Slide 1 - Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

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Slide 1 - Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Powered By Docstoc
                                      Dr. Douglass Post
                   Chief Scientist, DoD High Performance
                    Computing Modernization Program
                   Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
                               March 24, 2010
CREATE Overview        DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
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                         Problem: DoD Weapon Systems
                         Design Process Is Not Effective
                                                                                    Increased Tail
   Tailfin design problems for:
                                                                                    Fin Area
          –        F-100, F-102, F-105, F-7U, F-11F, F-16, F-117
          –        All needed to increase tail fin size between 25% to
                   50% after initial design

   For stealth, DDG-1000 was built with a new                                           F-117
    hullform that sloped in rather than out as do
    all prior hullforms, but “Is New U.S. Destroyer
    Unstable?” Defense News Headline-04/02/07

   Lessons Learned:
          –        Can’t base radically new designs on “rules of
                   thumb” empirically based scaling of historical
          –        Physics-based design tools required for new
                   concepts                                                                      DDG-1000

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                      Next Generation Computers
                    Unparalleled Power for Problems
                                                                                                  Computing Power For The World's Fastest

                                                                       Performance (GFLOPs/sec)
 Next generation computers (2020) will
  enable us to develop and deploy codes                                                               Floating Point Operations/sec
  that are much more powerful than
  present tools:                                                                                   108

      –       Utilize accurate solution methods                                                    106
      –       Include all the effects we know to be

      –       Model a complete system                                                             100

      –       Complete parameter surveys in hours                                                    1
              rather than days to weeks to months
 In ~ 10 years, workstations will be as
  powerful as today’s supercomputers                                               0.0001
 Greatest opportunities for 2020 (and                                                            10-6
                                                                                                     1940   1950   1960   1970   1980   1990   2000   2010   2020
  2010) include large-scale codes that                                                                                       Year
  integrate many multi-scale effects to                                                                             Moore’s “Law”
  model a complete system

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                    A Paradigm Shift in Engineering Is
               Past :
                   – Repeated DesignBuildTest Cycles

               Present:
                   – Occasionally Augment Past with Limited Single-Physics
                     Analysis with Research Codes on Laptops

               Future:
                   – Design Through Analysis, Multi-Physics Design and Analysis
                     with Supercomputer Power
                   – Repeated CADMeshAnalyze Cycles followed by a few
                     DesignBuildTest Cycles

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                       Present Systems Engineering
                   Iterated DesignBuildTest Cycles

    Requirements                Design           Build             Test
                                            Physical Product Physical Product
                                              (Many) Design                F-22 Flight Test

         •         Requires many lengthy and expensive design/build/test
                   iteration loops
         •         Process converges slowly, if at all
         •         Design flaws discovered late in process
         •          Long time to market
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                      Modern Systems Engineering:
                   Computational Design Through Analysis

                         Design and
                                              Analyze and Test Build and Test
Requirements             mesh Virtual
                                              Virtual Product  Physical Product   Market
• Reduced time to                     Design
  market from 3 years
  to 9 months                       iterations
• Increased new
  products delivery
  from 1 every 3 years
  to 5 per year
• Saved the company

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                   Physics-based Engineering Software
                      Helped The US Win Cold War.
                           Testing       Computer Power                Computational   Weapon Capability
• Nuclear weapons                                                      Design
  are complex,
                                             1,000,000                2010
  expensive, and                             GigaFlops/s                                 Improved safety
  hard to test                                                                         Improved robustness
   • ~ 5 to 10 tests             NIF
                                                                                          Improved yield
     per system                                                                           to weight
• DOE NNSA uses                                                 Increasing                 MIRV
  computational            Test ban                             Computational Design       (even lighter,
  tools for:                                                    Capability                 smaller)

   • Design                                              Improvements over time:
     development,                                                                  (even lighter,
                                                         • Solution methods
     optimization, &                                     • Spatial resolution
                                                         • Temporal resolution ICBM
     analysis.                                                                   (Lighter,smaller)
                                                         • Geometric fidelity
• DOE NNSA labs                                               •1-D to 2-D to 3-D     Heavy
  own the biggest                                        • Physics models            Hydrogen
  supercomputers                             0.000000001 • …….                       Bombs
                          Air Tests          GigaFlops/s    1945                  Atomic Bombs

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                                It Takes a Village!

