Morphological effects of insect growth regulators on Musca

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					Egypt. Acad. J. biolog. Sci., 2 (2): 29- 36 (2010)             F. Toxicology &Pest control
Email:                                  ISSN: 2090 - 0791
Received: 29/6/2010                                   

   Morphological effects of some insect growth regulators on Musca domestica,
                              (Diptera, Muscidae).

     Khalil, M.S.; Assar, A. A.; Abo El-Mahasen, M. M. and Mahmoud, S.H..
                    Faculty of Science, Menofia University

    The current work was carried out to evaluate the morphological effects of insect
growth regulators e.g. : applaud (buprofezin), consult (hexaflumuron) and match
(lufenuron) as chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs), mimic (tebufenozide) as ecdysone
agonist (EA) and admiral (pyripyroxyfen) as juvenile hormone analogue (JHA)
against the housefly, M. domestica. Various morphological aberrations were induced
in larvae, pupae and adults of M. domestica. The highest percentage of larval
deformities caused by mimic, (can not molt or shrinked). Consult gave the highest
percentage of malformation in the resulting pupae (C. shaped, elongated, distorted,
two constricted, tapering anterior and broad posterior , cylindrical adult uncompleted).
Admiral and mimic induced high percentage of abnormalities in the adult flies (small
size body and curved legs, crumbled wings and curved abdomen). Larval-pupal
intermediates and pupal-adult intermediates were induced as a result of these

Keywords: Insect growth regulators, Musca domestica

          INTRODUCTION                                (655 gm.) + Milk powder (50
             The house fly, Musca                     gm.)+yeast powder (38 gm.)+ Tap
domestica is the most common and                      water (600ml.). The pupae were
widely distributed mechanical vector                  transferred into cages until adult
of several pathogenic organisms of                    emergence. Different concentrations,
human and animals. Resistance insects                 (10, 100, 1000and 2000ppm) of insect
have been recorded for most                           growth        regulators,     buprofezin
insecticide. The use of IGRs against                  (applaud), hexaflumuron (consult),
the house fly are considered                          lufenuron      (Match),     tebufenzoide
environmentally safer alternatives to                 (Mimic) and pyriproxyfen (Admiral)
broad-spectrum insecticides because of                were prepared by adding water. First
their low toxicity to human, little                   instars larvae were divided into five
likelihood that insects would develop                 groups, each consists of 20 larvae, put
resistance to compounds that mimic                    in plastic cups containing media which
their own hormones and specificity for                exposed to selected concentration. The
their insect targets. Thus, the                       morphological changed were recorded
application of IGRs remains one of                    for larval, pupal and adult stages.
promise for the future.
   MATERIALS AND METHODS                                   RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
    The strain of insects was obtained                    Treatment of 1st larval instars of M.
from Research Institute of Medical                    domestica with various concentrations
Entomology, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. The                   of the tested IGRs gave rise to
colony was maintained according to                    noticeable larval, pupal and adult
Hashem and Youssef, (1991).The eggs                   abnormalities. The different abnormal
were collected and transferred to larval              forms in Table (1), can be described as
medium, which contain wheat bran                      follows:-
30                                           Khalil, M. S. et al.

    All tested IGRs induced larval                          Some larvae with small sized
deformities. The highest percentage of                  {plate (1) fig (C)}.
larval deformities caused by mimic,                         Schaefer and Wilder (1973)
which was 3, 5 and 6% at 10,100 and                     reported that JH interfered with
1000 ppm, respectively. In the                          tyrosine metabolism resulting in a
survived larvae two forms of                            darkening of the cuticle of C.
abnormalities were demonstrated,                        pipiens,C. quinquefasciatus and Aedes
    Some larvae can't molt completely                   nigiomaculatus.
{plate (1) fig (B)}.

Table 1: Morphogenic effects of the tested IGRs against M. domestica as 1st larval instar.

    Similar    malformations     were                   exuivum, head capsule slippage
reported on M. domestica with other                     failure) and a more intensive
IGRs, such as dimilin (El-Kordy,                        sclerotization and melanization of the
1985), dimilin, BAY SIR and altosid                     thorax of A. aegypti when treated with
(Bakr, 1986) and diflubenzuron and                      methoxyfenozide.
penfluron (Shafi et al., 1987) .Darvas                       All tested IGRs induced larval -
et al. (1998) noticed molting                           pupal intermediates. Admiral gave the
disturbances (e.g. hanging larval                       highest percentage of malformed larval
            Morphological effects of some insect growth regulators on M. domestica       31

