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					                                             Guide to „Scoring‟ the Learning Inventory Survey
The first category will tell you which of Howard Gardner‟s 8 intelligences is the strongest for you. The four questions have responses that go in the
same order for them all. For example, if a student has more “d” answers, that student has a bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.

                                                   Descriptions of Each of the 8 Intelligences
a. Linguistic Intelligence -- the gift of words.
- Linguistically intelligent people best understand the world through the spoken and written word.
- Characteristics
They enjoy reading and writing, use expressive language, get pleasure from puns riddles and word games, are interested in foreign languages, memorize easily
and take notes in class.
- How?
They entertain, teach, argue and persuade effectively through the spoken word. They are trivia masters, voracious readers, clear writers and masters of
comprehension of all things word-oriented.
- Who are they? Journalists, poets, lawyers, storytellers... Shakespeare, Maya Angelou, Amy Tan...

b. Visual/Spatial Intelligence -- the gift of pictures
- Visually intelligent people best understand the world through visualization and spatial orientation.
- Characteristics
They enjoy taking things apart and putting them back together and playing with three-dimensional puzzles. They recall memories through visual images, and
understand maps and blueprints easily.
- How?
They identify, modify and transform different aspects of the visual-spatial world. They have an extreme sensitivity to visual details and see images vividly, draw or
sketch their ideas graphically, and can orient themselves easily in a three-dimensional world.
- Who are they? Architects, photographers, artists, pilots, mechanical engineers... Ansel Adams, Amelia Earhart, Frieda Kahlo...

c. Musical -- The gift of music
- Musically intelligent people best understand the world through rhythm and
- Characteristics
They notice patterns quickly, easily move to a beat, enjoy different types of music. They hum and mimic music, sing or play an instrument, have difficulty
concentrating when surrounded by music, and they enjoy the rhythm of poetry.
- How?
They perceive, appreciate and create rhythms and melodies. They have a good ear, can sing in tune, keep time to music, and can easily differentiate different
musical selections.
- Who are they? Composers, lyricists, pianists, rock stars... Mozart, Elton John, Billie Holiday...

d. Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence -- the gift of body
- Physically intelligent people best understand the world through physicality.
- Characteristics
They enjoy physical movement and tactile experiences. They believe animals and the physical environment are important. They enjoy studying biology and
ecological issues. They write letters and numbers well, and like to choreograph and design new games.
- How?
They can easily control their body movements and skillfully handle objects. They are sewers, chefs, carpenters, and model-builders. They like to jog, camp, swim,
ski, dance, and so on. They're hands-on people who have good touch sensitivity, need to keep moving, and get "gut reactions" to things.
- Who are they? Athletes, craftspeople, mechanics, surgeons... Michael Jordan, Bob Vila, Michele Kwan...

e. Logical/Mathematical -- the gift of logic and numbers
- Mathematically and Logically intelligent people best understand the world through cause and effect.
- Characteristics
They like things to be orderly and neat and can get frustrated with unorganized people. They follow step-by-step instructions, and collect and use information to
solve problems. They can often perform calculations quickly in their heads. They enjoy games and puzzles involving reasoning.
- How?
They have a keen ability to reason, order, think in terms of cause-and-effect, create hypotheses, look for regularities or patterns, and enjoy a general rational
outlook on life.
- Who are they? Scientists, accountants, computer programmers... Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Isaac Newton...

f. Interpersonal Intelligence -- the gift of people
- Socially intelligent people best understand the world through the eyes of others.
- Characteristics
They learn by and enjoy interacting with others. They compromise, negotiate, and empathize with others. They exhibit leadership skills and participate in politics.
They are involved in extracurricular activities and like being a "team player."
- How?
They are perceptive and responsive to the moods, dispositions, intentions and needs of others. They can "get under your skin" to view the world from your eyes.
Who are they?
Teachers, social directors, administrators, highly effective leaders... Mahatma Gandhi, Cesar Chavez, Jaime Escalante...

g. Intrapersonal -- the gift of self
- Intrapersonally intelligent people best understand the world from their unique point of view.
- Characteristics
They are keenly aware of their own beliefs, feelings and motivations. They enjoy working on their own, and are generally successful at self-motivating. They like to
know why they are doing something. They can accurately assess their own skills and weaknesses and they take challenges.