           Sponsors  Provide mission, resources and support
                   − Designers—End-users
                      Engineers to use the tools to design products
                   − Codes
                      Takes a good team ~ 10 years and ~ $100M to develop a
                       complex code
                   − V&V
                      Dedicated experiments and tests
                   − Computers
                      Capability to develop codes and run the problems quickly
                     and conveniently

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                   Developing These Codes Takes A
                      Large Team A Long Time


                    From: D. Post, R. Kendall and E. Whitney, “Case Study of the Falcon Code Project”,
                       Proceedings of the Workshop on Software Engineering for High Performance Computing,
                       International Conference on Software Engineering, May 15, 2005, St. Louis, Missouri.
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                    Development of Science-Based Software is Complex!

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                    Development of Science-Based Software is Risky!

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                       CREATE Program Concept

     Name: Computational Research and Engineering
      Acquisition Tools and Environments (CREATE)
     Enable major improvements in the acquisition process
            – Inject physics-based predictions early within the design and analysis
            – Develop and deploy production quality design and analysis software
              that is adaptable and maintainable
            – Develop and deploy Computational Based Engineering (CBE) tools
              that exploit next generation computer resources
     CREATE has a planned 12-year, $360M scope
     CREATE focus: Enabling aircraft, ship and RF antenna
      computational engineering design and analysis

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                    CREATE: A DoD Program to Enhance
                          Acquisition Capability
      • Enable major improvements in DoD acquisition engineering design and
        analysis processes by developing and deploying scalable physics-based
        computational engineering software products.

      Long-term objectives include:
      • Reduce reliance on empirical design with physics-based computational
        design validated with experimental testing.
      • Detect and fix design flaws early in the design process before major
        schedule and budget commitments are made.
      • Increase the scope of designs (the design space) for new concepts.
      • Promote system integration earlier in the acquisition process.
      • Increase acquisition program flexibility and agility to respond to rapidly
        changing requirements.
      • Enhance the productivity of the DoD acquisition engineering workforce.
      • Promote the establishment of an organic capability within the DoD to
        develop and deploy physics-based computational engineering software.
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                                         CREATE Projects

   From rapid early stage design to full life cycle
   Air Vehicles (AV)                                                                            F-35

          – Aerodynamics, structural mechanics, propulsion, control, …
   Ships
                                                                                                  FY03 OPNAV Sponsored
                                                                                                  Design concept
          –         Shock vulnerability, hydrodynamics, seakeeping, seaway loads, …               Cruiser Concept

   RF Antennas
          –         RF Antenna electromagnetics and integration with platforms
                                                                                                  Seakeeping and
   Mesh and Geometry (MG) generation                                                               resistance

                                                                                                   Shock vulnerability

                                                              Military platforms with antennas
   Aircraft and aircraft carrier meshes
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                     CREATE is a Multi-Institutional and
                         Multi-Service Program
                                 AV             Ships RF                              MG    HPCMP

                                 U of Wy                                     U of
                                                               U of          Mich     Penn
                                                              Iowa                    State CERDEC
                           ETI                                                 ASC             Pax River
                    AMES                                                       AFRL
                                                                               AEDC           Carderock
                     SPAWAR     SNL
                              AFRL SNL                                                         NAVSEA
                                 SNL                                                         Indian Head
                                                                          46th Test              ONR
                                                                          Wing                   NRL

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                                        HPCMP Executing Agent
                                                                                                Official HPCMP
                                          HPCMP Director                                        Advisory Panel
                                              CREATE Program

