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Language development

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									         Language development

 Theories of  language acquisition
 a. Behaviorism
 b. Social cognitive theory
 c. Nativist theory
 d. Sociocultural theory
 Stages of language development (acquisition)
 I. Early language: building the foundation
 II. Fine-tuning language
 III. Increasing language complexity
      Theories of language acquisition
    Behaviorism & social cognitive theory
 a. Behaviorism
 Children are reinforced for demonstrating
  sounds and words; i.e. "good boy!", These
  words reinforce the child's efforts, and, over
  time, language develops (emphasizes the role
  of reinforcement, reward).
 b. Social cognitive theory
 It emphasizes the role of modeling; the child's
  imitation of adult speech, adult reinforcement,
  and corrective feedback.
 Children probably do learn certain aspects of
  language by observing and listening to others,
  trying it out themselves, and being reinforced
        Theories of language acquisition
               c. Nativist theory
   It assumes that all humans are genetically
    'wired' to learn language and that exposure to
    language triggers this development

   The language acquisition device (LAD) is a
    genetic set of language-processing skills that
    enables children to understand and use the rules
    governing speech (grammatical rules such as the
    subject after a verb when asking a question).

   However, language is the result of interaction
    between inborn disposition and environment
   Theories of language acquisition
        d. Sociocultural theory
 Children  learn language by practicing it
  in their day-to-day interaction with
  adults (parents, teachers, etc.) and
  peers.
 Language development appears
  effortless because it is embedded
  (inserted) in everyday activities
  involving the process of communication.
       Stages of language development
                 (acquisition)

 I. Early language: building the
  foundation
 II. Fine-tuning language
 III. Increasing language complexity
     I. Early language: building the
                foundation
   Learning to speak begins in the cradle (cot or
    bed) when adults encourage the infant's
    gurgling and cooing through saying "Ooh" and
    "such a smart baby".
   The first words spoken between ages 1 and 2
    are holophrases, one-and-two words
    utterances that carry as much meaning for the
    child as compete sentences. Examples:
   "Momma car"         That's Momma's car
   "Banana"                  I want a banana
   "No go"             Don't leave me alone with
                        this scary baby sitter
    I. Early language: building the foundation
   The child also uses intonation to convey
    meaning. Example:
   "Cookie."        That's a cookie
   "Cookie!"        I want a cookie
   The child uses two patterns that continue
    through other stages. These are:
   Generalization: occurs when a child uses a word
    to refer to a broader class of objects than is
    appropriate (using the word car to refer to
    buses, trucks and trains)
   Undergeneralization: occurs when a child uses a
    word too narrowly (using kitty for specific cat
         II. Fine-tuning language

 During   the "twos', children expand and
  fine-tune their initial speech such as using
  grammar:
 I eating
 He looked
 She does it
III. Increasing language complexity
 At age 3, a child learns to use sentences
  more strategically.
 Subjects and verbs are reversed to form
  questions (did he hit him?)
 Positive statements are modified to form
  negative statements (he didn't hit him.)
 By the age of 6 the child is able to use
  more complex sentences which reflect
  that the child is developing
  understanding of cause and effect
  relationships

								
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