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Antibiotics by alicejenny

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									Antibiotics
   Ch 37
        Definition

   Medications to treat bacterial infections

   Ideally, culture of suspect area should be
    done BEFORE starting antibiotic
     Classifications

 Sulfonamides
 Penicillins
 Cephalosporins
 Tetracyclines
 Macrolides
 Aminoglycosides
 Quinolones
      Uses

 Treatment of exisiting infection
 Prevention of infection
      Responses

 Therapeutic – decrease in s/s of infection
 Subtherapeutic – s/s of infection do not
  improve
 Superinfection
 Antibiotic resistance
 Allergic reactions
      Actions

 Bactericidal = kill bacteria
 Bacteriostatic – slow or interfere with growth
  of bacteria
          Sulfonamides

 Bacteriostatic
 Treat: utis
 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
 URIs
 Otitis media
 Often in combinatiion
       Bactrim, Septra, Pediazole, Gantrisin
        Sulfonamide Side Effects

 Anemia, thrombocytopenia
 Photosensitivity
     Avoid tanning beds
     Avoid sunlight

 N-V-D
 uriticaria
        Penicillins

   Natural
     Penicilllin G
     Penicillin V

   Aminopenicillins
     Amoxicillin
     Ampicillin

   Penicillinase-resistant
     Oxacillin
     Nafcillin
          PCN Adverse Effects

   Allergy
       Rash, swelling, itching
      Cephalosporins

 Semisynthetic
 Related to penicillin
 Bactericidal
 4 generations
      Cephalosporin Uses

 Surgical prophylaxis
 URIs
 Otitis media
      Cephalosporin Examples

 Ancef
 Kefzol
 Mefoxin
 Ceftin
 Rocephin – also used to tx meningitis
        Cephalosporin Side Effects

   Similar to PCN
     Macrolides

 Erythromycin
 Zithromax
 Biaxin
     Macrolide Uses

 Strep infections
 Mild-to-moderate URIs
 Lyme disease
 STDs
         Macrolide Side Effects

   GI
     N-V-D
     Hepatotoxicity
     Flatulence
     anorexia
        Tetracyclines

 Tetracycline
 Vibramycin
 Minocycline




   Bacteriostatic action
      Tetracycline Uses

 Syphilis
 Lyme disease
 Pleural & pericardial effusions
        Tetracyclines

   Effectiveness reduced by
     Dairy products
     Antacids
     Iron

 Will discolor teeth
 May slow fetal skeletal development
     Tetracycline Side Effects

 N-V-D
 Superinfection
 Pseudomembranous colitis
     Aminoglycosides

 Gentamicin
 Kanamycin
 Neomycin
 Streptomycin
 amikin
        Aminoglycosides

 Poor oral absorption
 No oral forms, only IV
 TOXICITY cautions
     Nephro
     oto




   Bactericidal action
        Aminoglycosides

 Pseudomonas
 E.coli
 Klebsiella


   Often used along with other antibiotics
     Quinolones

 Cipro
 Floxin
 Levaquin
 Tequin
        Quinolones

 Excellent oral absorption
 Antacids interfere with absorption




   bactericidal
      Quinolones

 Lower respiratory tract infections
 Bone & joint infections
 Infectious diarrhea
 UTIs
 Skin infections
 STDs
 Anthrax
      Quinolone Side Effects

 HA
 N-V-D
 Allergic reaction
        Others

   Vancomycin
     Tx of MRSA
     Must monitor blood levels
     Caution: oto & nephro-toxic
      Nursing

 Instruct pt to take meds for full length of time
  – do not stop when feeling better
 Assess for s/s of superinfection
 All oral antibiotics are better absorbed if
  taken with a minimum of 6 – 8 ounces of
  water

								
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