÷                ennudaiya peyar rAman          ennOda pEr rAman          ennOda pEr rAman                my name is Raman
áÁý
±ÉÐ ¦ÀÂ÷ áÁý              enadhu peyar rAman             en pEr rAman              en pEr rAman                    my name is Raman
¸¢½üÈ¢Û¨¼Â ¬Æõ             kiNatRinudaiya Azham           keNaththOda Azham         keNaththOda Azham               the depth of the well is
«¾¢¸õ                      adhigam                        adhigam                   adhigam                         great (i.e. it is a deep
                                                                                                                    well)
º÷츨âۨ¼Â               sarkkaraiyinudaiya vilai       sakkarai enna vela?       sakkarai enna vela?             What is the price of sugar?
Å¢¨Ä ±ýÉ?                  enna?

Word List
«ó¾                 a~ndha              that                      ¦Àâ              periya               adj. big
¯ÂÃõ                uyaram              n. height                 ¦ÀÂ÷               peyar                n. name
¦Åñ¨Á               veNmai              n. white                  ¬Æõ                Azham                n. depth
¨À                  pai                 n. bag                    «¾¢¸õ              adhigam              big/great/a lot
±ñ                  eN                  n. number                 º÷츨à             sarkkarai            n. sugar
ºÃ¢                 sari                adv. proper;              Å¢¨Ä               vilai                n. price
                                        appropriate; OK


Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                                           19
                                                           Prepositions - 7th type
                                                  vEtRumai - 7 (il, idaththil, kaN, mEl, kIzh)
                                                 §ÅüÚ¨Á - 7 (il, idaththil, kaN, mEl, kIzh)
Usage: The 7th vEtRumai is used to indicate location.
English                                                                  Some examples
in                                                                       in my house
on                                                                       on the table
above / over                                                             above the clouds; over the fence;
below / under / beneath                                                  below the surface; under the table;
among, amongst
inside

±ØÐõ Ó¨È                    Formal                          §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ                  Colloquial               Meaning

ø                          il                              ¯Ä                         ula                      in

¼ò¾¢ø                      idaththil                       ±¼òÐÄ                      edaththula               in
§Áø (
ý§Áø)                 mEl (inmEl)                     §ÁÄ (Ì §ÁÄ)                mEla (ku mEla)           on
¸£ú (
ý¸£ú)                 kIzh (inkIzh)                   ¸£Æ (Ì ¸£Æ)                kIzha (ku kIzha)         below
¯û (Ì ¯û = Ìû)              uL (ku uL = kuL)                ¯ûÇ (Ì ¯ûÇ =               uLLa (ku uLLa = kuLLa)   inside
                                                            ÌûÇ)
«Ê¢ø (Ì «Ê¢ø.             adiyil (ku adiyil. in adiyil)   Ì «ËÄ                      ku adIla                 under, beneath

ý «Ê¢ø)

ÁÃõ+ 
ø = ÁÃò¾¢ø            maram+ il = maraththil
Á¡ÁÃò¾¢ø ÀÆí¸û              mAmaraththil                    Á¡ÁÃòÐÄ ÀÆõ                mAmaraththula pazham     there are fruits on the

Õ츢ýÈÉ                    pazha~nggaL                     
ÕìÌ                       irukku                   mango tree
                            irukkindRana

À¡Ä¢ø º÷츨à                pAlil sarkkarai pOdu            À¡øÄ ºì¸Ã §À¡Î             pAlla sakkara pOdu       put sugar in the milk
§À¡Î




Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                                   20
±ØÐõ Ó¨È                   Formal                         §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ         Colloquial                    Meaning
ÁÃò¾¢ý¸£ú                  maraththinkIzh                 ÁÃòÐìÌ ¸£Æ        maraththukku kIzha            (he) sat under the tree
¯ð¸¡÷ó¾¡ý                  utkAr~ndhAn                    ´ì¸¡ó¾¡ý          okkA~ndhAn
Òò¾¸ò¾¢ý «Ê¢ø             puththagaththin adiyil         ÒŠ¾¸òÐìÌ «ËÄ      pusthagaththukku adIla        (the) pencil is under (the)
¦Àýº¢ø 
Õó¾Ð               pensil iru~ndhadhu             ¦Àýº¢ø 
ÕóòÐ      pensil iru~nththu             book


ÍÅâý§Áø À¼õ               suvarinmEl padam               ¦º×òÐ §ÁÄ À¼õ     sevuththu mEla padam          (I) drew a picture on the
ŨÃó§¾ý                    varai~ndhEn                    ÅÃ狀ý            vara~njjEn                    wall