- How?
They can easily access their own feelings and can differentiate between many different kinds of inner emotional states. They are self-understanding, introspective,
contemplative, independent, self-driven, and self-disciplined.
- Who are they? Counselors, theologians, entrepreneurs... Sigmund Freud, Jesse Jackson, Bill Gates...

h. Naturalist Intelligence -- the gift of nature
- Environmentally intelligent people best understand the world through their own environment.
- Characteristics
They enjoy working and being outdoors. They like to classify items into hierarchies. They believe that nature, ecological issues and animals are important.
- How?
They can easily understand and remember different species in their environment. They often have a "green thumb." If raised in an urban environment, they may
apply their skill in remembering and classifying objects in their "natural" surroundings such as cars, sports shoes or album covers. Who are they? Naturalists,
farmers, environmentalists... Charles Darwin, Jane Goodall, John Muir...
The second category will tell you if you are more visual, auditory, or tactile in their learning style. See which letter has more answers to see the
strongest style: “a”= visual, “b” = auditory, and “c” = tactile.

                                                       Description of Learning Styles:
a. Visual Learners: learn through seeing...            .
These learners need to see the teacher's body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. They tend to prefer sitting at
the front of the classroom to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. people's heads). They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including:
diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs. During a lecture or classroom discussion, visual learners
often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.

b. Auditory Learners: learn through listening...
They learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the
underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Written information may have little meaning until it
is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder.

c. Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners: learn through , moving, doing and touching...
Tactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit
still for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration.
The third category determines right or left brain thinking style. For every “a” answer is worth 1 point. See score scale below:

0-4 Strong left brain
5-8 Moderate left brain
9-12 Bi-lateral
13-15 Moderate right brain
16-21 Strong right brain

Right-Brain vs. Left-Brain Characteristics:

Left Hemisphere Style                                                Right Hemisphere Style
Rational                                                             Intuitive

      Responds to verbal instructions                                          Responds to demonstrated instructions
      Problem solves by logically and sequentially looking at the              Problem solves with hunches, looking for patterns and configurations
       parts of things                                                          Looks at similarities
      Looks at differences                                                     Is fluid and spontaneous
      Is planned and structured                                                Prefers elusive, uncertain information
      Prefers established, certain information                                 Prefers drawing and manipulating objects
      Prefers talking and writing                                              Prefers open ended questions
      Prefers multiple choice tests                                            Free with feelings
      Controls feelings                                                        Prefers collegial authority structures
      Prefers ranked authority structures

Sequential                                                           Simultaneous

      Is a splitter: distinction important                                     Is a “lumper”: connectedness important
      Is logical, sees cause and effect                                        Is analogical, sees correspondences, resemblances

Draws on previously accumulated, organized information               Draws on unbounded qualitative patterns that are not organized into sequences, but that
                                                                     cluster around images
The fourth category classifies students into one of four colors which are supposed to represent temperament. See which letter has the most answers:
“a” = Orange, “b” = Gold, “c” = Blue, & “d” = Green.

Orange represents energy,                   Gold is the body's natural perceptions.     Blue represents calm. Contemplation        Green expresses itself psychologically
consuming physiological potency,            It represents a need to be responsible,     of this color pacifies the central         as human will in operation: as
power, and strength. Orange is the          to fulfill duties and obligations, to       nervous system. It creates                 persistence and determination. Green
expression of vital force, of nervous       organize and structure our life and that    physiological tranquility and              is an expression of firmness and
and glandular activity. Thus, it has the    of others. Those with Gold as a             psychological contentment. Those with      consistency. Its strength can lead to a
meaning of desire and all forms of          Primary Color value being practical         Blue as a Primary Color value balance      resistance to change if it is not proven
appetite and craving. Those with            and sensible. They believe that people      and harmony. They prefer lives free        that the change will work or is
Orange as a Primary Color feel the will     should earn their way in life through       from tension... settled, united, and       warranted. Those with Green as a
to achieve results, to win, to be           work and service to others.                 secure.                                    Primary Color value their intellect and
successful. They desire all things that                                                                                            capabilities above all else. Comfort in
offer intense living and full experience.   Gold reflects a need to belong through      Blue represents loyalty and a sense of     these areas creates a sense of
                                            carrying a share of the load in all         belonging, and yet, when friends are       personal security and self-esteem.
Orange generates an impulse toward          areas of living. It represents stability,   involved, a vulnerability. Blue
active doing: sport, struggle,              maintenance of the culture and the          corresponds to depth in feeling and a      Green characteristics seek to increase
competition and enterprising                organization, efficiency, and               relaxed sensitivity. It is characterized   the certainty of their own values
productivity. In temporal terms,            dependability. It embraces the              by empathy, aesthetic experiences,         through being assertive and requiring
Orange is the present.                      concepts of home and family with            and reflective awareness.                  differences from others in intellectual
                                            fierce loyalty and faithfulness.                                                       areas. They are rarely settled in their
                                                                                                                                   countenance, since they depend upon
                                                                                                                                   information rather than feelings to
                                                                                                                                   create a sense of well-being. Green
                                                                                                                                   expresses the grounding of theory and
                                                                                                                                   data in its practical applications and
                                                                                                                                   creative constructs.

