What role do individual by ajizai


									    What role do individual
differences play in the way L2
learners respond to corrective
           Rod Ellis
     University of Auckland
What is corrective feedback?
Corrective feedback takes the form of
responses to learner utterances containing
an error. The responses can consist of (1)
an indication that an error has been
committed, or (2) provision of the correct
target language form or (3) metalinguistic
information about the nature of the error,
or any combination of these.
         Lyster and Ranta’s (1997)
    Lyster & Ranta (1997) distinguish the following types of corrective
    feedback occurring in French immersion classrooms in Canada:
•   Explicit correction – this refers to the explicit provision of the correct form
    together with an explicit indication that what the learner said was
•   Recasts – a reformulation of all or part of a learner’s utterance, minus the
•   Clarification requests – an indication that the learner’s utterance has
    been misunderstood (e.g. ‘pardon?’)
•   Metalinguistic feedback – comments, information or questions related to
    the well-formedness of the learner’s utterance without explicitly providing
    the correct form.
•   Elicitation – an attempt to directly elicit the correct form from the learner
    (e.g. prompts involving partial repetition of the learner’s utterance with a
    blank for the learner to complete).
•   Repetition – repetition of the learner’s utterance with or without
    highlighting the error.
Uptake refers to the learner’s utterance that
imemdiately follows the teacher’s feedback and
that constitutes a reaction in some way to the
teacher’s intention to draw to some aspect of the
learner’s initial utterance. Uptake can take the
form of ‘needs repair’ (unsuccessful) or ‘repair’
(successful). Successful uptake is indicative of
‘noticing’. However, uptake cannot be viewed as
a measure of acquisition.
            Key Issues (1)
  What role does corrective feedback play in
  L2 acquiisition?
 Negative evidence - this arises when the
  feedback signals that the learner’s
  utterance contains an error
 Positive evidence - this arises when the
  feedback shows the learner what the
  correct form of his/her error is.
            Key Issues (2)
    What type of corrective feedback works
    best for language acquisition?
   Implicit feedback
   Explicit feedback
             Key Issues (3)
    What role do individual differences play
    in the effect that corrective feedback
    has on acquisition?
   Cognitive factors (e.g. language aptitude/
    working memory)
   Affective factors (e.g. motivation/ anxiety/

To top