– pupal intermediates, which induced               stage.
4, 5 and 7% at 10,100 and 1000 ppm,                      Other IGRs induced similar
respectively. The puparia of these                 malformations in the pupae of M.
forms were incomplete with retained                domestica, TH 6040 (diflubenzuron)
parts of the last larval cuticle {plate (1)        [Wright (1974), El-Kordy (1985), and
fig (D). Similar larval –pupal                     Shafi et al. (1987)]; BAY SIR
intermediate was induced by other                  (Moustafa,1991); dimilin, BAY SIR
IGRs on the same species, such as,                 and altosid (Bakr,1986); IGI, DC 902,
dimilin                 (El-Kordy,1985);           denate, dimilin and amix 500 (Youssef
diflubenzuron and penfluron (Shafi et              et al.,1990); diflubenzuron and
al,1987); IGI,DC-902, denate, dimilin              pyriproxyfen (Shalaby, 1994); and
and amix-500 (Youssef et al.,1990);                methoxyfenozide & pyriproxyfen
IKI         7899,BAY-SIR;              and         (Assar and Abo-Shaeshae, 2004).
methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen                            All tested IGRs induced
(Assar and Abo-Shaeshae,2004).                     pupal–adult intermediates. Match,
    These larval- pupal intermediates              admiral and mimic gave the highest
failed to complete the pupal period and            percentage of malformations. Match
died soon. Carton et al. (1998) stated             induced      13,     24.37,    30.12and
that treatment of S. exigua larvae with            38.11%pupal-adult intermediates at 10,
methoxyfenozide led to induction of                100, 1000 and 2000ppm respectively.
premature, lethal,           larval molt,          Deformed pupae failed to complete
presence of a double head capsule and              their metamorphosis properly which
appearance of larval pupal intermediate            could not emerge completely and
They stated that methoxyfenotide                   remain concealed in the puparia until
caused the larval thorax to bloat on the           they die. Consequently incomplete
dorsoventral sides resulting in a larval-          adult ecolsion dominated. In some
pupal intermediate of A. aegypti. All              cases the head and thorax ecolsed
tested IGRs induced malformations in               while in other cases, the head, thorax
the pupae of M. domestica. Consult                 and part of the abdomen with the fore
gave the highest percentage of                     wings were released but the rest of the
malformation in the resulting pupae,               body still attached to the puparia (Plate
which elicited 40.20, 56.03, 78.00 and             5). Other IGRs induced larval-pupal
100% at 10, 100,1000 and 2000 ppm,                 intermediates on M.domstica, BAY
respectively. Whereas the lowest                   SIR (Moustafa, 1991); diflubenzuron
percentage was obtained by applaud,                and pyriproxyfen (Shalaby, 1994); and
which induced 2.01, 3.25, 4.38 and 6%              methoxyfenozide & pyriproxyfen
at 10, 100, 1000 and 2000ppm,                      (Assar and Abo-Shaeshae, 2004)
respectively. The other tested IGRs                        All tested IGRs induced adult
were comparable.                                   malformations. Admiral and mimic
    Six types of abnormalities that                induced       high     percentage      of
occurred in the pupae: Some pupae                  abnormalities. Admiral elicited 6 and
took C. shaped (plate (2) fig (B,C),               8% abnormalities at 10 and 100 ppm,
elongated {plate (2) fig (D,E), distorted          respectively, while mimic caused 4.2
{plate (3) (A,B,D)} pupae with                     and 7.19% abnormalities at 10 and 100
conspicuous contractions in their                  ppm, respectively. The tested IGRs
puparia; rod-like larvifrom {plate (4)             induced adult with small sized body
fig (A)}, tapering anterior and broad              and curled legs {(plate (6) fig (C and
posterior      {plate       (4)fig(B)}and          D)}, some adults were with crumpled
cylindrical {plate (4 )fig (C,D)} and              wings while others were with curved
that they failed to transform to adult             abdomen {(plate (6), Fig (E, F)}. The
32                                   Khalil, M. S. et al.