        Ships Project       Air Vehicles Project
           NSWC-                                                          RF Antennas Project                     Mesh &
                           NAVAIR, Patuxent River
         Carderock                                                           AFRL, WPAFB                         Geometry
                                   Kestrel                                      Requirements                       NRL
         Hydrodynamics            Eglin AFB                                     AFRL WPAFB
          Carderock,             Shadow-Ops
       Integrated Hydro        NAVAIR, Patuxent
                                                                                 AFRL KAFB
      Design Environment            River
      NSWC-Carderock               Helios
                                 Army, Ames                                       SENTRI
         Navy Enhanced                                                          AFRL WPAFB
        Sierra Mechanics
                                 ASC & AFRL
           Rapid Design
           NAVSEA 05D              Firebolt
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                           CREATE-AV Product Development
                                  and Deployment
                                      DaVinci targets early-phase acquisition engineering
                                      (conceptual design)

                                      Kestrel is a high-fidelity, full-vehicle, multi-physics
                                      analysis tool for arbitrary fixed-wing aircraft

                                      Helios is a high-fidelity, full-vehicle, multi-physics
              Helios                  analysis tool for arbitrary rotary-wing aircraft

                                      Firebolt is a module for propulsion systems in
                                      fixed and rotary-wing air vehicles.
       Fire bolt
                                      Module includes engineering models of propulsion
       A CREATE-AV Software Product
                                      systems suitable for conceptual studies and also
                                      high-fidelity, multi-physics simulation.
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                      CREATE-Ships Goal: Develop
                     Optimized Total Warship Designs
     Develop computational tools for:
     1. Rapid Design Capability and Design
        Synthesis                                                          OPNAV

                –   Rapid development, assessment, and                     Cruiser

                    integration of candidate ship designs to
                    avoid cost versus capability mismatches
     2. Ship Hydrodynamics
                –   Accelerate and improve all stages of ship
                    hydrodynamic design
     3. Ship Shock & Damage
                –   Provide analysis of shock and damage
                    effects and reduce need for tests to
                    assess ship shock and damage effects
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                           Typical Definition and Evaluation
                          Processes Through Contract Design
   Geometry Definition                      Selection of Other Ship Design Analyses
      Hullform Design                         Airflow Analysis                                From D. Billingsley
      Compartmentation and Arrangements       Combat Systems Engineering                       – former NAVSEA
      Structural Definition                   Communications Systems Analysis
                                                                                               lead for design
      Location of Key Components              Control Systems Engineering
      Routing of Key Distribution Systems     Deck Systems Engineering
                                                                                               tools, and
   Hydrodynamics                              Deckhouse Systems Engineering                   From H. Fireman
        Resistance and Powering Analysis      Electromagnetic Engineering
        Seakeeping and Loads Analysis         Hull Girder Ultimate Strength Analysis
                                                                                               presentation to
        Maneuvering Analysis                  Fluid Systems Engineering                        CREATE, 6 Apr 2007
        Dynamic Stability Analysis            FEA Structural Analysis
        Damage Stability Analysis             Manning Analysis
                                                                                              Hydrodynamics and
        Propulsor Performance Analysis        Power Systems Analysis                           Survivability
  Survivability                               Propulsion Systems Analysis
   Susceptibility                             RM&A Analysis
                                                                                              Plus rapid design
      Acoustic Signature Analysis             Steering and Maneuvering Controls                for everything
       Infrared Signature Analysis            Structural Cost and Producibility Assessment
       Magnetic Signature Analysis            Total Ship Cost Analysis
       Radar Cross Section Analysis           Underway Replenishment Analysis
   Vulnerability – UNDEX-Shock/Damage         Weapons Handling and Aircraft Support
   Recoverability                             Weight and Moment Analysis

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                          CREATE-RF Antenna Vision
                      Integrate RF Antennas with Platforms
                                                   Geometry Creation
                                                  Commercial CAD Tools

                                                       Mesh Generation

                                             Boundary Condition & Material
                                                SENTRI / Pre-Processing

                       First-Order Codes                                        High-Fidelity Codes
                           Waveguides,                                           Large Antennas,
                  Infinite Periodic Structures,                               Antennas on Platforms,
              Antenna Apertures in Ground Plane,                               Antenna Interference
                     Small Antenna Systems
                                                                              SENTRI / HPC
                    SENTRI / Workstation
                                                      Near Field Imaging
                                                   SENTRI / Post-Processing
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                                    CREATE-RF Antenna
                                      Design- SENTRI
    SENTRI – CREATE-RF’s Application Framework

