Origin of Calculus
One of the biggest controversies in the calculus history, was who developed it the first
time. The two main candidates were Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm von
Leibniz. When Newton worked on the planetary motion's problems and created the laws
of motion and gravitation on 1664-1666, he also formulated binomial methods for the
infinite series expansion, and its method of calculating direct fluxions, and vice versa.
He has published its findings in private and not published it until the year of 1711, and
his methods was not fully published and detailed explanation until 1736, almost 10
years after his death.
Before the age of 21, a German doctorate in law, Baron Gottfried von Leibniz,
developed a mathematical procedure similar. Leibniz was in Paris and served overseas
in the elector's diplomatic service of the primary and the other German states, he is also
visiting London from January until March 1673. During this time, he independently has
created a similar system to calculate the number and shape of the curves is developed
by Newton, Leibniz called calculus integralis.
This method called fluxions by Newton and Leibniz called it calculus, it was possible to
calculate the exchange rate and describe mathematically curved-lines. As a tool, not
only allowed the astronomers to applying Newton's laws and the interaction of the
planets gravity, it is also to be used in a wide variety of technical and scientific fields,
and the complex interactions forces described and expected.
For example, in describing the loss of air pressure at high altitude, Edme Mariotte a
book published in 1676, that the atmosphere is divided into layers is assumed to be
4,032 layers, each under the pressure of being the same. By adding up, we can
calculate expected pressure at a certain height. The calculation (which was known)
would be able to describe more accurately the pressure drop in the function and
displays it as a continuous curve rather than a table of numerical values as distinct and
Although Leibniz and Newton had built a working system of former mathematician and
scientist, including Pierre de Fermat, René Descartes, Blaise Pascal and Christiaan
Huygens. Newton was furious when the results of the work of Leibniz. Newton's voice
that Leibniz had plagiarized their ideas. As a friend of Newton, John Keill, Leibniz
accused of plagiarism, Leibniz complains about the British Royal Society, one of the
major scientific societies.
A committee of the society, appointed by Newton, costs and concluded that examines a
letter Leibniz in 1672 by John Collins (1625-1683), member of society, who had
obtained the Newton method. The Committee concluded that Leibniz reformulated
Newton's fluxions right. Its report, published in 1712 entitled commercium epistolicum (A
business letters), in fact, condemned Leibniz of plagiarism. The data show that Newton
himself wrote the report.
Following the historical works, in particular, showed a survey conducted in 1852 by
Augustus de Morgan carried the letter Collins does not contain details about what
Leibniz was his work is based. Morgan concluded that the calculation was a true case of
independent invention, commonly seen that in the modern treatment of the subject.
Many other mathematicians have contributed to improved methods of calculation, three
in Switzerland, the brothers Jacob Bernoulli and Johann Bernoulli and Leonhard Euler
was born. Euler system is used to accurately calculate the relationship between the
severity of the earth, sun and moon.