same abnormalities were reported by                    Inter. Symposium on Crop
some investigators on the same insect                  Protection, Gent., 63(2b): 537-
species using other IGRs, JHA (Cerf                    45.
and Georghiou, 1974); diflubenzuron             Cerf, D.C. and G.P.Georghiou (1974):
(El-Kordy, 1985); dimilin, BAY SIR                     Cross resistance to an inhibitor
and     altosid      (Baker,      1986);               of chitin synthesis TH-6040, in
diflubenzuron (Shafi et al., 1987); IGI                insecticide-resistance strains of
–DC 902, denate, dimilin and amix-                     the house fly. J. Agr.Food
500 (Youssef et al., 1990); BAY SIR                    chem. 22(6): 1145-1146.
(Moustafa., 1991); diflubenzuron and            Darvas, B.; Pap, L.; Kelemen, M. and
pyriproxyfen       (Shalaby,      1994);               Polgar,     L.     A.     (1998):
pyriproxyfen (Osman 1998); and                         Synergistic effects of verbutin
pyriproxyfen and methoxyfenozide                       with dibenzoyllydrazine-type
(Assar and Abo- Shaeshae., 2004).                      ecdysteroid agonists on larvae
Carton et al. (1998) found that                        of Aedes aegypti (Diptra:
treatment of S.exigua larvae with                      Culicidae). J. Econ. Entomol.,
methoxyfenozide led to malformation                    91(6): 1260-64.
in wings, the emerging adults often had         El- Kordy, M. W. (1985): The effect of
problem in discarding the pupal                        some growth regulators on
exuvium.                                               Musca domestica (L.) Ph. D.
      Application of pyriproxyfen to                   Thesis, Fac. Agric., Al- Azhar
the German cockroach, Blattella                        Univ.
germanica      (10-100µg)       induced         Hashem, H.O. and Youssef, N.S.
molting       of      nymphs        into               (1991). Developmental changes
supernumerary nymph, (Reid et al.,                     induced by methanolic extracts
1994). They said that pyripoxyfen and                  of leaves        and fruits of
fenoxycarb       induced     significant               Melia azadrach L. on the house
developmental delays and levels of                     fly, Musca domestica vicina.
morphogenetic wing.                                    J.Egypt. Ger. Soc. Zool., 3:335-
           REFERENCE                            Moustafa, Z. K. (1991): Phenotypic
Assar, A.A. and Abo-Shaeshae, .A.A.                    variation of certain enzymes
       (2004): Effect of two insect                    induced by some IGRs against
       growth               regulators,                the house fly, Musca domestica
       methoxyfenozide              and                (L.). Ph. D. Thesis, Fac. Sci.,
       pyrlproxyfen on the house fly,                  Ain Shams Univ.
       Musca      domestica      vicina         Osman, D. A. (1998): Toxological
       (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Egypt.                  studies on fly populations of
       Ger. Soc. Zoo 44(E): 19-42.                     Musca domestica in some
Bakr, R.F.A. (1986):Morphogenic and                    Egyptian Governorates. M.Sc.
       physiological         aberration                Thesis, Fac., Sci. Entomol.
       induced by certain IGRs in the                  Dep. Cairo Univ.
       house fly, Musca domestica.              Reid, B. L.; Brock, V. L. and Bennett,
       Ph. D. Thesis, Fac. Sci. Ain-                   G. W. (1994): Development,
       shams Univ.                                     morphogenetic                and
Carton, B.; Smagghe, G.; Mourad,                       reproductive effects of four
       A.K. and Tirry, T. (1998):                      polycyclic        non-isoprenoid
       Effects of RH-2485 on larvae                    juvenoids in the German
       and pupae of Spodoptera                         cockroach           (Dictyoptera:
       exigua (Hubner). Proc. 50th                     Blattellidae). J. Entomol. Sci.,
           Morphological effects of some insect growth regulators on M. domestica     33

        29: 31-42.                                       domestica vicina L. (Diptera:
Schaefer, C.H. and Wilder, W.H.                          Muscidae). Econ. Entomology.
        (1973). Insect developmental                     Pesticides. Ph. D. Fac. Agric.
        inhibitors.2- Effects on target                  Cairo. Unvi.
        mosquito species. J. Econ.                Wright, J.E. (1974): Insect growth
        Entomol., 66:931-916.                            regulators: Laboratory and filed
Shafi, S.; Naqvi, S. N. H.; and Zia, N.                  evaluation     of      Thompson
        (1987): Effect of diflubenzuron                  Hayward TH 6040 against the
        and penfluron (IGRs) on the                      house fly and the stable fly. J.
        morphology        on     Musca                   Econ. Entomol. 67: 746-747.
        domestica (L.) and Blattella              Youssef, N. S., EI-Deeb, A. S.;
        germanica (L.). Pakistan J.                      Mesbah, M. A.; Zaghloul, X.
        Zool., 19(1): 85-90.                             A. (1990): Evaluation of three
Shalaby,A.A. S. (1994): Comparative                      insect growth inhibitors against
        toxicological studies between                    the     house     fly,    Musca
        Insect growth regulators and                     domestica. J. Egypt. Ger. Soc,
        conventional insecticides used                   Zool., 2: 47-61.
        against the house fly Musca
34                                              Khalil, M. S. et al.