Teachers, take the Learning Inventory and see which “true color” you are, then study the table below to see how each “color” student is supposed to
interact with you!
                                  Blue Student                                                                         Green Student

Blue Student -- Orange Teacher: This combination can work well if the                  Green Student -- Orange Teacher: The Green student responds well to the
Orange teacher allows the Blue student to be creative and show personal                classroom atmosphere of the Orange teacher if attracted to the subject matter
concern. The Blue student appreciates the good sense of humor of the                   and if allowed to express and discuss personal ideas. The Green student is
Orange teacher. The student may have difficulty making quick decisions and             creative and enjoys discovering new ways of solving problems. Unlike the
could become bogged down before completing a task. Although the Blue                   Orange teacher, the Green student values ideas and concepts above
student values communication and social interaction, the Orange teacher’s              immediate action and wants to inquire about the principles before each task.
direct mode of criticism and comments may not be appreciated.
                                                                                       Green Student -- Gold Teacher: This combination works only if the Green
Blue Student -- Gold Teacher: The Blue student adheres to the rules of the             student is sufficiently interested in the subject matter and given some freedom
Gold teacher as long as they seem fair and there is personal consideration and         to explore ideas and concepts beyond the requirements of the class. Unlike
compassion given to the student. The Blue student will co-operate, particularly        the Gold teacher, the Green student can be oblivious to rules and regulation.
if it is felt the Gold teacher likes and cares for the individuality of the student.   It will be difficult to gain the Green student co-operation without a perception
Unlike the Gold teacher, the Blue student tends to be emotional and to allow           that rules are logical and necessary.
feelings to interfere with academic work. This student’s need to socialize may
also be viewed as highly disruptive by the Gold teacher.                        Green Student -- Green Teacher: The Green student will likely maintain the
                                                                                greatest rapport an co-operation with Green teachers. The student
Blue Student -- Green Teacher: The Blue student responds well to the            appreciates the stimulating and creative environment provided by the Green
classroom atmosphere of the Green teacher, as long as it is personally relevant teacher and enjoys discussing ideas investigating relationships between
and stimulating to a creative imagination. The Blue student is motivated to     principles, and discovering new ways of solving problems - especially in
perform in an effort to please the teacher, rather than to demonstrate          conjunction with the Green teacher.
intellectual mastery of a concept. Unlike the Green teacher, this student tends
to value feelings and interpersonal communication above ideas and concepts.     Green Student -- Blue Teacher: The Green student responds well to the
Some potential for friction exists due to this difference in values.            classroom atmosphere of the Blue teacher, as long as the student’s interest in
                                                                                the subject matter and curiosity is continually reinforced. Unlike the Blue
Blue Student -- Blue Teacher: The Blue student will likely maintain the         teacher, the Green student is less concerned with the feelings of others and
greatest rapport and co-operation with the Blue teacher. The Blue student       will tend to express opinions regardless of how they may affect the feelings of
appreciates the fairness, sensitivity, and personal concern expressed by the    others.
Blue teacher. The atmosphere of imaginative creativity and social interaction
provided by the Blue teacher is highly appealing to the blue student.

                                 Orange Student                                                                        Gold Student