¨¸Â¢ø ¸¡Í                  kaiyil kAsu irukkiRadhu        ¨¸Ä ¸¡Í 
ÕìÌ      kaila kAsu irukku             (I) have money in (my)

Õ츢ÈÐ                                                                                                   hand


Á¨Ä¢ý§Áø ²È               malaiyinmEl ERa                Á¨Ä §ÁÄ ²È ÓÊÂÄ   malai mEla ERa mudiyala       (I) could not climb on the
ÓÊÂÅ¢ø¨Ä                   mudiyavillai                                                                   hill


¯í¸Ç¢ø ¡÷                 u~nggaLil yAr aNNan?           ¯í¸ûÇ Â¡Õ         u~nggaLLa yAru aNNA?          Who amongst you is (the)
«ñ½ý?                                                     «ñ½¡?                                           older brother?
¯í¸ÙìÌû ±ýÉ                u~nggaLukkuL enna              ´í¸ÙìÌûÇ ±ýÉ      o~nggaLukkuLLa enna           What is (the) fight among
ºñ¨¼?                      saNdai?                        ºñ¼?              saNda?                        you?


¸¢½üÈ¢ø ÀóÐ                kiNatRil pa~ndhu               ¦¸½òÐÄ ÀóÐ        keNaththula pa~ndhu           (The) ball fell in the well
Å¢Øó¾Ð                     vizhu~ndhadhu                  Å¢ØóòÐ            vizhu~nththu
âÅ¢ø ÅñÎ                   pUvil vaNdu moykkum            â×Ä ÅñÎ           pUvula vaNdu moykkum          Bees buzz in (the) flowers
¦Á¡öìÌõ                                                   ¦Á¡öìÌõ


Word List
Á¡ÁÃõ               mAmaram             n. mango tree         «ñ½ý           aNNan               n. older brother
ÀÆõ                 pazham              n. fruit              ºñ¨¼           saNdai              n. fight
¯ð¸¡÷               utkAr               v. sit                ÀóÐ            pa~ndhu             n. ball
Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                                 21
ÍÅ÷                 suvar               n. wall              â      pU      n. flower
Ũà                 varai               v. draw; paint       ÅñÎ    vaNdu   n. bee; beetle;
                                        n. mountain
¸¡Í                 kAsu                n. money             ¦Á¡ö   moy     v. to flock in large
                                                                            number
笀                 malai               n. hill; mountain;
                                        v. amaze; shock
²Ú                  ERu                 v. climb
                                        n. bull; lion;




Last Updated: 27-May-03   Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                            22
                                                     Prepositions - 8th type (calling someone)
                                                     vEtRumai - 8 (thani urubu kidaiyAdhu)
                                                     §ÅüÚ¨Á - 8 (¾É¢ ¯ÕÒ ¸¢¨¼Â¡Ð)

Usage: The 8th vEtRumai is used when you call someone. Depending on whether the person is near or far, the last vowel in the name may be short
or long. If the name has any masculine suffix like 'an', then the 'n' will be dropped. If the name has respectful ending like 'ar', 'gaL', then a long
vowel 'E' is appended.
English                                                                        Some examples
In English, the word 'O' is added before the name.                             O lord!
But, normally we just call out the name with some extra stress and
loudness

Note:
10. In Tamil, the preposition is not written separately. It is invariably merged with the associated object/person as a suffix.
11. There are rules and conventions that may cause some additional letters to get inserted before the preposition.

±ØÐõ Ó¨È                     Formal                         §ÀîÍ ÅÆìÌ                      Colloquial                     Meaning
áÁ¡, 
í§¸ Å¡.               rAmA, i~nggE vA.               áÁ¡, 
í¸ Å¡                   rAmA, i~ngga vA                Raman, come here.
ÄŒÁ£! ¿£ ±í§¸                lakshmI! ~nI e~nggE            ÄŒÁ£! ¿£ ±í¸                   lakshmI! ~nI e~ngga            O Lakshmi, where are you?

Õ츢ȡö?                    irukkiRAy?                     
Õì¸?                          irukka?
ÌÕ츧Ç, 
í§¸                 gurukkaLE, i~nggE              ÌÕ츧Ç, 
í¸                    gurukkaLE, i~ngga              O gurukkaL, come (respect)
Å¡Õí¸û                       vAru~nggaL                     Å¡í§¸¡ (/ Å¡í¸)                vA~nggO (/ vA~ngga)            here.




Last Updated: 27-May-03     Prepositions_Consolidated.doc                                                                                              23

								
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