     Plate (1): Larvae & larval-pupal intermediate of        Plate (2): Pupae of M. domestica
     M. domestica                                            A-Normal pupa. Malformed pupae:
     Normal larva (untreated)                                B- treated with match, consult and mimic.
     Malformed larvae: B-treated with consult and            C- treated with applaud and admiral.
     admiral .                                               D- treated with applaud, consult and
     C- treated with match, mimic and applaud.               mimic,and
     D-Malformed larval-pupal intermediate treated           E -treated with admiral and match
     with all tested IGRs.

                               Plate (3): Malformed pupae of M. domestica
                                             Malformed pupae: A- treated with
                                         match, admiral and applaud. B- treated
                                         with match, consult and mimic. C & D
                                         treated with consult.
         Morphological effects of some insect growth regulators on M. domestica               35

Plate (4): Malformed pupae of M. domestica          Plate (5): Pupal-adult intermediates of
        A-treated with consult and mimic B-                  M. domestica, A,B, C and D:
        C- &D- treated with consult                          Adult which can not emerge
                                                             completely when treated with
                                                             all tested IGRs.

                       Plate (6): Adult of M. domestica
                                 A, B: Normal male and female.
                                 Malformed adults: C, D: treated with
                                 match, consult and applaud. E-&F-:
                                 treated with mimic and admiral.
‫63‬                                          ‫.‪Khalil, M. S. et al‬‬

                                 ‫‪ARABIC SUMMARY‬‬

 ‫اآلثاز انًوزفونوجيت نبعض ينظًاث اننًو انحشسيت عهي انربابت انًنزنيت, يسكا دويستيكا(ذاث انجناحيٍ –‬
                                               ‫يسيدي) .‬
                                                     ‫ص‬                       ‫س‬
       ‫و حًد ال يد خهيم - عباده أبو ذكسى ع ز- ياجدة يحًد أبو انًحاسٍ - شيًاء حسيٍ يحًود‬
                         ‫قسى عهى انحيواٌ - كهيت انعهوو - جايعت انًنوفيت‬
                                        ‫حى اخخباس اٜثاس انًٕسفٕنٕجٛت نًُظًاث انًُٕ انحششٚت انخانٛت:-‬
‫يثبطاث حكٍٕٚ انكٛخٍٛ (انبٛبشٔفٛضٍٚ (ابهٕٚذ ) ٔانٓٛكسافهٕيٛشٌٔ (كَٕسهج ) ٔانهٕٛفُٕٛسٌٔ (ياحش )‬
‫ٔانخٛبٕفُٕٛصٚذ(يًٛك) كًشابّٓ نٓشيٌٕ االَسالخ ٔانبٛشبشٔكسٛفٍٛ ( أديٛشال ) كًشابّ نٓشيٌٕ انحذاثت، ٔرنك‬
  ‫ػهٙ ٚشقاث ٔػزاسٖ ٔ انطٕس بانغ نهزبابت انًُضنٛت . ٔرنك ػٍ طشٚق حغزٚت انطٕس انٛشقٙ األٔل بخشكٛضاث‬
                                                 ‫يخخهفت يُٓا ْٔٗ 01-001-0001-0002 جضء يٍ انًهٌٕٛ.‬
‫ٔقذ حسبب انًًٛك فٙ ظٕٓس اكبش َسبت حشْٕاث فٙ انٛشقاث (ػذو اسخكًال االَسالخ أانخكشيش )، ًُٚا‬
‫حسبب انكَٕسهج فٙ إحذاد اكبش َسبت حشْٕاث فٙ ػزاس٘ انُاحجت (اسخطانخٓا أٔ ححٕنٓا انٗ شكم حشف ‪ C‬أٔ‬
 ‫ظٕٓس اخخُاقاث أٔ خهم فٗ انشكم أٔ ححٕنٓا انٗ شكم اسطٕاَٙ أٔ حذبب انطشف االيايٗ أ ػذو انقذسة ػهٗ‬
      ‫خشٔج انطٕس انكايم ), ٔ حسبب األديٛشال ٔ انًًٛك فٙ حذٔد اكبش َسبت يٍ انخشْٕاث فٙ انطٕس انبانغ‬
   ‫(صغش انحجى أٔ قٕط األسجم أٔ حكشيش أنجُحت أٔحقٕط انجسى ). ٔقذ اسحفؼج ْزِ أٜثاس يغ اسحفاع حشكٛض‬
‫ْزِ انًشكباث. ْزا باإلضافت إنٗ ظٕٓس أطٕاس ٔسطٛت بٍٛ انٛشقاث ٔ انؼزاسٖ , ٔكزنك أطٕاس بٍٛ انؼزاسٖ‬
                                                                                        ‫ٔاألطٕاس انبانغت.‬

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