Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

LIFE CYCLE DUHS by alicejenny

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 7

									 GIARDIA,CRYPTOSPORIDIUM,
  TRICHOMANAS VAGINALIS
 LEARNING OBJECTIVE
 At te end of lecture stdents should be able to know,
 Morphology of giarda lambdia,
 Life cycle of giarga lambdia.
 Morphology of cryptosporidium.
 Life cycle of cryptosporidium.
 Trichonomas vaginalis.

  GIARDIA LAMBLIA GARDIA INTESTINALIS
 One of the earliest protozoan flagellate parasite was first
  discovered by Leeuwenhoek
 in 1681 while examining his own stool.
 It was named Giardia after Prof. Giard of Paris lamblia after
  Prof. Lambl Prague who gave a detailed description of the
  parasite.
 It is the most common intestinal pathogen. Infection may
  be asympto- matic or cause diarrhoea
 MORPHOLOGY AND LIFE CYCLE




 The only protozoan parasite found in duodenum and upper
  Jejunum.
 Exists in the vegetative (trophozoite) and cystic forms.
 TROPHOZOITE : When viewed flat, the shape of the
  trophozoite is looked like that of a tennis or badminton
  racket.
 It is rouded anteriorly and pointed posteriorly, about 15 um
  long, 9 um wide and 4 um thick.
 It has been described variously as pyriform, heart shaped
  or racket shaped.
 Dorsally it is convex and ventrally it has a concave sucking
  disc which occupies almost the entire anterior half of the
  body.
 It is bilaterally symmetrical and possesses two nuclei.




 four pairs of flagella and a concave suction disc with which it
  attaches to the intestinal wall.
 The oval cyst is thick walled with four nuclei and several
  internal fibers. Each cyst give rise to two trophozoites
  during excystation in the intestinal tract.






 PATHOGENESIS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY

 Contaminated food & water with cyst transmit the
  disease.
 Excystation occur in duodinum & trophozoite attaches to
  the gut wall but does not invade.
 Multiply by binary fission and causes inflam      of the
  duodenal mucosa leading the malabsorption of protein and
  fat.
 Feeding by pinocytosis.


 Organism is found worldwide.
 Carriers pass cysts for years but about 50% of them are
  asymptomatic
 IgA deficient persons show the development of symptoms.
 Not only the disease is endemic but it usually shows the
  outbreaks in children day-care centers and among patients
  in mental hospital.




 CLINICAL FINDINGS :
 Mucus containing,
 Foul-smelling,
 Nonbloody diahorroea, with nausea, anorexia, flatulence
  and abdominal cramps.
 Persisting for weeks months if untreated. Fever is not
  marked.
 LAB. DIAGNOSIS
 Presence of trophozoites or cysts or both in diarrheal
  stools.
 In asymptomatic carriers only cysts are seen in formed
  stools.
 If microscopically stool is negative string test may be
  performed.




 TREATMENT

 METRONIDAZOLE           OR quinacrine HCl

   PREVENTION :
   Use boiled, filtered, or iodine treated water.
   No vaccination or prophylactic drug


   LAB DIAGNOSIS
   Microscopic exam
   Acid fast stain of stool sample
   Endoscopic biopsy of small intestine

 LAB DIAGNOSIS
 Immunodiagnosis
 Immunofluorescence assay (IFA)
   Enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA)
   Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
   Test of choice
   LIFE CYCLE
   Cryptosporidium lives and grows in variety of animals–
    geese to snakes to cows, sheep and pigs to humans.
   Cryptosproridium completes its cycle in a single host.
   The Species of Crypto known to infect humans is
    Cryptosporidium Parvum.
   LIFE CYCLE
   Infectious agents are the OOCYSTS
   In immunocompromised patients ID50 is about 10 to 30
    oocysts
   Autoinfection takes place in 2 ways-
        Merozoites attach to nearby epithelial cells and
         spread infection
        thin walled oocysts excyst and continue to spread
         infection within the body

 A scanning electron micrograph of Cryptosporidium lining the
  intestinal tract.
 A scanning electron micrograph of a broken meront of
  Cryptosporidium showing the merozoites within.
 LIFE CYCLE
 TRANSMISSION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
 Person to person (fecal-oral)
 Animal to human
 Contamination of water supplies (result of waste runoff)
 *WATER-BORNE MOST COMMON*
 TREATMENT
 Immunocompetent
 Self-limiting
 Usually symptoms subside within 10 days

 Immunocompromised
 Cocktail therapy -used to treat symptoms but NOT THE DISEASE
 Drugs include: letrazuril, azithromycin, paramycin, and hyperimmune bovine colostral
  immunoglobulin
   PREVENTION
   Wash hands
   Wash fruits and vegetables
   Avoid untreated water
   Treat contaminated water
   MAINTAIN PROPER HYGIENE!!
 THANKYOU

								
To top