                      All Antenna                                     Microwave               RCS
                         Types                                         Circuits

                      Apertures /      Phased Array                                                  High Power
                       Windows        Antennas / FSS                                                 Microwave

                         Pre-Processing             Post-Processing                   Optimization

                    SENTRI – Multiple Capabilities Under One Framework
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                    Mesh and Geometry Generation
                            (MG) Project
•        Problem Generation takes up to 90% of the calendar time
•        Every project needs geometry and mesh generation
•        Modeling and Geometry Project (MG)


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                    Meshing and Geometry Project 
                      Tools for AV, Ships and RF
                                        Product: CAPSTONE
             API and library components for core framework, geometry and mesh
             representations and algorithms, attribution modeling
             • APIs for writing external meshing and add new higher-level functionality
             • Access to Mesh Modification capability (refinement, coarsening, local-
             • Runtime access to geometry

             Provides geometry preparation and mesh generation
             • Support graphical user interface (GUI), command-line, and scripting
             interfaces for end-user
             • Provides traditional pre-processor capabilities for end-users
             • Specialized application plugins (e.g. mesh implant for Ships)

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                            CREATE is off to a good start!

   A very productive year for Ships, AV, RF Antennas and MG
   Five beta releases this year
          –         RF: Sentri 1.0; Ships: NESM 0.1, IHDE 1.0; AV: Kestrel 1.0, Helios 1.0
          –         Response from customer communities is very positive (over 100 beta testers),
                    emphasizes the need to develop ways to support our products

   MG project was firmly established at NRL (led by Saikat Dey), and a
    team established at NRL and at ETI in Utah
   New product teams were established for AV, Ships and MG
          –         AV: DaVinci and Firebolt; Ships: RDI; MG: Capstone

   Progress in stabilizing our financial system (we’re learning)
   Begun establishing our management and oversight processes and
   Begun identifying our technical and programmatic challenges and
    our R&D needs and developing strategies to meet them
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                        CREATE Software Engineering
                        is beginning to come together
       Software Engineering Practices and Processes
                   Goal is maintainable, extensible, portable and reliable
                    software products developed with the right balance of
                    agility and flexibility and short and long term planning
                    1. Requirements   Management and Stakeholder Engagement
                    2. Software Quality Attributes
                    3. Design and Implementation
                    4. Software Configuration Management
                    5. Verification and Validation of CREATE Products
                    6. Software Release
                    7. Customer Support
                   Documents: ICD +….
                    −      Manuals: Technical, Developer, User
                    −      Plans: Test (V&V), Risk, Project and Product Development (EVMS)
                   Many teams using agile development methods such as
                    SCRUM with success

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                               Incremental Development and
                              Deployment in Annual Releases

                                           Fielding Capability,…                                                            Rel 11

                                                                                                                   Rel 10
                                            ExaFLOP (1018 FLOPs) computers                                 Rel 9
                                                                                                   Rel 8

                                                                                           Rel 7

                            PetaFlop                                            Rel 6
                            (1015 FLOPs)
                            computers                                 Rel 5
                                                                                     Improve scalability,…
                                                           Rel 4
                                                   Rel 3
                                           Rel 2
                                                    Physics integration tests,…

                                   Rel 1
                                              Develop Initial Requirements and Plans

                             1                      4                                        8                              12
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                    AV: Kestrel 1.0—Fixed Wing Aircraft
Spiral One Phase One Capability
1 - Static Rigid Body Aircraft
     •Single Mesh
     •Steady, Unsteady
     •Inviscid, Viscous, Laminar, Turbulent
2 - Dynamic Rigid Body Aircraft
     •Single Mesh
     •Rigid Body Motion
     •Arbitrary Motion file built externally
     •Pitch, Yaw, Roll, Sinusoid or constant rate and hold in KUI
          • body axis and stability axis
3 - Flexible Wing
           •Static Position Single Mesh Aeroelastic
           •2nd Order Temporal Coupling
           •Structural Solver
                • Modal solver and mode shape forced motion
           •Algebraic Mesh Deform with 3-4 method choices
                    (Surface Influence, Delaunay, Hybrid )
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                         Kestrel Product adds capability every year!