Orange Student -- Orange Teacher: A good match with the Orange student.                Gold Student -- Orange Teacher: This combination can be somewhat
The student is likely to maintain the greatest rapport with an Orange teacher.         problematic. The Gold student prefers organized, structured, and predictable
The student appreciates the atmosphere of freedom and spontaneity in his/her           routines, while the Orange teacher tends to prefer an atmosphere of
teacher’s classroom and responds favorably to the hands-on approach to                 spontaneity and excitement. The Gold student may often complain that tasks
learning; both teacher and student enjoy games and competition and are                 are never completed and that he/she did not learn much of anything in the
tireless in their efforts to complete any job at hand.                                 Orange teachers classroom. The Gold student strives for perfection and
                                                                                       enjoys being validated for neat and accurate work.
Orange Student -- Gold Teacher: The Gold teacher’s demands for order,
organization, and appropriate behavior in the classroom do not conform well            Gold Student -- Gold Teacher: This is a suitable match. The Gold student is
with the Orange student’s need for spontaneity, fun and quick action. The Gold    likely to maintain the greatest rapport and co-operation with the Gold teacher.
teacher emphasizes rules and facts as well as neatness and structure. The         The student appreciates the structure, organization, and rules that the Gold
Orange student may react with various degrees of rebellion and hostility when     teacher emphasizes. The Gold student responds well to this teacher’s style
confronted with a Gold classroom atmosphere.                                      of presenting material which is based on logical procedures and clearly
                                                                                  defined factual information.
Orange Student -- Green Teacher: The Green teacher is often capable of
creating an atmosphere of independence and freedom of thought and action in       Gold Student -- Green Teacher: The Green teacher may not always meet
his/her classroom. This climate allows the Orange student to express his/her      the needs of the Gold student for clear and concise rules and regulations.
needs and possibly to establish methods for learning in his/her own style. The    The independent thinking, originality, and mental creativity so valued by this
Green teacher can also be perceived as too theoretical by the Orange student.     Green teacher will not be highly appreciated by the Gold student. The Gold
This can create the impression that the teacher is out of touch and               student may experience anxiety and difficulty related to grasping conceptual
unconcerned with the here and now.                                                matter if it is not explained and demonstrated in concrete ways.

Orange Student -- Blue Teacher: The Blue Teacher can have some empathy            Gold Student -- Blue Teacher: The Gold student responds well to the Blue
for the Orange student’s needs, and this teacher’s good sense of humour is        teacher’s classroom atmosphere if a regular and predictable schedule is
protection from reacting too harshly to the Orange student’s demands for fun      maintained. The Gold student requires rules and facts, as well as organized,
and entertainment. The Orange student may require more hands-on activities,       accurate, and logical procedures. The Gold student may differ from the Blue
games, and competition than are normally scheduled in the lesson plans of the     teacher in expression of or response to very deep emotions. Although the
Blue teacher.                                                                     Gold student follows rules and accomplishes well-structured work, the
                                                                                  creativity valued by the Blue teacher may rarely be exhibited.

The fifth category is will help you determine Gregorc Learning Style a.k.a. “personal thinking style”. Add up the totals for each letter. The letter with the
highest total gives you their predominant style: “a” = Concrete-Sequential, “b” = Abstract-Sequential, “c” = Abstract-Random, and “d” = Concrete-
Concrete Sequential Learner
These learners prefer direct, hands-on activities, haptic (tactile) methods, step-by-step instructions, and real life examples.
Instructional methods: workbooks with detailed instructions, diagrams, flowcharts, computer-assisted instruction, documentation, and hands-on activities.

Concrete Random Learner
These learners prefer a trial-and-error approach, with breakthroughs through intuitive insight. They like a stimulus rich environment. They thrive on competition,
especially if they can use their wits. These learners rarely accept anything on outside authority. They are implementators of change and tend to be impulsive. They
don't like to read directions and dislike structure.
Instructional methods: independent study, computer games and simulations, multimedia, and "playing" with software.

Abstract Sequential Learner
These learners prefer a highly verbal, logical and analytical approach based on intellect. Their motto is "knowledge is power." They like solitude, prefer well-
organized material, and are highly skeptical. They have trouble picking up subtle nonverbal cues and dislike distractions. They will accept change only after much
deliberation. They like written, verbal, and visual instruction.
Instructional methods: lectures, reading, outlines, conducting Internet searches, email, listservs, and audiotapes. Abstract sequential learners may enjoy searching
the Internet for information as well as asynchronous communication because they have time to think about their responses.
Abstract Random Learner
These learners like to focus on relationships and their emotions. They respond to visual methods of instruction, group discussion, and time for reflection. They may
be uncomfortable with distance education because it does not include the emotional involvement of meeting face to face, unless the instructor is careful to build
rapport as part of the learning experience. They enjoy evaluating personal experiences.
Instructional methods: video clips, group discussion, videoconferencing, television, case studies, chatrooms, and guest speakers.
One study found that students with an abstract-random style did poorly on computer-assisted instruction, which is characterized by self-paced learning. Students
with a sequential style did better. The researchers concluded that computer-mediated learning may be difficult for some students. (See Ross, J. & Schulz, R.
[1999]. Can computer-aided instruction accommodate all learners equally? British Journal of Educational Technology, 30 [10], p. 5-24.)

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