                                                                            V3.0 meets TD
                                                                             exit criteria
                         Code capability
                                                                                                                                     10          11
                                                                                                                8           9


                                               2009           2011                2013                2015            2017                2019
                                           A                                B                                           C                    D

                    Solutions                                                                                                    Product          Operations and
                                               Technology Development                 Engineering Development
                     Analysis                                                                                                   Deployment           Support
                    1)   Arbitrary complete aircraft (rigid) for low-subsonic                    4)   Add capability to accommodate autopilot, dynamic
                         through high supersonic flight and steady or unsteady                        engineering models of fans, rotors, propellers, and
                         regimes.                                                                     significant physical accuracy upgrades.
                    2)   Add capability to accommodate movable control                            .
                         surfaces, aero-structure interaction (flexible aircraft),                .
                         and prescribed maneuvers.                                                .
                    3)   Add capability to simulate arbitrary multi-body                         11) Sustained Kestrel Product Capability. Full-vehicle,
                         relative motion (e.g., simulation of store separation                       multi-physics design analysis and mission planning
                         events subject to applied aerodynamic loads),                               tool – enables scalable practices and is highly
                         dynamic propulsion effects, and to accommodate                              parallel, modular, maintainable, extendable, and
                         flight control systems (FCS) .                                              introspective.

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                    Physics Integration Test Followed by
                     Development of Scalable Codes
                      Fly the Airplane on the computer
                                                                                                         1 to 3 years
                                        Time step / iteration loop

                                                           Air Frame
 Problem            Aerodynamics        Interface          Structural   Interface Aircraft                      Output
 Generation                             link                            link      Control                       Analysis
                      (Air Flow)                           Mechanics
                    airframe loads                      airframe response 2008-2009
                                                          Legacy CSM codes                  • Build light-weight software
                    Legacy CFD codes
                                                          NASTRAN                             infrastructure to integrate
                    Cobalt                                LS-Dyna
                    Overflow  101-3 GFLOPS                                                    legacy codes
                              102-3 Cores                 DyTran                        2010-2019
  5 – 10            ANSYS CFX…
                                                                                          • Develop new scalable
                                                          IDEAS …
  years                                                                                     codes (109 GFLOPs)
  Scalable CFD Codes                                  Scalable CSM Codes
  Government, Prime Contractors, ISVs                 Government, Prime Contractors, ISVs

                            109 GFLOPS And 109 Cores
                                                                                                      Separated Flow
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                                                                Kestrel                                                                CREATE-AV

                                                          Fixed Wing Virtual Aircraft                                                1100100

                                                                                                                              Additional Executables
                                                                                                                              ISVs, prime contractors,…
                                            Single Executable Modules

                              CFD             Fluid - Structure             Structural                Rigid - Grid
                            Solver                  Interface                  Solver                    Move

                       Mesh                        Mesh                          Integrated Force &                                  CFD
                                                                                Moment Calculator                                  Solvers
                    Adaptation               Deformer


                    Engine Thrust                  Aircraft                                                  On - the - Fly
                                                                       Autopilot               6DOF                                Autopilot
                         Model                       Trim                                                    Visualizer

                                 Store    - Release           Prescribed            Control Surface
                                     Constraints                Motion                   Deflection

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                    IHDE 1.0 – Ships: Integrated Hydro
                           Design Environment
• Four Use Cases: 1. Resistance, 2. Powering, 3. Maneuvering, 4. Seakeeping


Design Workflow

       Product Model Database

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                    SENTRI 1.0 – RF Antenna Design

       SENTRI 1.0  deliver initial capability, now in beta testing
       SENTRI 1.5  refactored SENTRI 1.0 to enhance software quality
       Strong V&V program (SENTRI 1.0 benchmarked against current
        CEM design codes & extensive verification and validation tests)
       SENTRI 2.0Begin improving scaling
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                          NESM 0.1 – Ship Shock
  •       NESM 12-year Product Development Plan & Requirements Based On Six (6)
          Use Cases
          – UC I => Ship Response To Standoff UNDEX Where Structure Remains
             Predominantly Elastic (minimal damage) (FSST)
          – UC II => Ship Response to UNDEX & SURFEX Causing Moderate Structural
          – UC III => Ship Response To UNDEX & SURFEX Causing Severe Structural
             Damage (including SURFEX)
          – UC IV => Ship Response To AIREX Causing Moderate Structural Damage
          – UC V => Ship Response To AIREX Causing Severe Structural Damage
          – UC VI => Ship Response To Unconventional Weapon Attacks
  •       NESM 0.1 in beta release, provides ~ 90% of the capability for UC I
  •       NESM 0.1
          – Benchmarked with existing tools and good agreement with validation data
  •       Teamed with Sandia (Sierra Mechanics) to achieve good scalability for

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                    AV: Helios 1.0 (Whitney)--Rotorcraft
   •       Helios v.1.0 (Whitney) Release Capabilities
              1.Fuselage aerodynamics
              2.Fuselage with actuator disk model for rotor
              3.Isolated rotor in ideal hover
              4.Isolated rotor in forward flight with structural
                dynamics and trim
              – Stand-alone-NSU3D & Helios models also

       Helios predicts AV-8B tail fatigue due to vortex shedding                  HELIOS

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                        FY2010 will see more progress!
               Nine beta releases planned for FY2010:
                    –   AV: Kestrel 2.0, Helios 2.0, Firebolt 1.0, DaVinci 1.0
                    –   RF: SENTRI 1.5 and 2.0
                    –   Ships: IDHE 2.0, NESM 1.0, RDI 1.0
                    –   MG: Capstone 1.0

              Motion toward Stability with respect to funding and
                management oversight
              Progress toward becoming a community
              Learn to cope with success:
                    Providing user support without disrupting code development

              Achieve legal goals: IP, Open source and distribution
                licenses, distribution to industry,…
              Outreach to acquisition community both at the leadership and
                working level
                    Capturing success stories and evidence, ROI
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                        The DoD Challenge  Four Types
                                of Complexity
               Complex physics
                    –   Integrating fluid dynamics with structural mechanics with controls with
                        propulsion with materials with electromagnetics with complex meshes with…..

               Complex computers and computer science and computational
                    –   Writing codes for computers that don’t exist yet  massively parallel computers
                        with heterogeneous processors, complex architectures
                    –   Adapting and inventing software project management and software engineering
                        practices for our environment, and identifying and implementing the complex
                        mathematical methods we require

               Complex Customer Community: DoD acquisition community
                    –   Changing the DoD acquisition engineering paradigm from design-build-test to
                        design through analysis

               Complex home organization: the DoD
                    –   Accomplishing this with a distributed multi-service, multi-institutional set of
                        teams to overcome the challenges in computer security, personnel systems,
                        financial systems, oversight, legal, leadership turnover, institutional turmoil, ….
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                         CREATE and similar programs
                        offer lessons learned for the FSP
           Good news is that FSP may have ~ $375M to develop
                    – Adequate resources to support code development

           Bad news is that FSP may have ~ $375M to develop
           DOE program managers will want to ensure that
            taxpayer dollars are well spent while:
                    – Balancing focus on project deliverables and research goals
                    – Balancing project discipline with sufficient flexibility and agility
                    – Ensuring good software engineering and software project management
                    – Achieving the technical goals with a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary,
                      non-collocated team of developers with a distributed development
                    – Balancing support for ITER with other domestic priorities

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                    Interactions between Ships and AV

               Dynamic Interface

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                    Interactions with Ships and RF

                      Our Topside Real Estate Reality

  Numerous antennas competing for limited space and coverage result in
  a complex electromagnetic environment (EME), presenting a challenge
   for effective topside integration and maintaining the topside baseline.
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